1) L'agriculture de défrichage examinée

From: Jack Douglas  eco-montreal@mcgill.ca
Text of Jack Douglas, translated from English by Oscar Chica  Last edited by Oscar Sun, January 8 at 7:56, edited 2 times


Fermes Miracle, Vidéo Stefan Sobkowiak, St-Anicet, Partage du recolte verger permaculture avec les travailleurs faune. 7 min.     http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=mtOaxbZbN_M&feature=youtu.be

Only Section A has been transcribed below. Please write to the author to obtain the full text.

A. FOREST-ORCHARDS MULTILEVEL FOOD RESOURCES DETERMINE THE CIVILIZATION We constantly renew our relationship with others and with the earth through food. Our vision of civilization (derived from the Latin civis, "townspeople") and the debate on ecology are based on a Western worldview, which ennobled the Western model of agriculture based on the clearing of land as the most advanced and effective system of food production. Although generalizations are not fair, contrary to the myths generated by the pioneers peoples, Indigenous Peoples have often lived in large cities. Native food is often deliberately harvested in a variety of fields and orchards multilevel, which often thrive in densely populated communities. (Boreal forests and arctic communities require a separate environmental analysis.) Generally, people settlers cut down trees to make room for cereal crops (wheat, barley, oats, rye, etc..) and vegetables. Protein in the diet of people from pioneers of pets fed hay and carbohydrates from grains or root vegetables. The pioneers are proud to clear land for agriculture and human habitation. But a comparative analysis of productivity, we can see that the pioneers shave orchards multiple dimensions of ignorance multidimensional vital resources and the three-dimensional planning. We can conclude that the planning of vital resources beyond the mental capacity of colonial thinker militarized.  All our science, our education and all fields of study pose agriculture cleared land as the basis of our economic system systems. We imagine the top of the evolution of species. Culture on cleared land and security it is supposed to ensure are considered the foundation of all our well-being. There is a feedback between the production and the reality is totally absent from this "natural order" colonial. MANIFEST DESTINY The very notion of civilization as understood in Western traditions is based on the development of agriculture in Mesopotamia, the model spread in the Middle East, Egypt, Greece, Rome and Europe. In the Americas, we study a historic expertise from Britain (North America), France (Quebec), Portugal (Brazil) and Spanish (Latin America). Taking into account this world historical influences, these selective interpretations of national history or "manifest destiny" represent the views of dominating world colonizers required by agriculture on cleared land. All our calculations on production food, the benefits of industrialization, energy use, transport, democracy in the Western sense, foreign policy, traditional scientific research, education and the war is based on the comparative advantages our system, supposedly obtained through our agriculture and our advanced. breeding These benefits are considered strengths of our domination "advanced", which supposedly led the unity necessary for progress. It is assumed that without unity imposed, it would have been impossible to achieve a critical mass of people working together for their mutual benefit.

At the same time, civilization prides itself on promoting fair trade, social contract and social relations that are not based on force. However, the contradiction of the violence used to subdue indigenous and other peoples is generally justified by the idea that economic efficiency and its benefits for all demand that we continue to enslave nature and citizens at all times. RELOCATION PEOPLES OF ORCHARDS When We clear the land, indigenous peoples are hunted and native plants and animals are moved. Cut the forest alters climate and eliminates the ability of the land to retain water, the ability of plants to create atmospheric moisture, soil stability provided by a permanent cover, the absorptive capacity of light forest cover, creating abundance and shelter by the forest area, the abundance of tree products and other forms of life, the ability to calm winds and moderate climate. destruction donations Nature leads the pioneers of land to adopt all kinds of mechanical solutions to solve irrigation problems, breathing difficulties, shelter against the sun and rain, clothing, health, conflicts, transport and energy solutions which in turn have all sorts of consequences. Progressive enslavement and elimination of indigenous peoples, which began 6000 years there have been a period of great change for the peoples of the earth. Observe how we design this period, the subsequent period, some scientific facts and our assumptions. There are 6000 years, Mesopotamia was covered, as well as Persia, Israel, Egypt, North Africa, the Greece, Italy, Europe and the Americas, with vast forests, orchards. Indigenous peoples living in these forests enjoyed a huge safe and sustainable forest productivity, nuts, seeds, fruit, leafy vegetables, animals, plants growing in soil further, various vegetables, berries, fungi, algae, fish, molluscs, water and aquatic plants. productivity of native forests, orchards is legendary and is still an extra resource for external people (Greek for "begotten outside") since. We continually fail to meet our own basic needs from our own exogenous productive resources, and depend on the exploitation of ecology depleted the third world to satisfy our economic desires of industrialized countries. "SYLVALISATIONS" (derived from the Latin sylva, which means wood or forest) Large cities have existed in indigenous Australia, Africa, Asia and South America, Central and Northern Forest orchards. These sylvalisations possibly have existed over periods of millions of years. When Columbus arrived in 1492, the American continent was home to the largest cities in the world. During his conquest of Tenochtitlan, the 350,000 inhabitants of the island city of Mexico and 29 million inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico, Cortez described the cleanliness of its waters and its streets. Throughout the world, indigenous pictographic writing systems were destroyed by epidemics, fire and libraries wars exogenous expansion. Oral historical traditions, which complémentaient pictograms and involved specialized storytellers with thousands of years of historical knowledge of the community, have been lost through this social degradation. In the generation of nomadic commuters today télévores, historical memory on the family and the community survives simply have a generation (about 30 years). propaganda dependent nations of agriculture based on the clearing land denigrates the native time as a "wild" time (derived from the Latin meaning "people of the forest"). What we know of this period is filtered by a specific vision of the worlds peoples settlers that the forest peoples were barbarians, brutal, primitive and malnourished due to inconsistent food production with the vagaries of nature. COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVITY I owned an orchard of 10 acres in the 70s, I worked in orchards and grows food for 34 years. I worked in the Natural Food Network, lived and worked with indigenous peoples for 37 years. In the Western world, we do not know that agriculture-based clearing and cereal production is ten times, 10 X 1000% less productive in terms of protein, carbohydrates and other food resources in a culture orchards nuts, seeds and fruits based on a legacy of millions of years still honored by the Indigenous Nations. If we consider the production of other food, shelter, clothing, animals, heat and health products, we understand that the clearing agriculture based on cereal production is a hundred times, 100 X, 10000% less productive than the forest-orchard. As long as we in the West have an ethnocentric mentality (chauvinist) and a fixation on our company post-Native settlers and exogenous, we will never understand how the earth, sun and the human culture, interact. We were taught to denigrate this time (the native time) as unproductive and we have never seen and his forces. CALCULATING THE VOLUME OF CROP Many common kinds of nuts are edible and can play a role in our well be. If you want an idea of how trees are productive, go outside and calculate the production of maple seeds. Maple seeds are actually edible after undergoing some changes. I do not recommend eating maple seeds, although they are tasty when properly processed and sprouted. The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the production of a vast forest cover because, in terms of productivity, different forest cover (oaks for acorns, walnuts, hazelnuts and other nut-producing trees) are similar. Compare this volume with what you have found linear fields of wheat, barley, rye, oats, buckwheat and corn. Our experience suggests a cereal crop harvest volume ten times less. ABOUT THE AUTHOR I owned an orchard in Deer Park, on Arrow Lake in British Columbia during the 1970s. I lived and worked in orchards (apples, peaches, cherries, pears, plums, hazelnuts, walnuts, grapes) West Kootenay, and grain farms in Ontario. I worked in provincial networks Natural Food Co-operative - Wholesale & Retail for 15 years in British Columbia and Quebec. I gardened organic since 1971 in Idaho, British Columbia and Quebec following the teaching of people who return to earth, Doukhobors, Mennonites and neighbors of all kinds, as well as in reading the magazine Organic Gardening. I did conservation (caning, marinades, in sugar cured) of fruits and vegetables, I built dryers food, which I have done in orchards and procurement. I cooked for large groups of people while I was planting trees. I planted over 100,000 trees in reforestation projects. I spent the decades to study and gathering fruit and wild plants, some arboreal. I encouraged wildlife to grow and produce more with compost, mulch, water, etc. .. I have traveled extensively by bike (noting the details of the landscape) farms in California, of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Vermont, Quebec and Ontario. Meanwhile I made ​​picking almonds, loquats, pine nuts, figs, dates, prickly pears and 60 other tree products. I did the shoot (questioning motorists) further and I lived in different communities in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Maine, New Hampshire, the state of New York, circling the Canada and the United States again. What I found is that the volume harvested in the orchard trees (three dimensions) far exceeds two-and cereal crops. The difference may be understood by comparing how many fruit and nuts are produced on a two-dimensional surface and how many fruits, nuts or seeds are produced in a three-dimensional space of harvest. Estimated that I made ​​from my own observations that appear in the literature produced by UNESCO show that the crop in terms of carbohydrates and protein, multilevel field is ten times greater than on land cleared. I also realized that our orchards monoculture, although they are more productive than a flat, do not approach the productivity of a carefully managed forest orchard as still maintain today a number limited to First Nations communities.

AGROFORESTERIE - 27 sept 09.ppt

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Subpages (1): 1) Polyculture Orchards
Douglas Jack,
May 28, 2012, 7:46 AM