COMPLEMENTARY BIO-METHANE, KINETIC WIND & WATER ENERGY
The 100% solution to energy needs locally, abundantly and securely. There are many other inherent energy sources in the urban environment easy to capture from existing systems, cheap to harness and with multiple benefits beyond fuel & energy needs. Many are not listed here as of yet (coming).
A problem with any centralized generation from hydro, nuclear, fossil gas, oil or coal fuels and wind energy is the expense of transmission and infrastructure. The United States’ copper-based electric grid is estimated to leak electricity at an estimated five percent per 100 miles (161 km) of transmission. With power plants usually located far from where the electricity they produce will actually be consumed, this can add up to a lot of wasted power. It’s estimated that over 50% of energy developed from any central generating source over significant country to city distances is lost in transmission. Transmission loss includes Electromagnetic Fields, Line resistance dispersed along right-of-ways, transmission-line-maintenance, power-line and infrastructure upkeep-maintenance, capital cost-depreciation, clearing of right-of-ways (herbicides are another problem), loss of bio-sphere, bio-diversity and economic productivity along transmission lines adds to the physical loss of energy so that only 50% of energy produced from turbines (hydro, nuclear, fossil) is delivered to the user.
ELECTRO-MAGNETIC FIELDS EMFs
EMFs are a major concern for human and wildlife health at the central production site as well as along the transmission line right of ways all the way to the city where substations further divide lines to user service along streets and then subsequently in affected dwellings and exposures (workplaces, travel etc) as well.
In cities, wind energy (measured in more than just speed) is concentrated by buildings some 12 - 15 fold (times) and shed along 'shear' surfaces usually on the north and south sides of a building as well as the roof-line leading west facing edge. In the northern hemisphere most of our prevailing wind comes from the west. Problems of understanding wind potential in urban areas has come from measurement confusion between wind-speed and wind-force. Wind-force includes the density of wind (air), compression of turbulence and wind speed as expressed along wind-shear surfaces. Concentrated wind force gives a steady drive to turbines mounted on shear surfaces even in light ambient winds. In addition previous studies have included only stand-alone 'clock-face' turbines (the most common) without considering complementary wind-shear surface winds ready to be harvested on building-mounted linear-axis helical vortex (screen-funnel entry)turbines as expressed in the Wind-Wall model pictured and attached below and other designs (about to be posted). The problems of falling wind turbine parts are next to non-existant with linear models screened-in and hugging building edges. The problems of butterfly, bird and bat kill are next to non-existant with caged-screened vortex funnel design.
Transmission loss leads to loss of huge continental long transmission territories as well as human, wildlife and biosphere productivity losses. Wind is a problem for cities because of inhospitable wind concentration along pedestrian and recreational areas. Electrical generation sites far from the city in rural, First Nation and wildlife areas destroy extensive enormously productive lands and climates in multiple ways. Hydro damming and logging destroys key riparian productivity along river channels. Dammed rivers rise and fall like bathtubs constantly over the course of a year, mostly empty with exposed dirt in previously dense riparian life zones without synchronization with natural cycles and the needs of wildlife. Climate-wise, the massive amounts of solar energy normally photosynthesized by riparian zone tree and bush leafs is reflected back into the atmosphere, pushing winds from the continent to the sea lowering sea to continent water transfer by 40% in the case of James-Bay, Quebec and causing the remaining forests to burn constantly. Normally 60% of water transfer is by condensation of warm moist ocean winds upon leaf and bark 3-D surfaces. Rain only accounts for 40% of moisture transfer. A rich biosphere normally attracts its own climate and precipitation, thus keeping humid fire-resistant conditions. For these reasons, cities should be employing their own conservation practices and local resources to meet electrical energy needs.
Cities have the capacities to responsibly design buildings and infrastructure to benefit from Elemental (sun, soil, water, air and life) gifts. The energy we do use can come from local elements concentrated by the design of the city and in the process improve the felt environment for citizens. Existing infrastructure can be made more effective.
Work in Europe by Wind-Wall and others with linear-axis (long and narrow) helical blade wind-turbines building mounted on these shear surfaces and in consideration of wind-tunnel effects of building-scapes is very successful in harvesting wind right at the place of usage without transmission. For engineering purposes buildings are designed and constructed to withstand overall load stresses or even earthquakes well beyond what wind capture will express. Please refer to Windwall Netherlands attachment below.
VORTEX FEED TO HELICAL TURBINES
Better designs are now using funnel shaped entrances which swirl or vortex the air in harmony with the helical blades. Vortexes create less noise and the funnel if properly anchored / grounded to solid structure as well dampen vibrations and noise. The capturing of wind energy calms winds along human spaces such as in gardens, streets, roof-top gardens and parks so as to provide a great benefit to citizens, trees and wildlife (birds etc).
ELECTRICAL GRID FEED & SUPPLY
The electricity generated is fed into the electric-line 'grid' for solid-state power supply, (battery-free) storage and reciprocal city-wide energy which has low transmission infrastructure (building-to-building but not central-to-city) losses. The home-owner and other producers in this network receive credits and payments for their contributions to this 'steady-state' electrical system with so many diverse energy sources that it becomes less likely to system shutdown.
KINETIC WATER TURBINES ON BRIDGE PYLONS
When Wind is paired with Linear-axis Helical Kinetic Water Turbines on the bridge pylons below the water surface (no damming) and ice depths, then the transmission lines serve both wind and water (hydro) generation. Water force is naturally concentrated along the pylon sides to create constant force feeds. Short funnels or guides as well are designed to create vortexes (swirls) which feed the helical blades for low noise. These funnels are screened (with vortex surfaces) so that fish, riparian zone wildlife, ice and physical matter doesn’t enter into the turbines. When properly planned for and designed, the energy-calmed areas down from the kinetic water turbines serve as a shelter area for fish and other wildlife to assist in their river migration and habitat. These calmed areas can also serve human canoe, swimming and other uses of river areas by bridges. Most bridge pylons are over-built for structural reasons and have the capacity to accept this kind of double and triple service.
Please refer to Rome Audet's firstname.lastname@example.org work below under the Kinetic Vortex Helical River Turbine HUG design through the link and attachment below.
METHANE CAPTURE FROM SEWERS 20%
Its estimated that the fecal material in sewers can provide 20% of transport and heating fuel needs for all human populations when combined with collected kitchen cuttings (fruit & vegetable left-overs). Kitchen cuttings produce 80 times more methane than fecal matter but both are complementary increasing the yield for both when placed together. Montreal's 1,800,000 people living on the island of Montreal produce enough fecal matter alone to produce 120,000,000 $ of methane plus 30,000,000$ of geo-thermal energy (all sewer systems are geothermal collectors) plus 30,000,000$ of fertilizer per year to be fed back into food production security. All totalling 180,000,000$ per year of fuel revenues for a city of 1,800,000 people. As a by-product, rivers and lakes surrounding all regions are cleaned up along with associated air and soil contamination.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY 20%
Insulation of basements, other wall, roof and particularly north surfaces. Basement walls insulated from the outside next to the earth below the ground and with cement board covers above the ground with recaptured styrofoam materials provides both water proofing and temperature moderation.
GREEN ROOFS 20%
Providing pleasant green space for building occupants, food sources, calming of winds, cleaning of water for building resident soft-water needs through root and soil systems, lowering city pumping expenses for centralized water sources and providing high quality water security distributed throughout cities.
APPROPRIATE USES OF NATURAL RESOURCES NATURAL PROPERTIES = CHOICE PRODUCT
CONSERVATION FIRST (personal observation & commitment)
The Sustainable Development Corporation is concerned that; massive energy & material development projects (considering most energy consumption is for luxury and extraneous activity and junk goods and foods) are damaging to human health and well-being. We need to mine urban streets, energy efficiencies and resource-flows as well as respond to non-functional consumer-addiction, before we needlessly destroy nature. I spent years in Structural Geological Mapping research for the Canadian & US Geological Surveys in British Columbia and Idaho as well as planting over 100,000 trees in the hidden backwoods. I've seen the trashing of remote rural sites by companies repeatedly knowing this as a long history of destruction of essential natural resources. Large urban and multinational companies consistently ignore / abuse environmental protection laws in remote unmonitored locations. Indigene Community is focused on indigenous traditions of Relational Economy for communities to create planned production & consumption in full cycle economies in whole system design which can be searched on our site. I live 33 years with a vow of solidarity to spend my money and energy for necessities. https://sites.google.com/site/indigenecommunity/relational-economy
FIRST NATIONS & THEIR RESOURCES
What if First Nations are recognized for their sovereignty over the Athabaska Tar Sands and appropriate Natural Resource stewards for their sustainable harvest?
What if the Tar Sands are appropriately used in their natural state as raw material for First Nation run manufacturing companies producing products for roofing and road asphalt surfaces?
In the US there are 112,610 square kilometers of road, building, parking lot surfaces or Impervious Surface Areas IPA, ((2004 by American Geophysical Union, Harvey Leifert) which regularly need repair. Canadian IPA are about one tenth of this at 11,000 square kilometres. Let's use heavy crude with minimal refining for the strengths it holds for its appropriate heavy high density and sand loaded qualities and save light-crude from other sites for more refined purposes. Thus we eliminate or greatly reduce refinement energy costs, sludge byproduct and pipeline transportation. Canadian First Nations instead of receiving massive sludge loads in their communities can instead manage sustainable manufacturing and shipping high-value finished roofing, asphalt and other products on rail directly from their own manufacturing centres. First Nations at great cost to their livelihood and community development have consistently stood with the environment and appropriate development because they live in these sites and honour their natural science traditions. First Nations are honourable environmental stewards.
Re: "The tragic energy, material and environmental waste of refining Alberta Tar Sands and putting it in our gas tanks". If the tar sands crude material is used directly as paving and roofing material without refining, then we save massive amounts of refining energy. First Nations have the expertise and relatively light-crude raw material normally refined the other way for more intelligent purposes. Normally roofing, building materials and asphalt paving industry have to take the by-products of high grade crude refinement, add sand and other fibrous material. These qualities already exist in the raw materials.
Both sides, liberal and conservative, of the Keystone and TransCanada pipeline arguments have something to offer if they are taken as complementary parts of whole human intelligence and 'APPROPRIATE USE' design for these 'tar-sand' materials respecting both economic and ecological criteria. If we bring finance to support First Nation manufacturing leadership. If we use the thick and sand qualities of their natural combined state for related human essential service purposes, then everyone wins including the environment. Natural tar-sand materials for roofing and road asphalting don’t require the processing release of: toxins, massive refining energy, petrochemical solvents, massive quantities of polluted by-product, pipelines or massive infrastructure. High grade products need not be made with low grade feed stock, each can be streamed into appropriate use. Complementary 'appropriate-use' full-cycle human governance of all material and energy flows. https://sites.google.com/site/indigenecommunity/design/9-complementary-energy
Average river flows are some one metre per second not enough to support most water turbine electrical generation but efficiencies from helical vortexes and concentrations at certain sites in the river flow as well as on the 'shear' surfaces of bridge pylons make many projects feasible. The HUG design is based on constructions along river banks with diversions to concentrate water force for Kinetic generation and doesn't refer yet to Bridge Pylons (road, rail, foot and service structures) as of yet where concentration of water force occurs next to most urban and rural settlement areas. The merits of each site must be considered separately with studies for an Ecological Impact Statement.
Yes wind and water have roles to play in our overall energy strategies, but we need to restrict ourselves to needs and a Hierarchy of Needs (see Abraham Maslow's work presented under section C. ECOLOGICAL DESIGN 6) SOLIDARITY) as well as getting 'context' and 'design' right!
B. ECOLOGICAL DESIGN >