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### The Simple Forcer

 Forcers are devices that use "self-sufficient propulsion" and work on Newton's law that "every action has an equal and opposite reaction".  The idea is to harness the "action" and eliminate the "reaction", or convert the "reaction" into usable energy.  Thus, within the device, the "reaction" is lost allowing the "action" to propel the device.  All devices that use "self-sufficient propulsion" work without affecting the environment.  That is, they don't need a road to push off of like cars, they don't have to push air like planes or spew out gases like space shuttles.  Thus, they get the name "self-sufficient propulsion" because they are self-sufficient.  In other words, you can put a box around the entire device and the box would move, and nothing would enter or exit the box, and the device itself wouldn't react with the environment that comes inside the box.  It only reacts to the environment in the box, which it creates, which it uses to propel itself.  Devices that use "self-sufficient propulsion" would look like UFOs if they are strong enough.  The idea of "self-sufficient propulsion" will have a lasting effect on transportation (especially in space exploration).START:\-----------\-----------\-----------\-----------\Side-view (cross-section):           forward -->        |     ___cylinder  |    ||                                |    \/           |/-------------  ||           #X| <--magnet ("X")       |\-------------  |            /\  |            ||__piston ("#")  |  |  |<--start line  (Diagrams must be read using a "fixed-size font".)     The engine is a cylinder with a piston in it.  The piston may require wheels to move inside the cylinder.       "Every action has an equal and opposite reaction."  The main idea of the Forcer is to harness the "action" by getting rid of the "reaction".  How do we get rid of the momentum of the "reaction"?  One way is by using friction, which is discussed in STEP 3.       The idea is to force the piston in the backward direction, down the cylinder.  Since every action has an equal and opposite reaction, the cylinder will then experience a force in the forward direction.  This force is ideally created by using electromagnets.  Let us say that there is an electromagnet on the piston ("#") which repels the magnet ("X") that is connected to the front of the cylinder.  (Also, one could make this similar to a "linear Induction motor", with the piston as the projectile.)STEP 1:\-----------\-----------\-----------\-----------\  |                                    forward -->  |  |                      ___ The magnet and the cylinder   |                     ||         move forward...  |                     \/                -->  |        /-------------  |        |        #   X|       |        \-------------  |                /\                            <--   |                ||__ ...as the piston moves backward  |                           through the cylinder                  |  |     Now, activate the electromagnet on the piston.  So the piston, which is repelled by the magnet, moves down the cylinder as the magnet and the cylinder accelerate forward.                                 STEP 2:\-----------\-----------\-----------\-----------\  |                                    forward -->  |  |  |  |  |                /-------------  |                | #          X|       |                \-------------  |                  /\  |                  ||__The piston must be stopped before  |                       it hits the back of the cylinder  |  |     In fractions of a second, the piston will have arrived at the back of the cylinder.  The piston must be stopped before it slams into the back of the cylinder because if it does then the energy of the piston will cancel out the forward velocity that the cylinder has gained.  So, the energy of the piston must be removed (by friction, e.g. brakes on the wheels) or harnessed (a method which converts the "negative" energy of the piston into something usable).       If friction is used to stop the piston, the friction must cause the piston to lose velocity in decrements; should the brake make the piston stop abruptly, then the "negative" momentum of the piston will be transferred to the cylinder.  Consider the following analogy:  If I'm on a bike and I stop abruptly by pushing down hard on my brakes, I (my body) will go hurtling forth until I hit a wall.  In the presence of gravity, I might hit the ground before I hit a wall, but the point remains the same.  However, if I push on my brakes and slowing come to a stop, I can avoid being thrown forward.  And moreover, by coming to a stop slowly, the momentum of me and the bike is dissipated as heat, and perhaps sound, by the brakes.  Thus, in the simple forcer the "reaction" can be made to be lost due to friction (as heat and possibly sound) while the "action" is harnessed to propel the cylinder forward.STEP 3:\-----------\-----------\-----------\-----------\  |                                    forward -->  |  |  |  |  |                        /-------------  |                        |#           X|  |                        \-------------  |  |  |  |  |       When the piston has reached the end, and has been brought to a stop, it must then be moved to the front of the cylinder.  Perhaps the piston can slowly move back on its wheels towards the front of the cylinder.  Or, perhaps it can be moved to the front by hooking it to a chain which is being pulled by a motor.  Or, perhaps the piston can be removed from the cylinder when it is being transferred to the front, and thus leave the cylinder free so that another piston can "shoot" through the cylinder.  When you move the piston back to the front of the device you may end up slowing the device's overall forward velocity but it is possible to keep that loss to a minimum such that the device is still effective in creating forward thrust.Return to STEP 1:\-----------\-----------\-----------\-----------\  |                                    forward -->  |  |  |  |  |                                /-------------  |                                |           #X|  |                                \-------------  |  |  |  |  |       The piston has been returned to the front.  Overall, the engine has moved and gained velocity.  Now it is ready to restart at STEP 1.     It should be noted that the Simple Forcer creates a small amount of force.  However, it can maintain this force for an indefinite duration of time so long that you have electrical energy.  So, this device is ideal for space transportation because given time (which we have in space) this device can accomplish a lot of work.