'Indigenous' (Latin = 'self-generating') Polyculture Orchards
Around the world on every continent and throughout every sea, our indigenous ancestors cultivated 3-dimensional habitat, food, material and energy production as stewards of earth as polyculture (mixed complementary diverse plants, trees, vines & shrubs. Knowledge of this 3-D culture is passed down over tens of thousands of years through a sustainable human civil culture which recognizes and respects the gifts, contributions and capacities of each person and the whole community.
'ORGANIZING FROM THE TREE ROOTS' deep, strong and united concerted action by specialised participants distinguished according to their strengths is contrasted to 'organising from the grassroots' which are shallow, weak and divided actions by masses undistinguished. The treeroots metaphor comes from our indigenous heritage of planting food and material trees which rise in three dimensions to harvest 92 - 98% of solar energy and convert this through photosynthesis into food, material, soil, air, water-cycle and energy as well as sending roots down tens of metres into the substrate as deep as a canopy is high. The roots pump water, mine-minerals and develop nutrient colonies along their lengths each root specialised into specific interactions with the earth. The massive absorption and conversion of solar energy causes 'cold' energy spots on the continent which attract the warm moisture laden winds from sea and lake. 60% of moisture transfer from sea to continent happens through condensation on leaf and bark surfaces. Only 40% of moisture falls as rain or snow. Life continually draws and creates weather.
Grass-based cereal, vegetables and other orchard floor, low lying plants / foods from which 'agriculture' has adopted as its standard bearers only absorb 2 - 8% of solar energy through their limited photosynthesis and roots only descend bare centimetres. When monocrop fields are entirely planted with such inefficient solar photosynthetic converters having such shallow root (centimetre to decametre) systems, then we can understand that human kind has clearly lost its bearings as a steward of planetary life. Across regional and continental surfaces, the unabsorbed solar energy pushes wind from the continent to the sea causing drying and desertification.
METAPHOR 'Organizing from the Tree Roots' takes the biological function of trees, their deep penetrating roots and high canopies, as 3-D concerted 'organic' action by grouped specialised organs as an allegory/metaphor for what indigenous peoples are doing for millennia in social and economic organisation. Indigenous peoples facilitate or group various specialties into Production Societies as well as each specialized community economy as the foundation for their multihome housing buildings (eg Longhouse or Pueblo). The word 'caucus' from the Iroquois means 'grouping of like-interests'. Caucussing practice is to identify differences and similarities among participant perspectives in their council or consensus processes and invite those with diverse and similar views to group together as subgroups to cultivate their views together. In critical numbers grouped together indigenous peoples act as interactive teams living and working in proximity. Multihome housing's clustered proximity of private family dwellings allowed for women (and men of this bent) to better coordinate and group domestic labours. With critical numbers domestic labours and community service, normally excluded from monetary economies, are accounted for and organised into Production Societies. Indigenous peoples recognize, "Humans are a voice of the earth speaking", hence the way to heal our relationship with the earth is to heal our relations with each other.
UNIVERSAL TIME-BASED CAPITAL ACCOUNTING allows for the participants of each caucus to be recognised economically for their contributions both within the Production Societies and Villages, communities and nations as having distinguished gifts for the whole. Caucusses provide quality control or internal policing of production quality from within each caucussed field of expertise and Production Society. Cultivation of diversity and specialisation allows communities to employ their collective and connected intelligence. Human diversity is a strength in sustainable economy and culture. Livelhood becomes an essential and unifying function of all caucuses and Production Societies being our first recognition of the right to existance by all participants as well as a practice of open welcome to all humans for their strengths.
CAUCUSING / TWO ROW WAMPUM When the European Dutch, English and French came to the north-east of Turtle Island Onowaragen (North America) they were welcomed under the 'Two Row Wampum' treaty to live side-by-side with First Nation communities upon which they were often dependent for many life essentials such as materials, food and clothing as well as keep their traditions and technologies. The First Nations who were far superior in numbers and organisation could have eliminated the then sparse visitors but chose to welcome and nourish often very sick ocean travellers back to life. The Two Row Wampum arises from the practice of caucussing of like-interests as well as a positive view of human nature.
'SYLVALIZATION' (> L 'Sylva' = 'Wood or Forest') or the cultivation of the Orchard-Forest is considered among indigenous circles as a key to sustainable city habitat in the mixed multi-level orchard. Western 'civilization' (> Latin 'Civis'='city or citizen') based in 'agriculture' (Latin 'ager' = 'field') lacks the abundant food, material, water, energy, soil producing capacities of ancient indigenous ecological and economic balance of three-dimensional tree based production and high-density clustered housing (Longhouse or Pueblo styles) in the productive Orchard-Forests. On this scarcity the colonies and empires of agricultural society are 'exogenous' (Latin = 'other-generated'), continually on the scrounge for additional essential supplies to feed, shelter, cloth, heat and provide health. Without internal self-generating capacity civilizations become militaristic both internally and externally. Suppression of human spirit then compounds and confuses human psychology to not be able to distinguish needs from wants as well as to lack compassion and solidarity with society as a whole.
RESEARCH ... on the Food Production capacities of Orchard-Forests from United Nations scientists can be googled under terms 'Agro-forestry', 'Traditional Knowledge'. Impetus comes from concern for the alarming growth of the Sahara Desert and Sahel dry lands in North Africa as well as deserts worldwide. Researchers ask, "Were these lands always desert?" Archaeology - anthropology show that the Saharan lands were deep ecologically productive forests before the Egyptian (starting 6000 years ago), Greek, Carthaginian, Roman periods cut them down, monocropped cereal / field crops and thus eliminated the indigenous peoples. Please refer as well to the 2006 book 1491 by Charles C. Mann for an ethno-historical rewrite of the history of the americas. There are excellent sections on the Aymara peoples of the Amazon of South America Their Number Become Thinned by Henry F. Dobyns gives some of the first calculation of pre-Columbian populations as well as looks at the orchard food production efficiencies of the Timucean longhouse peoples of Florida and the Carolinas. Permaculture by Australia's Bill Mollison, All of these works represent a ground swell of peoples from around the world rediscovering indigenous mixed multi-level orchard food producing capacities. The best sources are from First Nation and Aboriginal communities who cultivate traditionally. Living Machines by Ocean Arks International, John Tood and Nancy Jack as well as Humanure by Joseph Jenkins are good sources for understanding unadulterated bio-technology.
TWO VS THREE DIMENSIONAL FOOD PRODUCTION AND MIND The word 'Agriculture' from the Latin 'ager' means 'field' implying in most cases that the trees have been 'cleared'. 2-D empires and their colonists destroy their own indigenous memories of 3-D Polyculture Orchard tree-led production. So the European colonists fleeing the hierarchy, destroyed biospheres and induced scarcity of Europe did not remember their own Oak (acorn) production and the hundreds of other nuts, fruits, vines and carefully arranged productive 3-D landscapes when they cut down this same abundance and lifeblood of First Nation inhabitants in various parts of the Americas. Still to this day, Agricultural journals, schools and government policy doesn't understand or remember our abundant heritages. The word 'Farm' from the French derives from 'Ferme' referring to the: c.1300, "fixed payment (usually in exchange for taxes collected, etc.), fixed rent," from O.Fr.ferme "rent, lease," from M.L. firma "fixed payment," from L. firmare "to fix, settle, confirm, strengthen," from firmus "firm" (see firm (adj.)). Sense of "tract of leased land" is first recorded early 14c.; that of "cultivated land" (leased or not) is 1520s.
It's important to understand this rent or lease is a relation not of independence or interdependence but of subjugated serf to aristocrat once the 3-D abundance of the polyculture orchard and hence the sovereignty of polyculture inhabitants is lost. While obvious serfdom from local aristocrat to serf has become overtly disfavored here in western countries, it is still the inherent foundation of the relation between the overworked rural agricultural food grower and the leisure-class urban populations who in effect still maintain an aristocratic relationship. This serfdom is also evident in many industrial level farm agglomerations where 'farm-hands' have few rights of ownership.
CALCULATING ABUNDANCE VS SCARCITY A RESEARCH DRAFT
3-D POLYCULTURE ORCHARD FOOD PRODUCTION EFFICIENCIES VS 2-D AGRICULTURE
FOOD AS HUMANITY'S ECONOMIC & ECOLOGICAL FOUNDATION
Food production and harvesting are the foundation of human relationship with the earth. Food is subjective being a core of our body's energy & physical matter renewal thus being our most constant interaction with the earth. Food is a key that keeps humans in harmony with the earth giving all other derivative economic and ecological activities a solid core. The earth is designed as a polyculture orchard forest. The primary keepers of the biosphere are trees. When humans as care-taker stewards plant, encourage & maintain orchard covered lands, we thrive in its abundance. If we cut the orchard, we throw the earth's biosphere into disarray and ourselves into scarcity. It is on this 2-dimensional mistake that 'agricultural' (Latin 'ager' = 'field') hierarchal societies integrated excessive overwork, relationships of exploitation for each other, animals and plants into the core of human society and governance. Faced with such agricultural misery which is not capable of feeding the world's populations, most 'exogenous' (Latin = 'other-generated') peoples adopted a hyper commercial and industrial model of development, which not only pollutes the landscape, taking land completely out of human and biosphere production, but as well adds increasing pressure to indigenous polyculture orchard foundations to produce more.
CALCULATING 3-D POLYCULTURE ORCHARD VS 2-D AGRICULTURE
Polyculture Orchards work with the leadership of the tree but as well include vines, vegetables, small nuts & fruit trees and bushes as well as mushrooms etc. Indigenous peoples cultivate a holistic, elemental (sun, air, water, soil & life analysis) complementary solar charted landscape rising many tens of meters for what can be calculated at a 100 fold (10,000 %) efficiency increase over agriculture. These factors have great impetus because of the unintended consequences of our present petroleum fossil fuel (oil, coal, nuclear, gas) based economy. Climate Change as a factor caused by destruction of the 3-dimensional biosphere and the unharnessing of solar energy into the atmosphere is causing the oceans to rise where humankind has built its cities and infrastructure. The Ecological Footprint of the western consumer-based economy is appropriating and destroying lands and productive biosphere needed by the whole population of the earth. Human cruelty through inefficient resource scarcity competition with each other, plants and animals breaks off traditional mutual-aid and collaboration. Humans are a social-animal used to deep collaboration with each other as is the whole animal population and biosphere. Human interventions imposed on the biosphere without the responsibility of a clear understanding of Ecological History and consequences such as: Laboratory aquaculture and Genetically Modified Organism GMO efficiencies are short lived (ten years before inherent imbalances creep in) in Biosphere systems collapse. These artificial interventions at their most productive reach some 15 % but in the process are causing collapse to essential biosphere and human services. Biosphere services to our whole living and livelihood environment have huge economic value if properly calculated as any other factor.
TRUE COST, FULL COST, WHOLE CYCLE ACCOUNTING
This 100 fold Polyculture Orchard efficiencies calculation is made as a function of human labour inputs and both physical food and material products as well as ecological services as outputs. Indigenous peoples were estimated to have worked only one hour per day at biosphere harvest. Without having to recreate natural biosphere services as we do today in artificial systems, indigenous peoplesWe can calculate the multiplying efficiencies in terms of what it costs humans to artificially recreate orcharded nature's energy, material and ecological services. These costs in artificial systems are always stolen as materials or energy from other intact ecologies either close at hand or far away with huge linear destruction and transportation costs. Included in this calculation of total inputs are all planetary inputs fed through human labour and infrastructure. Many of the ecological services are multi-functional producing more than one benefit. Benefits are calculated in terms of human labours reduced or enabled to achieve essential community services. One makes a productivity calculation comparing inputs to outputs on any given system. Here are just a few of the Polyculture Orchard efficiency factors. All these factors together add up to 100 fold but each polyculture combination and attributes are unique. These are rough estimations, some from established research and some are approximations or as a further research proposal given as # X so as to give a rough guide to proportions adding up to 100 fold (100 times or X), which as well can be considered as percentages contributing to the whole. Each fold or multiplication factor doubles efficiency compared with the agricultural equation described as a 100% efficiency so that 100 fold becomes a 10,000% efficiency. These 27 factors form an area which needs greater research qualification, quantification, precision and detailed calculation. Sometimes some factors are similar to each other but none overlap in the estimates given. The polyculture orchard productivity in each bio-region of the earth will vary these factors considerably. These are to be considered as descriptive estimations which will allow further research to precise calculations in each locale although some of the estimations and benefits such as Continental Weather Attraction are measured both locally and across continents. ***
THE ECONOMICS OF ECOSYSTEMS & BIODIVERSITY TEEB http://www.teebweb.org/ Please refer to this excellent testimony and articulation of accounting for life.
We need to fully account for environmental components and social actors in order to fully appreciate and integrate them as part of our economic life. Although humans only understand a small part of life, it is generally true that if we don't measure something, then we can't manage it. When humans don't account for nature, we take it for granted and neglect to factor in its gifts into our economic calculations. 'Manage' derives from the Latin 'manus' meaning 'hand' implying close caring and nurturing interaction of caring. Please watch the following video with Pavan Sukhdev of the TEEB group, which applies true, full and whole cycle cost accounting to nature and biosphere services in order to help humanity fully appreciate the natural gifts of which we are part.
http://fora.tv/2010/08/03/Pavan_Sukhdev_What_Is_the_World_Worth with Pavan Sukhdev
One way to visualize 3-D Polyculture productivity is to look at the high canopies of trees surrounding us and imagine these branches covered with nuts and fruits, vines climbing up some trees, lower trees and bushes, vegetables, berry bushes, mushrooms etc all planted in complementary ways. Did you know that people can transform and eat maple seeds? The Oak-acorn, Butternut, Cherry, Peach etc have massive productivity / square land area compared with cereal and vegetable production. If people align with life-forces for essential goods and services, working with nature, what are the advantages or efficiencies we may benefit from? When we account for biosphere benefits within our economic balance sheets, what are the factors we would assign to each component of life and livelihood's equation? The following are estimates based in full human and environmental cost accounting comparing 3-D Polyculture to 2-D Agriculture harvest economies. Multi-dimensional whole ecological systems are required for maintaining life and producing necessary economic or ecological goods and services. While the 100 fold (10,000%) increase is obviously a broad estimate, involved are real costs for artificial (man-made) systems versus natural system benefits. As humans we do well to align ourselves in knowledge, as we have originally for tens of thousands of years as indigenous peoples, about how natural systems work.
29 POLYCULTURE 3-dimensional
POLYCULTURE ORCHARD BIO-SPHERE SERVICES
for FOOD & MATERIAL ELEMENTAL PRODUCTION EFFICIENCIES = 100 fold = 10,000% with multiplication '# X' factor estimates *** given for whole system productivity increase over 2-D agriculture. We know that many industrial and commercial economic activities degrade nature and the biosphere's ability to provide fundamental services to living species including humans. Calculating the value of nature's eco-system services can be done by asking the question, "What would it cost us in human, natural and economic energy to create or replace these natural services? Services are compared with agriculture's human labour, material and energy costs considering all factors. Natural capital or the values / services provided by the biosphere to human livelihood are the largest factor (known or unknown) in any economic balance sheet. Each one factor multiplier (fold) = 100 %
TOTAL of all BIOSPHERE SERVICE factors. Each fold or multiplying factor can be considered as a 100% percentage of Polyculture Orchard whole efficiencies 100 X = 10,000% over agriculture. Of course this list is a short one for the thousands of Biosphere services enabled through the indigenous polyculture orchard. Human-kind really doesn't have the intelligence to destroy life's existing systems and replace design a livelihood system so immaculately integrated across so many factors.
ATTACHMENTS & Web Links below:
1) Indigenous Welcome and Orchard Food Production Efficiencies by Douglas Jack
2) Resumé en française, Indigène Aliments des Vergers, La civilization et l'agriculture de defrichage examinée traduit par Oscar Chica
3) Agroforestry in LaSalle Heights Perceptions by Diana Rivadeneira
Through one-on-one conversation with two community groups, one experimental and one control, this study explored the influence that the provision of information has on individuals regarding the proposed agroforestry project in LaSalle Heights. To do this, the experimental group was provided with an information kit which contained a brief description of the proposed project as well as some of the benefits and concerns associated with agroforestry. In contrast, the control group did not have access to the information kit. Both groups were engaged in directed conversations that enquired about their general perceptions of potential benefits and concerns of the proposed agroforestry project as well as their willingness to participate in the planning process and eventually in gardening in the agroforestry gardens in LaSalle Heights.
4) Agroforesterie Présentation POWER POINT (affiche en bas) en Française par Venant Nahayo et Jonathan Guaya
5) Miracle Farm Polyculture Orchard in St-Anicet, Quebec, J0S 1B0 Stefan Sobkowiak 514-830-9640 Frank Teuton.
firstname.lastname@example.org Fruit Trees, Gardens, Domestic & Wildlife animals, mixed ecology life-complementarity, to maximize photosynthesis, build soil, conserve water conserve water, support beneficial insect and bacteria as well as make insect and disease populations rare, mineralize foods, enrich ecology https://sites.google.com/site/lesfermesmiracle/
6) Agroforestry Treecrops, Gaia NorthEast University http://www.gaiauniversity.org PDF 64 POWER POINT attachment below Presentation Slides by Connor Steadman.
What is Agroforestry?
Agroforestry (AF) is land use integrating trees and/or tree crops with other types of agriculture.
The three I’s:
The “Rule of 3”: An AF system must have at least 3 “layers” or managed functional elements.
7) Restoring a Rain Forest, VIDEO Willie Smits http://www.ted.com/talks/willie_smits_restores_a_rainforest.html About this talk: By piecing together a complex ecological puzzle, biologist Willie Smits has found a way to re-grow clearcut rainforest in Borneo, saving local orangutans -- and creating a thrilling blueprint for restoring fragile ecosystems. Willie Smits has devoted his life to saving the forest habitat of orangutans, the "thinkers of the jungle." As towns, farms and wars encroach on native forests, Smits works to save what is left. Temperature down 3 - 5 degrees Celsius, Air Humidity up 10%, Cloud cover up 11.5%, Rainfall up 25%, 137 species of Birds (up from 5), 9 species of Primates, 3,000 People getting income.
8) Reforestation: Las Gaviotas, Colombia, ZERI, WEBSITE Zero Emmissions Research & Initiatives, "Follow Nature's Example, Realise Waste's Potential", http://www.zeri.org/case_studies_reforestation.htm Imagine miles and miles of desolate savannah in Eastern Colombia, without a tree or bird or child in sight, a veritable no-man's land. For Paolo Lugari this was the perfect place to implement a vision: if a sustainable community could be created in such adverse environmental, social and political conditions, it could be done anywhere on the planet. Las Gaviotas has done just that, and much more.
In 1992, in conjunction with the Kyoto Protocol and the Japanese government, the Environmental Research Center at Las Gaviotas began substantiating the concept of carbon sinks to sequester carbon dioxide and stabilize the climate. Based on the cash generated by its renewable energy project, complemented with funding secured through the Japanese government, Las Gaviotas, founded and directed by Paolo Lugari, planted 8,000 HA of Caribbean pine trees in a savannah that had been unproductive for centuries. It was considered impossible to plant trees in such acidic, inhospitable soil (pH 4) but thanks to the innovative use of mycorrhizal fungi which acts as the saliva for the tree, the forestation was successful. More than just successful, this initiative to initiate economic activities and to validate carbon sinks unleashed a chain reaction of positive effects that surprised even the initiators of the program...
Today, more than a decade later, the forestation of 8,000 HA has resulted in 10 percent more precipitation (some 110,000 m3 per day), converting Las Gaviotas into a net supplier of drinking water, a crystalline water of superior quality. With the cost of drinking water exceeding the cost of petroleum, Las Gaviotas demonstrated that reforestation allows us to address one of the most critical issues the world is facing: access to natural potable water!
The planting of the Caribbean pine tree provides another economic impulse. The 7 to 14 grams of resin a day produced by the tree is locally converted to colofonia, a raw material for the paint and paper industry. The tapping and the processing of the resin brings industrial activities, and the generation of value-added to the region.
9) Edible Forest Gardens by David Jacke and Eric Toensmeier. Trees absorb and convert solar energy 92 - 98% creating energy systems and micro-climates from which all levels benefit, pump water, minerals and build nutrient colonies deep into the substrate to tens of metres, act as heat-pumps storing and releasing heat providing essential equilibrium throughout year, capture winds and convert energy through metabolism, provide habitat for all species. See Introduction to Forest Gardening online http://www.slideshare.net/hickoryc/introduction-to-forest-gardening
10) World Agroforestry Centre www.worldagroforestry.org
research is organized around six global research priorities. These span trees to farms, landscapes and global issues. Domestication, utilization and conservation of superior agroforestry germplasm. Maximizing on-farm productivity of trees and agroforestry systems. Improving Tree Product Marketing for Smallholders. Reducing land health risks and targeting agroforestry interventions to enhance land productivity and food availability Improving the ability of farmers, ecosystems & governments to cope with climate change. Developing policies and incentives for multi-functional landscapes with trees that provide environmental services.
Underpinning all our research is a strong commitment to: improving science quality, accelerating impact, enhancing partnerships and increasing operational efficiency. By focusing on these areas, the Centre will be better positioned to tackle the challenges of poverty, food security and environmental degradation.
To read more about how we work, download the World Agroforestry Centre Strategy 2008-15.
Where we work We work in six regions across sub-Saharan Africa (eastern, southern, and west and central) South and Southeast Asia, and Latin America. All of these regions share the interconnected problems of poverty, hunger and environmental degradation to varying degrees and offer opportunities for agroforestry interventions. However, large differences exist in the challenges and opportunities for agricultural development among the regions, as well as in the differing roles that agroforestry can play to meet them.
Our people The Board of Trustees oversees the work of the World Agroforestry Centre; ensuring the Centre has a clear approach to achieving its mission and that an appropriate management structure and control systems are in place.
Senior scientists at the World Agroforestry Centre come from an array of disciplines, including foresters, economists, soil scientists and social scientists. Their high-level skills and expertise equip the Centre to conduct quality research into the diverse roles of trees in agricultural landscapes, and to use this research to advance policies and practices that benefit the poor and the environment.
Support units The World Agroforestry Centre has several support units, including:
Communications Unit Based at our headquarters in Nairobi, but working closely with communication staff in regional offices, this team spreads the word about what the World Agroforestry Centre is doing. The Unit takes care of publications and library services, web publishing, media and public relations.
Training Unit With a strong focus on assisting our scientists and their partners to build and strengthen capacity, the Training Unit promotes ongoing learning opportunities that are compatible with our research priorities.
Human Resources Unit Ensuring our centre attracts, retains and develops excellent staff is the role of our Human Resources Unit.
Research Methods Group The ILRI–ICRAF Research Methods Group helps staff from both organizations and their research partners with research design, data management, analysis and reporting, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS).
B. ECOLOGICAL DESIGN >