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RoR datasets


"Regions of Russia (RoR), 1990-2015" is an exhaustive database, created for research on regional development. It includes over 2000 indicators from numerous sources, representing a wide range of economic, political, and social changes in 82 Russian regions during 25 years of reforms and rebounds. Indicators, most of which have never been published in English before, cover various topics, including trade, production, population structure, labour, investment, economic growth, climate, crime rates, terrorism, education, health care, culture, banking system, insurance, services, communication, and infrastructure.

The tremendous amount of work put into curating and maintaining the RoR over the last four years was possible thanks to financial and institutional support from the Swedish Institute, IMT Lucca, Sant'Anna University, and Lund University.

The collection provides ample opportunities for international scholars for comparative research in political economy, social transformations, and history, as well as for studies on finance, demography, and authoritarianism. Since the first release, it's been used as a basis for numerous publications, as well as for undergraduate and graduate theses in Germany, Russia, Brazil, the UK, and the USA.

Access and citation

The first release of the RoR dataset (covering the years 1990-2010) is hosted by the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research: DOI:10.3886/ICPSR35355.v1 and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License. The codebook is attached below.

Suggested citation format, if you decide to use the data:

Mirkina, I. (2017). Regions of Russia in Comparative Perspective: Introducing a New Dataset. Mimeo.

Mirkina, Irina. (2014). Aggregate Data, Regions of Russia (RoR), 1990-2010. ICPSR35355-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor].

A new release, adding more information and covering the years from 1990 up through 2015, is available for download while expecting the official release. Please contact me with any questions or requests about the data at dr.mirkina[at]

Other releases

Another dataset, called “Regions of Russia, 1990–2015: Politics and Institutions,” is in the works. It covers the structure and quality of regional bureaucracies and parliaments, results of local, regional, and national elections, expert assessments on the levels of corruption and democracy, as well as the outcomes of various population surveys.

Frequently Asked Questions

What's the need for yet another dataset? Studies on regional development benefit greatly from additional data that allow for comparative research. Most of the existing findings in intra-regional issues are based on extensive data collections available for the U.S. states or sub-divisions of European countries. But would these findings hold true for other countries that are vastly different from the US and Western Europe in terms of political, social, and economic development? The RoR dataset is my humble contribution to the growing field of regional political economy, focusing on developing and transition countries.

Where do the data come from? The RoR dataset includes official statistics from: Federal Statistical Service of Russia (Rosstat); Ministry of Interior of Russia; Federal Treasure of Russia; Central Bank (Bank of Russia); Federal Tax Service of Russia; Ministry of Finance of Russia; Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Russia; Federal Customs Service of Russia; Ministry for Civil Defense, Emergencies, and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters of Russia; Ministry for Regional Development of Russia. All the included indicators are accessed as open data, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Can't one just download the data from the Russian government or something? While a lot of statistical information is openly available from the government agencies listed above, it is rarely available in English. Regional statistics never is. Methodology is usually scarce and requires at least some basic knowledge of Russian laws. Methodology for some indicators has been changing over the years - one often needs to be able to trace these changes before using the data. In the RoR dataset, all these issues are resolved, values are standardized, cleaned up, and fully comparable.

How do you handle monetary terms? One of the most common hassles in research on Russia is excessive inflation rates, especially in the early 1990s. To ensure the data consistency over time and to make international comparisons possible, all monetary terms were transformed into constant US dollars in the first release of the dataset now available at ICPSR. If you are interested in the original data (at nominal prices, in Russian rubles), please email me at dr.mirkina[at] or leave a comment below.

What is the geographic coverage? The dataset covers 82 federal subjects of Russia, including 46 oblasts, 21 republics, 9 krais, 3 autonomous okrugs , 1 autonomous oblast, and 2 cities of federal importance. For the data collection purposes, Nenets Autonomous Okrug is treated as part of Arkhangelsk Oblast. The Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol are not included and will not be included in the dataset and any future releases. For subnational data for Ukraine, Belarus, or Moldova, email me at dr.mirkina[at]

Can I see some examples of this dataset being used? Do you have a manual? ICPSR captures publications that cite this dataset. The manual is currently under review - a working copy is available below or at SSRN:

Should you have any other questions about these datasets or Eastern European statistics in general, please feel free to leave a comment below or contact me at dr.mirkina[at]

Irina Mirkina,
Jul 30, 2015, 9:43 AM
Irina Mirkina,
Feb 10, 2019, 11:48 AM