Situare Geografica - Romania

Situare Geografica - Romania

https://sites.google.com/site/informatiituristicero/Istoria_Geografia_Cultura_Romaniei_Informatii_Turistice_RO_EU_ITI_2016.jpg



Situare Geografica, Pamantul Romanesc

Romania este situata, pe glob, in emisfera nordica la intersectia paralelei 45° Nord (jumatatea distantei dintre Ecuator si Polul Nord) cu meridianul 25° Est, teritoriul sau desfasurandu-­se intre 43°37'7" (oras Zimnicea, Teleorman) si 48°15'6" (sat Horodistea, Botosani), latitudine nordica si intre 20°15'44" (comuna Beba Veche, Timis) si 29°41'24" (oras Sulina, Tulcea) longitudine estica. In Europa, Romania este asezata in partea de Sud-­Est, pe cursul inferior si la gurile Fluviului Dunarea, cu iesire la Marea Neagra si avand drept "coloana vertebrala" Muntii Carpati. Fata de extremitatile continentului se afla la o departare aproximativ egala cu Oceanul Atlantic (2.750 km V, Cabo Finisterre, Portugalia), Oceanul Artic (2.800 km N, Nordkapp, Norvegia) si Muntii Urali (2.600 km E) si la numai 1.050 km de Marea Mediterana (Capul Matapan, Grecia).                                             

Frontiere si vecini: lungimea totala a granite lor ­3.175,1 km, dintre care 1.036,7 km terestre si 2.138,4 km fluviale si maritime. Romania se invecineaza cu: Ucraina (639,4 km) si Republica Moldova (681,3 km) la N si E, cu Marea Neagra (234 km) la SE, cu Bulgaria (631,3 km) la S, cu Serbia (544,3 km) la SV si cu Ungaria (444,8 km) la V si NV.

Relief: Romania dispune de un relief variat, armonios repartizat si cu o dispunere concentrica. Partea centrala - Podisul Transilvaniei - este inconjurata la Est si Sud de lantul sinuos al Muntilor Carpati, in timp ce la Vest, o a doua ramura carpatica o desparte de Campia Tisei. Din cununa muntilor - unde inaltimile oscileaza intre 2.500 si 1.000-­800 metri, relieful se dispune spre exterior in trepte din ce in ce mai joase, constituind un vast amfiteatru. La poalele muntilor, dealurile si podisurile formeaza treapta mijlocie a reliefului:   Subcarpatii, Podisul Moldovei, Podisul Dobrogei, Podisul Getic, Dealurile Vestice si Podisul Somesan au inaltimi care variaza intre 800 - 1.000 m si 300 - 400 m. Treapta joasa a reliefului este formata din Campia Romana (la Sud) si Campia Tisei sau de Vest, cu altitudini mai mici de 200 m. Relieful Romaniei se desfasoara in altitudine intre 0 m, nivelul Marii Negre, si 2.543 m, varful Moldoveanu din Muntii Fagaras (Carpatii Meridionali). Formele de relief sunt insa repartizate armonios: muntii ocupa circa 31 la suta din teritoriu, dealurile si podisurile 33 la suta, iar campiile 36 la suta. Doar 12 la suta din teritoriu este ocupat de inaltimi de peste 1.000 de metri, iar restul de 88 la suta este reprezentat din munti josi, dealuri, podisuri si campii, zone cu cea mai mare frecventa a asezarilor omenenti permanente si in care se desfasoara, in principal, activitatea populatiei. De altfel, principalele localitati sunt asezate la altitudini aflate intre 4 metri - Sulina si 1.060 metri - Predeal. Pe teritoriul Romaniei se afla cea mai mare parte a Deltei Dunarii (4.340 km2, inclusiv Complexul Razim), care, din 1990, este declarata rezervatie a biosferei. Situata in nordul Dobrogei, Delta Dunarii este cea mai tanara forma de relief a Romaniei, dar si a Europei. Ea include cele trei brate ale fluviului: Chilia, Sulina si Sfantul Gheorghe. Tot in nordul Dobrogei, in partea de vest, se afla cel mai vechi pamant: Muntii Macin, cu inaltimi ce nu depasesc 467 metri.

Clima: Romania are o clima temperat-continentala moderata, cu influente exterioare oceanice, balcanice si pontice. Temperatura medie multianuala este diferentiata in functie de latitudine - 8°C in N si 11°C in S - si de altitudine - 2,6°C in zonele montane si 11,7°C in campie. Precipitatiile anuale scad in intensitate de la vest la est, respectiv de la 600 mm in Campia de Vest, la 500 mm in Campia Romana si sub 400 mm in Dobrogea; in zonele montane, ele ajung la 1.000 - 1.400 mm.

Hidrografie: Reteaua hidrografica a Romaniei apatine bazinului Marii Negre, fluviul Dunarea adunand apele a 93,3 la suta din totalul apelor curgatoare; el strabate tara prin partea ei sudica pe o lungime de 1.075 km si se varsa in Marea Neagra prin trei guri. Raurile Romaniei, care in marea lor majoritate izvorasc din Carpati, sunt dispuse radial; urmand rotirea inversa a acelor ceasornicului. Principalele cursuri de apa sunt: Tisa, Somesul, Crisurile, Muresul, Timisul, Jiul, Oltul, Argesul, Ialomita, Siretul si Prutul. Lungimea totala a cursurilor de apa cu regim permanent a fost estimata la 115.000 km. Daca se iau in calcul numai raurile cu o lungime mai mare de 5 km, in Romania sunt 4.295 de cursuri de apa totalizand 66.029 km. Exista peste 3.500 de lacuri care totalizeaza o suprafata de circa 2.620 km2. Cele mai multe au peste 1 km2 (peste 99\%), ajungand pana la 415 km2 (lacul Razim). Lor li se adauga lacurile antropice care valorifica potentialul hidroenergetic al raurilor.

Vegetatie: bogata si variata, determinata de relief si de conditiile pedo-climatice. Vegetatia prezinta o dispunere etajata: zonele montane sunt acoperite cu paduri de conifere (brad, molid), paduri de amestec (fag, brad si molid) si paduri de fag. Pe culmile inalte se afla pajisti alpine si tufisuri de jneapan, ienupar, afin etc. In zonele de deal si de podis se intalnesc paduri de foioase unde predomina fagul, gorunul sau stejarul. Vegetatia de stepa si silvostepa, care ocupa zonele din Podisul Dobrogei, Campia Romana, Podisul Moldovei si Campia de Vest, a fost in cea mai mare parte inlocuita prin culturi agricole.

Fauna: interesanta din punct de vedere cinegetic. In zona alpina apar elemente relicve precum capra neagra si vulturul de munte. In padurile carpatine traiesc diferite mamifere: urs, cerb, ras, lup, mistret, capri or, veverita si un numar important de pasari. In cateva zone se mai pastreaza cocosul de munte si cocosul de mesteacan. In zonele de deal si campie sunt reprezentate: iepurele, cartita, ariciul, diferite pasari, soparle, batracteni s.a. Pentru stepa sunt caracteristice rozatoarele: popandaul si harciogul. Fauna acvatica este reprezentata indeosebi prin: pastrav in apele de munte; clean si mreana in zonele de deal; crap, biban, stiuca, somn si caras in zonele de campie si in Delta Dunarii. In Delta se mai gasesc si specii rare precum pelicanii, califarii, vidrele etc. Fauna si vegetatia sunt ocrotite prin instituirea unor parcuri si rezervatii naturale, cum ar fi Parcul National Retezat sau, din 1990, Rezervatia biosferei Delta Dunarii, complexul lagunar Razim si un sector al Dunarii inferioare intre Isaccea si Tulcea. Delta Dunarii (jud.Tulcea, Constanta), Retezat (jud.Hunedoara), Rodna (jud.Maramures) sunt declarate rezervatii ale biosferei. Arii protejate sunt, de asemenea, parcurile nationale de la Domogled-Valea Cernei (Caras-Severin, Mehedinti, Gorj), Cheile Nerei (Caras-Severin), Apuseni (Bihor, Alba, Cluj), Bucegi (Prahova, Dambovita, Brasov, Arges), Semenic-Cheile Carasului (Caras-Severin), Ceahlau (Neamt), Cozia (Valcea), Caliman (Suceava), Piatra Craiului (Brasov, Arges), Cheile Bicazului-Hasmas (Harghita, Neamt), Gradistea de Munte-Cioclovina (Hunedoara), Portile de Fier (Mehedinti).

Resurse naturale: sunt variate. Cunoscuta, inca inainte de prima conflagratie mondiala, ca tara petroliera, Romania mai dispune de gaze naturale (mai ales in depresiunea Transilvaniei), minerale neferoase, auro-argintifere (exploatate din antichitate), uraniu, sare, carbuni (lignit in majoritate), variate roci de constructie (marmura, granit, calcare). 0 caracteristica aparte a bogatiilor subsolului o constituie cele peste 2.000 de izvoare minerale cu valente pentru consum si tratamente medicale.

Pamantul Romanesc

Romania prezinta, din cauza asezarii ei la intreita raspantie a marilor tinuturi geografice europene, trei fatade: cea care priveste spre Europa Occidentala, fatada meridionala - spre Balcani si fatada continentala - spre stepa rusa. Prinse tustrele de lantul Muntilor Carpati, aceste fatade se contopesc in unitatea armonioasa a pamantului romanesc. Expresia "unitate armonioasa" este o realitate pe care o  demonstreaza modul in care se imbina relieful, apele, vegetatia, clima, zoneIe populate, modul de trai al locuitorilor - elemente geografice si demografice care alcatuiesc o unitate natural a si politica.

Pamantul romanesc, istoria poporului roman s-a desfasurat pe o arie intinsa. Stramosii sai, daci sau geti, au ajuns, in vremea lor de raspandire maxima, mult dincolo de fluviul Dunarea, de Tisa (la N-V si V) si de Nistru (la E). Mai tarziu, in Evul Mediu timpuriu, populatia romanica din rasaritul Europei, populatie ai carei urmasi sunt romanii, s-a intins de asemenea, mult peste hotarele Daciei. Chiar si astazi, multi romani traiesc, in grupuri compacte, dincolo de hotarele Romaniei, mai ales in partea de rasarit. Miezul, insa, al acestui teritoriu, centrul din care a radiat poporul roman in toate directiile, a fost tinutul din jurul Muntilor Carpati. Aici au stapanit regii Daciei, Burebista si Decebal, aici a fost capitala Daciei Romane, aici s-au inchegat voievodatele si cnezatele, iar apoi tarile romane, aici poporul roman a izbutit sa realizeze statul sau national unitar.

Asezarea. Teritoriul locuit de romani pe care s-a constituit Romania este situat in sud-estul Europei si in continuitatea directa a Peninsulei Balcanice. Aceasta asezare a facut pe o seama de istorici, geografi si oameni politici sa inglobeze acest pamant in aria balcanica. In realitate, asa cum au demonstrat geografi si istorici romani renumiti, pamantul locuit de romani face parte, geografic, din aria carpatica sau carpato-danubiana. Impreuna, aceste doua arii teritoriale fac parte insa din sud-estul european.

Infatisarea. Pamantul romanesc este una dintre cele mai armonioase si mai frumoase zone nu numai din Europa, poate chiar si din intreaga lume. In mijlocul lui se ridica Podisul Transilvaniei (500m), inconjurat din toate partile de munti care-i alcatuiesc uriasa cununa. Muntii, de o inaltime potrivita, ingaduie traiul omenesc pana sus, pe plaiurile netede. Acestia continua cu dealuri care formeaza, in unele locuri, o zona mai larga, de pilda in Oltenia, in altele mai stramta, ca in rasaritul Munteniei sau in Tara Crisurilor. Dealurile se termina , prin campii intinse: Baraganul si Burnazul (in sud) par sa nu se mai termina; la fel Campia Tisei. Rauri numeroase izvorasc din aceasta "Casa a apelor", creata de Podisul Transilvaniei si muntii din jur., si se indreapta spre Dunare sau spre afluentii ei -Tisa (la vest), Siretul si Prutul (la est). Dupa cum scria istoricul Constantin C. Giurescu, pamantul romanesc poate fi asemanat cu o cetate medievala: "Transilvania si cununa ei de munti inchipuie fortareata propriu-zisa; dealurile de prinprejur, intariturile inaintate, iar marile fluvii, santurile de apa care inconjoara cetatea. Imaginea se impune de la sine ".    

Bogatia. Pe langa armonie si frumusete, aceasta este o alta caracteristica. La suprafata, cea mai mare este, fara indoiala, pamantul negru - cemoziomul-, minunat pentru agricultura; muncit, el da recolte imbelsugate, iar cu ajutorul irigatiilor da productii record. Pasunile si fanetele din luncile raurilor, de pe dealuri si munti asigura hrana turmelor de oi si cirezilor de vite mari. Pe dealuri si la ses, livezile de pomi si viile au creat faima multor zone prin calitatea si cantitatea productiilor. Padurile de brad, fag si stejar acopera INCA o buna parte a tarii. Subsolul romanesc contine, de asemenea, variate si multe bogatii. Sarea se afla in mare parte In regiunea deluroasa si, pe alocuri, formeaza masive intregi. Carbunele, de la turba pana la antracit, se afla si el in mari cantitati. Aurul, care sclipeste si in nisipul unor rauri, si argintul se scot de mai bine de trei mii de ani din Muntii Apuseni; tot astfel arama din dealurile Olteniei si ale Dobrogei. Fierul se gaseste si el in unele locuri din Banat si Transilvania si, in cantitati mai mici, in Oltenia, Muntenia si Moldova. Sa adaugam, apoi, pacura sau titeiul, a carui exploatare intensa dateaza din ultimul secol, dar care era extras inca din vremea dacilor si romanilor (pacura vine din latinescul picula). Acestor bogatii li se adauga gazul metan, minereul de uraniu, izvoarele minerale si termale, materialele de constructie -incepand cu calcarul si granitul si ispravind cu marmura.







Geographical Location - Romania

On the Globe, Romania is situated in the northern hemisphere, at the intersection of the 45 North parallel (at an equal distance from the Equator and the North Pole) with the 25 East meridian, its territory lying between 40*37'7" (Zimnicea , Teleorman) and 48*15'6" (Horodistea village, Botosani) north latitude and between 20*15'44" (Beba Veche, Timis) and 29*41'24" (Sulina, Tulcea) east longitude. In Europe, Romania is situated in the south-east on the lower course and at the mouths ofthe Danube, bordering the Black Sea and having the Carpathians ,as a "vertebral column". Compared to the extremities of the continent, it lies at an approximately equal distance from the Atlantic Ocean (2,750 km West, Cabo Finisterre, Portugal), from the Artic Ocean (2,800 km North, Nordkapp, Norway) and from the Urals (12,600 km East) and from the Mediterranean Sea, at only 1,050 km (Matapan Cape, Greece).

Boundaries and neighbours: the total length of the boundaries - 3,175.1 km of which 1,036.7 terrestrial and 2,138.4 river and maritime boundaries. Romania borders in the north and in the east Ukraine (639.4 km) and the Republic of Moldova (681.3 km); in the south-east, the Black Sea (234 km); in the south Bulgaria (631.3 km); in the south-west Serbia (544.3 km) and in the west and north­west Hungary (444.8 km).

Relief: Romania displays a diversified relief harmoniously spread, disposed in a concentric way. The central part - the Transylvanian Plateau - is surrounded by the sinuous Carpathians in the east and in the south, while a second Carpathian branch separates it from the Tisa Plain. From the mountains wreath - where heights vary between 2,500 and 1,000-800 meters - the relief displays itself to the exterior in ever lower levels resembling a vast amphitheatre. At the foot of the mountains, the hills and the plateaus form the middle level of the relief: the Subcarpathians, the Moldavian Plateau, the Dobrogean Plateau, the Getic Plateau, the West Hills and the Somes Plateau. They all have heights varying between 800 and 1,000 meters and 300 and 400 meters. The lower level of the relief is made up of the Romanian Plain (in the south) and the Tisa Plain or the West Plain, with altitudes under 200 meters. The relief of Romania stretches in altitude between 0 m, the level of the Black Sea, and 2,543 meters, Moldoveanu Peak in the Fagaras Mountains (the Meridional Carpathians). The forms of relief are yet harmoniously distributed: the mountains occupy approximately 31% ofthe territory, the hills and the plateaus 33% and the plains 36%. Only 12% of the territory is occupied by heights of over 1,000 meters and the rest of 88% is representet by low mountains, hills, plateaus and plains. These are the zones with the highest frequence of permanent human settlements, where the population carries on its activity. In fact, the main settlements are situated at altitudes between 4 meters - Sulina - and 1,060 meters - Predeal. In the territory of Romania there is the biggest part of the Danube Delta (4,340 km2, including the Razim Complex), which has been declared reserve of biosphere since 1990. Situated in the north of Dobrogea, the Danube Delta is the youngest form of relief in Romania as well as in Europe. It includes the three branches of the river: Chilia, Sulina and Sfantu Gheorghe. Still in the north of Dobrogea, on the west side, there lies the oldest land: Macin Mountains, with heights under 467 meters.

Climate: Romania has a mild temperate continental climate, with exterior oceanic, Balkan and sea influences. The average multiannual temperature is differentiated function of latitude (8*C in the north and 11*C in the south) and of altitude (26*C in the mountain areas and 11.7*C in the plain areas). The annual precipitations diminish in intesity from west to east, that is from 600 mm in the West Plain to 500 mm in the Romanian Plain and under 400 mm in Dobrogea; in the mountain zones they go up to 1,000 - 1,400 mm.

Hydrography: the hydrographical network of Romania belongs to the Black Sea basin, the Danube collecting the waters of 93.3% of the rivers. The Danube runs through the southern part of the country on a length of 1,075 km and it flows into the Black Sea through three mouths. Most of the rivers spring from the Carpathians and they are radially disposed. Seen counterclockwise, the main water courses are: Tisa, Somes, Crisurile, Mures, Timis, Jiu, Olt, Arges, Ialomita, Siret and Prut. The total length of the water courses with permanent regime was estimated at 115,000 km. If one counts only the rivers with a length over 5 km, one can say that in Romania there are 4,295 water courses summing up to 66,029 km. There are over 3,500 lakes which sum up an area of approximately 2,620 km2 . Most of them have over 1 km2 (over 99%), getting up to 415 km2 (Lake Razim). The artificial lakes add to those already mentioned and they turn to best account the hydropower potential of the rivers.

Flora: Romania has a luxuriant and diverse vegetation determined by the relief and by the climatic conditions. It presents different levels: the mountain zones are covered with coniferous forests (fir trees, spruce firs), mixed forests (beech trees, fir trees, spruce firs), and beech forests. On the high summits there are alpine meadows, juniper trees and blueberry bushes. In the plateau and hilly areas there are deciduous forests where beeches or oak trees are predominant. The steppe and sylvansteppe vegetation covering the Dobrogean Plateau, the Romanian Plain, the Moldavian Plateau and the West Plain has mostly been replaced by agricultural crops.

Fauna: As far as game is concerned, it is very interesting. In the alpine zones one can see relics such as the chamois or the mountain eagle. In the Carphatian forests there live an impresive number of birds and stags, lynxes, woolves, wild boars, roebucks, squirrels. In some regions one can still find capercaillies and birch tree cocks. In hills and plains there are rabbits, moles, hedgehogs, different birds, lizards etc. It is not at all unsual to find rodents (ground squirrels and hamsters) in the steppe zones. The aquatic fauna is represented especially by the following species: trouts in the mountain waters, chubs and barbels in the hilly zones, carps in the plains and in the Danube Delta. In the Danube Delta there are rare species such as pelicans, otters etc. The fauna and the vegetation are protected through the foundation of parks and natural reserves such as the Retezat National Park or, since 1990, the Danube Delta biosphere reserve, the Razim lagoon complex and a part of the Lower Danube, between Isaccea and Tulcea. The Danube Delta (Tulcea county, Constanta), Retezat (Hunedoara county), Rodna (Maramures County) are declared reservations of the biosphere. There are also some other protected zones: the national parks in Domogled-Valea Cernei (Caras Severin, Mehedinti, Gorj), Nerei Gorges (Caras - Severin), Apuseni (Bihor, Alba, Cluj), Bucegi (Prahova, Dambovita, Brasov, Arges), Semenic-Caras Gorges (Caras-Severin), Apuseni (Bihor, Alba, Cluj), Ceahlau (Neamt), Cozia (Valcea), Caliman (Suceava), Piatra Craiului (Brasov, Arges), Bicaz-Hasmas Gorges (Harghita-Neamt) Gradistea de Munte-Cioclovina (Hunedoara), The Iron Gates (Mehedinti).

Natural Resources: They are very diversified. Known as a petroleum country even since the first world conflagration, Romania has natural gas in the Transylvanian depression, non-ferrous minerals, gold and silver-bearing minerals (exploited since ancient times), uranium, salt, coal (most of all lignite ), construction rocks (marble, granite, limestone). A special characteristic of the riches found in the soil is the existence of over 2,000 mineral springs used both for consumption and for medical treatment.

 

                                          The ROMANIAN Land

 

Due to its location at the crossroads of three important geographical lands, Romania presents three fayades: one towards the Western Europe, the meridional fayade (towards the Balkans) and the continental fayade (towards the Russian steppe). These fayades come together in a harmonious unit, this fact being also proven by the intertwining ofthe waters, of the vegetation, of the climate and of the inhabitant's way of living. All this constitutes geographical and demo graphical elements resulting in a natural and political unit.

The Romanian Land. The Romanian people with their history covered a vast area. Its ancestors, the Dacians and the Getae were spread beyond the Danube, beyond the Tisa (in the north-west and west) and beyond the Dniester (in the east). In the early Middle Ages the Romans from Eastern Europe spread beyond the boundaries of Dacia. The descendents of this population are the Romanians, many of them living even today outside the boundaries of present Romania, especialy in the east. The centre of this territory was the land surrounded by the Carpathians, where Burebista and Decebal, the kings of Dacia, ruled. That is the place where the capital of the Roman Dacia was, where the principalities, and later on the Romanian provinces were formed. That is the place where the Romanian people achieved its unitary national state.

Location. The territory inhabited by Romanians is situated in the south-east of Europe, continuing directly into the Balkan Peninsula. This location made a lof of historians, geographers and politicians include this land in the Balkan area. In fact, the land inhabited by Romanians is geographically included in the Carpathian or in the Danubian-Carpathian area. Many renowned Romanian geographers and historians have proved it.

Appearance. The Romanian land is one of the most beautiful ones not only in Europe, but in the whole world. In the middle there is the Transylvanian Plateau, of about 500 m, surrounded by mountains which give the impression of a huge wreath. The mountains, of medium height, allow livelihood there. Then come the hills which form a larger area in some places such as Oltenia, and a narrower one in the east of Wallachia or in Tara Crisurilor. Finally there is the last level, the plains: Baragan, Bumaz (in the south) and Tisa Plain, all seeming endless. Numberless rivers find their source in this "House of the waters" which is the Transylvanian Plateau and the surrounding mountains. The rivers follow their way towards the Danube or towards its biggest tributaries: Tisa (in the west), Siret and Prut (in the east). The historian Constantin C. Giurescu wrote that the Romanian land resembled a medieval fortress:

"Transylvania and its mountain wreath are the fortress itself; the hills around are the advanced earthworks, while the big rivers are the water ditches surrounding the fortress. The image is more than obvious."

Riches. Apart from harmony and beauty, another feature of the Romanian land is, no doubt, its riches. The surface layer, the black soil, is perfect for agriculture, resulting in good crops and record productions, if irrigated. The meadows and the hay fields provide the necessary food for sheep and for cattle herds. The hilly and the plain areas have become famous for their orchards and vineyards, due to the quality and the quantity of the productions. The fir, the beech and the oak forests cover a major part of the country. The Romanian soil contains other diverse riches, as well. One can find salt mostly in the hilly regions and it is found in massive blocks. There are big quantities of coal, from peat to anthracite. Gold sparkling in the sand of some rivers and silver have been dug out in the Apuseni Mountains for over 3,000 years. The same thing can be said about copper in the Oltenia and Dobrogea Hills. Iron is found in Banat and Transylvania and in small quantities in Oltenia, Wallachia, and Moldavia. Let us not forget fuel oil and petroleum, which have been exploited since the last century, but which were extracted in the times of the Dacians and ofthe Romans (fuel oil, "pacura", comes from the Latin "picula"). Methane, uranium ores, mineral and thermal springs, limestone, granite and marble (the last three used in constructions) are also part of the riches of Romania.

Sursa:  Romania Turism - Pagini Nationale



Videoclip YouTube