Vol. 7 No. 2 FEB 2010

Vol. 7 No. 2 February 2010 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication February 2010, Volume 7 No. 2 (Download Full Journal)
Copyright © 2010 IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Paper 31011070: Securing Iris Templates using Combined User and Soft Biometric based Password Hardened Fuzzy Vault (pp. 001-008)
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V. S. Meenakshi, SNR Sons College,Coimbatore,Tamil Nadu, India. 
Dr. G. Padmavathi, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. 

Abstract—Personal identification and authentication is very crucial in the current scenario. Biometrics plays an important role in this area. Biometric based authentication has proved superior compared to traditional password based authentication. Anyhow biometrics is permanent feature of a person and cannot be reissued when compromised as passwords. To over come this problem, instead of storing the original biometric templates transformed templates can be stored. Whenever the transformation function is changed new revocable/cancelable templates are generated. Soft biometrics is ancillary information that can be combined with primary biometrics to identify a person in a better way. Iris has certain advantage compared to other biometric traits like fingerprint. Iris is an internal part that is less prone to damage. Moreover is very difficult for an attacker to capture an iris. The key advantage of iris biometrics is its stability or template longevity. Biometric systems are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. This work generates cancelable iris templates by applying user and soft biometric based password transformations and further secures the templates by biometric cryptographic construct fuzzy vault. 

Keywords—Cancelable Biometrics, Password, Soft Biometrics, Iris, Eye color, Template security, Fuzzy Vault
2. Paper 07011059: A New Clustering Approach based on Page's Path Similarity for Navigation Patterns Mining (pp. 009-014)
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Heidar Mamosian, Department of Computer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khouzestan, Iran 
Amir Masoud Rahmani, Department of Computer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU),Tehran, Iran 
Mashalla Abbasi Dezfouli, Department of Computer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khouzestan, Iran 

Abstract—In recent years, predicting the user's next request in web navigation has received much attention. An information source to be used for dealing with such problem is the left information by the previous web users stored at the web access log on the web servers. Purposed systems for this problem work based on this idea that if a large number of web users request specific pages of a website on a given session, it can be concluded that these pages are satisfying similar information needs, and therefore they are conceptually related. In this study, a new clustering approach is introduced that employs logical path storing of a website pages as another parameter which is regarded as a similarity parameter and conceptual relation between web pages. The results of simulation have shown that the proposed approach is more than others precise in determining the clusters.

Keywords-Clustering; Web Usage Mining; Prediction of Users' Request; Web Access Log.
3. Paper 11011004: Implementing New-age Authentication Techniques using OpenID for Security Automation (pp. 015-021)
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Dharmendra Choukse, Institute of Engineering & Science, IPS Academy, Indore, India
Umesh Kumar Singh, Institute of Computer Science, Vikram University, Ujjain, India
Deepak Sukheja, Priyatam Institute of Technology and Management .Indore, India
Rekha Shahapurkar, Lokmanya Tilak College,Vikram University,Ujjain,India

Abstract - Security of any software can be enhanced manifolds if multiple factors for authorization and authentication are used .The main aim of this work was to design and implement an Academy Automation Software for IPS Academy which uses OpenID and Windows CardSpace as Authentication Techniques in addition to Role Based Authentication (RBA) System to ensure that only authentic users can access the predefined roles as per their Authorization level. The Automation covers different computing hardware and software that can be used to digitally create, manipulate, collect, store, and relay Academy information needed for accomplishing basic Operation like admissions and registration, student and faculty interaction, online library, medical and business development. Raw data storage, electronic transfer, and the management of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of the Academy automation system. Further Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol has been implemented to provide security and data integrity for communications over networks. TLS encrypts the segments of network connections at the

Keywords: RBA, Encryption/Decryption, OpenID, windowsCardSpace, TLS (Transport LayerSecurity)
4. Paper 12011009: Ontology Based Query Expansion Using Word Sense Disambiguation (pp. 022-027)
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M. Barathi, Department of Computer Applications, S. M. K. Fomra Institute of Technology, Chennai, India
S. Valli, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, India

Abstract - The existing information retrieval techniques do not consider the context of the keywords present in the user’s queries. Therefore, the search engines sometimes do not provide sufficient information to the users. New methods based on the semantics of user keywords must be developed to search in the vast web space without incurring loss of information. The semantic based information retrieval techniques need to understand the meaning of the concepts in the user queries. This will improve the precision-recall of the search results. Therefore, this approach focuses on the concept based semantic information retrieval. This work is based on Word sense disambiguation, thesaurus WordNet and ontology of any domain for retrieving information in order to capture the context of particular concept(s) and discover semantic relationships between them. 

Index terms – Word Sense Disambiguation, Semantic Information Retrieval, Clustering, Ontology.

5. Paper 15120915: Secured Cryptographic Key Generation From Multimodal Biometrics: Feature Level Fusion of Fingerprint and Iris (pp. 028-037)
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A. Jagadeesan, Research scholar / Senior Lecturer/EIE, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam-638 401, Tamil Nadu, India
Dr. K.Duraiswamy, Dean/Academic, K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode – 637 209, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract— Human users have a tough time remembering long cryptographic keys. Hence, researchers, for so long, have been examining ways to utilize biometric features of the user instead of a memorable password or passphrase, in an effort to generate strong and repeatable cryptographic keys. Our objective is to incorporate the volatility of the user's biometric features into the generated key, so as to make the key unguessable to an attacker lacking significant knowledge of the user's biometrics. We go one step further trying to incorporate multiple biometric modalities into cryptographic key generation so as to provide better security. In this article, we propose an efficient approach based on multimodal biometrics (Iris and fingerprint) for generation of secure cryptographic key. The proposed approach is composed of three modules namely, 1) Feature extraction, 2) Multimodal biometric template generation and 3) Cryptographic key generation. Initially, the features, minutiae points and texture properties are extracted from the fingerprint and iris images respectively. Subsequently, the extracted features are fused together at the feature level to construct the multi-biometric template. Finally, a 256-bit secure cryptographic key is generated from the multi-biometric template. For experimentation, we have employed the fingerprint images obtained from publicly available sources and the iris images from CASIA Iris Database. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords-Biometrics; Multimodal, Fingerprint, Minutiae points; Iris; Rubber Sheet Model; Fusion; Segmentation; Cryptographic key; Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation (CASIA) iris database.
6. Paper 20011017: The Comparison of Methods Artificial Neural Network with Linear Regression Using Specific Variables for Prediction Stock Price in Tehran Stock Exchange (pp. 038-046)
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Reza Gharoie Ahangar, The master of business administration of Islamic Azad University - Babol branch & Membership of young researcher club, Iran.
Mahmood Yahyazadehfar, Associate Professor of Finance, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran 
Hassan Pournaghshband, Professor of Computer Science Department, Southern Polytechnic State University

Abstract- In this paper, researchers estimated the stock price of activated companies in Tehran (Iran) stock exchange. It is used Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Network methods and compared these two methods. In Artificial Neural Network, of General Regression Neural Network method (GRNN) for architecture is used. In this paper, first, researchers considered 10 macro economic variables and 30 financial variables and then they obtained seven final variables including 3 macro economic variables and 4 financial variables to estimate the stock price using Independent components Analysis (ICA). So, we presented an equation for two methods and compared their results which shown that artificial neural network method is more efficient than linear regression method. 

Key words: neural network, linear regression, Tehran stock exchange, GRNN
7. Paper 21011018: A Methodology for Empirical Quality Assessment of Object-Oriented Design (pp. 047-055)
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Devpriya Soni, Department of Computer Applications, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (A Deemed University)Bhopal 462007, India
Dr. Namita Shrivastava, Asst. Prof. Deptt. of Mathematics, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (A Deemed University)Bhopal 462007, India
Dr. M. Kumar, Retd. Prof. of Computer Applications, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (A Deemed University)Bhopal 462007, India

Abstract: The direct measurement of quality is difficult because there is no way we can measure quality factors. For measuring these factors, we have to express them in terms of metrics or models. Researchers have developed quality models that attempt to measure quality in terms of attributes, characteristics and metrics. In this work we have proposed the methodology of controlled experimentation coupled with power of Logical Scoring of Preferences to evaluate global quality of four object-oriented designs.

Keywords: Software Quality, Quantitative Measurement, LSP.
8. Paper 22011020: A Computational Algorithm based on Empirical Analysis, that Composes Sanskrit Poetry (pp. 056-062)
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Rama N., Department of Computer Science, Presidency College, Chennai, India
Meenakshi Lakshmanan, Department of Computer Science, Meenakshi College for Women
Chennai, India and Research Scholar, Mother Teresa Women’s University Kodaikanal, India

Abstract — Poetry-writing in Sanskrit is riddled with problems for even those who know the language well. This is so because the rules that govern Sanskrit prosody are numerous and stringent. We propose a computational algorithm that converts prose given as E-text into poetry in accordance with the metrical rules of Sanskrit prosody, simultaneously taking care to ensure that sandhi or euphonic conjunction, which is compulsory in verse, is handled. The algorithm is considerably speeded up by a novel method of reducing the target search database. The algorithm further gives suggestions to the poet in case what he/she has given as the input prose is impossible to fit into any allowed metrical format. There is also an interactive component of the algorithm by which the algorithm interacts with the poet to resolve ambiguities. In addition, this unique work, which provides a solution to a problem that has never been addressed before, provides a simple yet effective speech recognition interface that would help the visually impaired dictate words in E-text, which is in turn versified by our Poetry Composer Engine.

Keywords - Sanskrit, poetry composer, sandhi, metre, metrical analysis, long-short analysis, speech recognition
9. Paper 22011021: Survey Report – State Of The Art In Digital Steganography Focusing ASCII Text Documents (pp. 063-072)
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Khan Farhan Rafat, Department of Computer Science, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan 
Muhammad Sher, Department of Computer Science, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract— Digitization of analogue signals has opened up new avenues for information hiding and the recent advancements in the telecommunication field has taken up this desire even further. From copper wire to fiber optics, technology has evolved and so are ways of covert channel communication. By “Covert” we mean “anything not meant for the purpose for which it is being used”. Investigation and detection of existence of such cover channel communication has always remained a serious concern of information security professionals which has now been evolved into a motivating source of an adversary to communicate secretly in “open” without being allegedly caught or noticed. This paper presents a survey report on steganographic techniques which have been evolved over the years to hide the existence of secret information inside some cover (Text) object. The introduction of the subject is followed by the discussion which is narrowed down to the area where digital ASCII Text documents are being used as cover. Finally, the conclusion sums up the proceedings.

Keywords- Steganography, Cryptography, Conceal, Steganology, Covert Channel
10. Paper 25011023: New clustering method to decrease probability of failure nodes and increasing the lifetime in WSNs (pp. 073-076)
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Shahram Babaie, Department of Computer Engineering, PhD students, Islamic Azad University, Olom VA Tahghighat Branch, Tehran, Iran 
Ahmad Khadem Zade, Department of Computer Engineering, Iran Telecommunication Research Center, Tehran, Iran
Ali Hosseinalipour, Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University- Tabriz Branch, Tabriz Iran

Abstract—Clustering in wireless sensor networks is one of the crucial methods for increasing of network lifetime. There are many algorithms for clustering. One of the important cluster based algorithm in wireless sensor networks is LEACH algorithm. In this paper we proposed a new clustering method for increasing of network lifetime. We distribute several sensors with a high-energy for managing the cluster head and to decrease their responsibilities in network. The performance of the proposed algorithm via computer simulation was evaluated and compared with other clustering algorithms. The simulation results show the high performance of the proposed clustering algorithm.

Keywords-Network Clustering; Nodes failure; Energy-Aware Communication; Wireless Sensor Networks
11. Paper 25011025: Comments on “Routh Stability Criterion” (pp. 077-078)
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T. D. Roopamala, Assistant Professor, Sri Jayachamarajendra college of Engineering
S. K. Katti, Professor, Sri Jayachamarajendra college of Engineering

Abstract— In this note, we have shown special case on Routh stability criterion, which is not discussed, in previous literature. This idea can be useful in computer science applications.

Keywords- Routh stability criterion, Routh array, Hurwitz criterion, stability.
12. Paper 27011026: Concurrent Approach to Flynn’s SPMD Classification through Java (pp. 079-081)
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Bala Dhandayuthapani Veerasamy, Department of Computing, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

Abstract—Parallel programming models exist as an abstraction of hardware and memory architectures. There are several parallel programming models in commonly use; they are shared memory model, thread model, message passing model, data parallel model, hybrid model, Flynn’s models, embarrassingly parallel computations model, pipelined computations model. These models are not specific to a particular type of machine or memory architecture. This paper focuses the concurrent approach to Flynn’s SPMD classification in single processing environment through java program.

Keywords-Concurren; Flynn’s Taxonomy; Single processor Environment; Java Development Ki; Parallel;
13. Paper 27011028: Multi-objective Geometric Programming Problem With Weighted Mean Method (pp. 082-086)
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A. K. Ojha, School of Basic Sciences, IIT Bhubaneswar, Orissa, Pin-751013, India Bhubaneswar-751014, India
K. K. Biswal, Department of Mathematics, C.T.T.C, Bhubaneswar - 751021, Orissa, India

Abstract- Geometric programming is an important class of optimization problems that enable practitioners to model a large variety of real-world applications, mostly in the field of engineering design. In many real life optimization problem multi-objective programming plays a vital role in socio-economical and industrial optimizing problems. In this paper we have discussed the basic concepts and principle of multiple objective optimization problems and developed geometric programming (GP) technique to solve this optimization problem using weighted method to obtain the non-inferior solutions.

Keywords- Geometric programming, optimization, weighted method, duality theory, non-inferior solutions.
14. Paper 28011030: Use of Service Curve for Resource Reservation in Wired-cum-Wireless Scenario (pp. 087-093)
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Nitul Dutta, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Computer Science & Engg. Deptt., India 
Iti Saha Misra, Jadavpur University, Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering Department, India

Abstract- In a network, arrival process is converted into departure process through network elements. The departure process suffer propagation delay in the link, processing delay at the network elements like router and data loss due to buffer overflow or congestion. For providing guaranteed service resources need to be reserved before conversation takes place. To reserve such resources estimation of them are indispensable.The idea of service curve gives beforehand deterministic value of these parameters. In this paper, we aim to minimum and maximum buffer space required in the router, minimum link capacity required to guarantee a pre-specified end-to-end delay for an ongoing session in a wired-cum-wireless scenario by analyzing minimum and maximum service curve. We assume that the network we are analyzing is an IP based mobilenetwork. The findings of the work are presented in the form of tables which can be used for resource reservation to offer quality service to end-users.

Key words: Service Curve, Network Calculus, Convolution Operator, Causal Process
15. Paper 28011031: Analysis, Modification, and Implementation (AMI) of Scheduling Algorithm for the IEEE 802.116e (Mobile WiMAX) (pp. 094-103)
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C. Ravichandiran, IT Leader, Zagro Singapore Pte Ltd, Singapore
Dr. C. Pethuru Raj, Lead Architect, CR Division of Robert Bosch, Bangalore, India.
Dr. V. Vaidhyanathan, Professor and HOD, Dept. of IT, SASTRA University, India

Abstract— Mobile WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is being touted as the most promising and potential broadband wireless technology. And the popularity rate has been surging to newer heights as the knowledge-backed service era unfolds steadily. Especially Mobile WiMAX is being projected as a real and strategic boon for developing counties such as India due to its wireless coverage acreage is phenomenally high. Mobile WiMAX has spurred tremendous interest from operators seeking to deploy high-performance yet cost-effective broadband wireless networks. The IEEE 802.16e standard based Mobile WiMAX system will be investigated for the purpose of Quality of Service provisioning. As a technical challenge, radio resource management will be primarily considered and main is the costly spectrum and the increasingly more demanding applications with ever growing number of subscribers. It is necessary to provide Quality of Service (QoS) guaranteed with different characteristics. As a possible solution the scheduling algorithms will be taken into main consideration and the present well known algorithms will be described. In this paper, we have highlighted the following critical issues for Mobile WiMAX technologies. This paper specifically discussed about the below mentioned in detail.
• QoS Requirements For IEEE 802.16 Service Classes, Achieving efficient radio resource management
• Deficit Round Robin (DRR) Scheduling algorithm 
• Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) scheduling algorithm’s attributes, properties and architecture
• System Model And Scenarios Using OPNET Modeler Software
• Simulation Limitations And Constraints

Keywords- IEEE 802.16, Mobile WiMAX (802.16e), QoS, PHY, MAC, OFDM, OFDMA, OPNET
16. Paper 28011033: Current Conveyor Based Multifunction Filter (pp. 104-107)
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Manish Kumar, Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida, India
M.C. Srivastava, Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Jaypee Institute of nformation Technology, Noida, India
Umesh Kumar, Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India

Abstract—The paper presents a current conveyor based multifunction filter. The proposed circuit can be realized as low pass, high pass, band pass and elliptical notch filter. The circuit employs two balanced output current conveyors, four resistors and two grounded capacitors, ideal for integration. It has only one output terminal and the number of input terminals may be used. Further, there is no requirement for component matching in the circuit. The parameter resonance frequency (ω0) and bandwidth (ω0 /Q) enjoy orthogonal tuning. The complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) realization of the current conveyor is given for the simulation of the proposed circuit. A HSPICE simulation of circuit is also studied for the verification of theoretical results. The non-ideal analysis of CCII is also studied. 

Keywords- Active filters, Current Conveyor, Voltage- mode.
17. Paper 28011034: A Secure Hash Function MD-192 With Modified Message Expansion (pp. 108-111)
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Harshvardhan Tiwari, Student, CSE Department, JIIT, Noida, India
Dr. Krishna Asawa, Ass. Prof., CSE Department, JIIT, Noida, India

Abstract—Cryptographic hash functions play a central role in cryptography. Hash functions were introduced in cryptology to provide message integrity and authentication. MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD are among the most commonly used message digest algorithm. Recently proposed attacks on well known and widely used hash functions motivate a design of new stronger hash function. In this paper a new approach is presented that produces 192 bit message digest and uses a modified message expansion mechanism which generates more bit difference in each working variable to make the algorithm more secure. This hash function is collision resistant and assures a good compression and preimage resistance.

Keywords-Cryptology,Hashfunction,MD5,SHA1,RIPEMD, Message Integrity and Authentication,Message expansion.
18. Paper 29011041: Integration of Rule Based Expert Systems and Case Based Reasoning in an Acute Bacterial Meningitis Clinical Decision Support System (pp. 112-118)
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Mariana Maceiras Cabrera, Departamento de Informática y Ciencias de la Computación, Universidad Católica del Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay
Ernesto Ocampo Edye, Departamento de Informática y Ciencias de la Computación, Universidad Católica de l Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay

Abstract—This article presents the results of the research carried out on the development of a medical diagnostic system applied to the Acute Bacterial Meningitis, using the Case Based Reasoning methodology. The research was focused on the implementation of the adaptation stage, from the integration of Case Based Reasoning and Rule Based Expert Systems. In this adaptation stage we use a higher level RBC that stores and allows reutilizing change experiences, combined with a classic rule-based inference engine. In order to take into account the most evident clinical situation, a pre-diagnosis stage is implemented using a rule engine that, given an evident situation, emits the corresponding diagnosis and avoids the complete process. 

Keywords-Case-Based Reasoning; Medical Diagnosis; Expert Systems; Acute Bacterial Meningitis
19. Paper 29011042: Formal Concept Analysis for Information Retrieval (pp. 119-125)
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Abderrahim El Qadi, Department of Computer Science, EST, University of Moulay Ismaïl, Meknes, Morocco
Driss Aboutajedine, GSCM-LRIT, Faculty of Science, University of Mohammed V, Rabat-Agdal, Morocco
Yassine Ennouary, GSCM-LRIT, Faculty of Science, University of Mohammed V, Rabat-Agdal, Morocco

Abstract—In this paper we describe a mechanism to improve Information Retrieval (IR) on the web. The method is based on Formal Concepts Analysis (FCA) that it is makes semantical relations during the queries, and allows a reorganizing, in the shape of a lattice of concepts, the answers provided by a search engine. We proposed for the IR an incremental algorithm based on Galois lattice. This algorithm allows a formal clustering of the data sources, and the results which it turns over are classified by order of relevance. The control of relevance is exploited in clustering, we improved the result by using ontology in field of image processing, and reformulating the user queries which make it possible to give more relevant documents.

Keywords-FCA; Galois lattice; IR; Ontology; Query Reformulation
20. Paper 29011043: Creating A Model HTTP Server Program Using java (pp. 126-130)
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Bala Dhandayuthapani Veerasamy, Department of Computing, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

Abstract— HTTP Server is a computer programs that serves webpage content to clients. A webpage is a document or resource of information that is suitable for the World Wide Web and can be accessed through a web browser and displayed on a computer screen. This information is usually in HTML format, and may provide navigation to other webpage’s via hypertext links. WebPages may be retrieved from a local computer or from a remote HTTP Server. WebPages are requested and served from HTTP Servers using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). WebPages may consist of files of static or dynamic text stored within the HTTP Server's file system. Client-side scripting can make WebPages more responsive to user input once in the client browser. This paper encompasses the creation of HTTP server program using java language, which is basically supporting for HTML and JavaScript.

Keywords- HTTP Server; Hyper Text Trasfer Protocol; Hyper Text Markup Language; WebPage;
21. Paper 30011045: Evaluation of E-Learners Behaviour using Different Fuzzy Clustering Models: A Comparative Study (pp. 131-140)
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Mofreh A. Hogo, Dept. of Electrical Engineering Technology, Higher Institution of Technology Benha, Benha University, Egypt

Abstract— This paper introduces an evaluation methodologies for the e-learners’ behaviour that will be a feedback to the decision makers in e-learning system. Learner's profile plays a crucial role in the evaluation process to improve the e-learning process performance. The work focuses on the clustering of the e-learners based on their behaviour into specific categories that represent the learner's profiles. The learners' classes named as regular, workers, casual, bad, and absent. The work may answer the question of how to return bad students to be regular ones. The work presented the use of different fuzzy clustering techniques as fuzzy c-means and kernelized fuzzy c-means to find the learners’ categories and predict their profiles. The paper presents the main phases as data description, preparation, features selection, and the experiments design using different fuzzy clustering models. Analysis of the obtained results and comparison with the real world behavior of those learners proved that there is a match with percentage of 78%. Fuzzy clustering reflects the learners’ behavior more than crisp clustering. Comparison between FCM and KFCM proved that the KFCM is much better than FCM in predicting the learners’ behaviour.

Keywords: E-Learning, Learner Profile, Fuzzy C-Means Clustering, Kernelized FCM.
22. Paper 30011047: Hierarchical Approach for Online Mining--Emphasis towards Software Metrics (pp. 141-146)
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M .V.Vijaya Saradhi, Dept.of CSE, Astra, Hyderabad, India.
Dr.B.R.Sastry, Astra, Hyderabad, India. 
P.Satish, Dept.of CSE, Astra, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract ----Several multi-pass algorithms have been proposed for Association Rule Mining from static repositories. However, such algorithms are incapable of online processing of transaction streams. In this paper we introduce an efficient single-pass algorithm for mining association rules, given a hierarchical classification amongest items. Processing efficiency is achieved by utilizing two optimizations, hierarchy aware counting and transaction reduction, which become possible in the context of hierarchical classification. This paper considers the problem of integrating constraints that are Boolean expression over the presence or absence of items into the association discovery algorithm. This paper present three integrated algorithms for mining association rules with item constraints and discuss their tradeoffs. It is concluded that the variation of complexity depends on the measure of DIT (Depth of Inheritance Tree) and NOC (Number of Children) in the context of Hierarchical Classification.

Keywords: Frequent item sets; Association Rules; Time stamps; DIT; NOC; Software Metrics; Complexity; Measurement
23. Paper 30011049: QoS Based Dynamic Web Services Composition & Execution (pp. 147-152)
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Farhan Hassan Khan, Saba Bashir, M.Younus Javed
National University of Science & Technology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Aihab Khan, Malik Sikandar Hayat Khiyal
Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract---The use of web services has dominated software industry. Existing technologies of web services are extended to give value added customized services to customers through composition. Automated web service composition is a very challenging task. This paper proposed the solution of existing problems and proposed a technique by combination of interface based and functionality based rules. The proposed framework also solves the issues related to unavailability of updated information and inaccessibility of web services from repository/databases due to any fault/failure. It provides updated information problem by adding aging factor in repository/WSDB (Web Services Database) and inaccessibility is solved by replication of WSDB. We discussed data distribution techniques and proposed our framework by using one of these strategies by considering quality of service issues. Finally, our algorithm eliminates the dynamic service composition and execution issues, supports web service composition considering QoS (Quality of Service), efficient data retrieval and updation, fast service distribution and fault tolerance.

Keywords---composition of services; dynamic composition; UDDI registry; web services.
24. Paper 30011050: Indexer Based Dynamic Web Services Discovery (pp. 153-159)
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Saba Bashir, Farhan Hassan Khan, M.Younus Javed
National University of Science & Technology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Aihab Khan, Malik Sikandar Hayat Khiyal, 
Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract-Recent advancement in web services plays an important role in business to business and business to consumer interaction. Discovery mechanism is not only used to find a suitable service but also provides
collaboration between service providers and consumers by using standard protocols. A static web service discovery mechanism is not only time consuming but requires continuous human interaction. This paper proposed an efficient dynamic web services discovery mechanism that can locate relevant and updated web services from service registries and repositories with timestamp based on indexing value and categorization for faster and efficient discovery of service. The proposed prototype focuses on quality of service issues and introduces concept of local cache, categorization of services, indexing mechanism, CSP (Constraint Satisfaction Problem) solver, aging and usage of translator. Performance of proposed framework is evaluated by implementing the algorithm and correctness of our method is shown. The results of proposed framework shows greater performance and accuracy in dynamic discovery mechanism of web services resolving the existing issues of flexibility, scalability, based on quality of service, and discovers updated and most relevant services with ease of usage.

Keywords-component: Classification of services; Dynamic discovery; Indexing; UDDI registry; Web services.
25. Paper 30011051: A New Variable Threshold and Dynamic Step Size Based Active Noise Control System for Improving Performance (pp. 160-165)
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P. Babu, Department of ECE, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology,Tiruchengode, Tamilnadu, India. 
A. Krishnan, Department of ECE, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract— Several approaches have been introduced in literature for active noise control (ANC) systems. Since FxLMS algorithm appears to be the best choice as a controller filter, researchers tend to improve performance of ANC systems by enhancing and modifying this algorithm. In this paper, modification is done in the existing FxLMS algorithm that provides a new structure for improving the tracking performance and convergence rate. The secondary signal y(n) is dynamic thresholded by Wavelet transform to improve tracking. The convergence rate is improved by dynamically varying the step size of the error signal. 

Keywords - active noise control, FxLMS algorithm, wavelet transform, dynamic threshold, dynamic step size.
26. Paper 30011052: Hierarchical Web Page Classification Based on a Topic Model and Neighboring Pages Integration (pp. 166-173)
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Wongkot Sriurai, Department of Information Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology, North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
Phayung Meesad, Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology, North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand  
Choochart Haruechaiyasak, Human Language Technology Laboratory National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), Bangkok, Thailand

Abstract— Most Web page classification models typically apply the bag of words (BOW) model to represent the feature space. The original BOW representation, however, is unable to recognize semantic relationships between terms. One possible solution is to apply the topic model approach based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation algorithm to cluster the term features into a set of latent topics. Terms assigned into the same topic are semantically related. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical classification method based on a topic model and by integrating additional term features from neighboring pages. Our hierarchical classification method consists of two phases: (1) feature representation by using a topic model and integrating neighboring pages, and (2) hierarchical Support Vector Machines (SVM) classification model constructed from a confusion matrix. From the experimental results, the approach of using the proposed hierarchical SVM model by integrating current page with neighboring pages via the topic model yielded the best performance with the accuracy equal to 90.33% and the F1 measure of 90.14%; an improvement of 5.12% and 5.13% over the original SVM model, respectively.
Keywords - Wep page classification; bag of words model; topic model; hierarchical classification; Support Vector Machines
27. Paper 30011054: Clinical gait data analysis based on Spatio-Temporal features (pp. 178-183)
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Rohit Katiyar, Lecturer, Computer Science & Engineering Dept., Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur (U.P.), India
Dr. Vinay Kumar Pathak, Vice Chancellor, Professor, Computer Science & Engg. Dept., Uttarakhand Open University, Uttarakhand, Haldwani, India

Abstract—Analysing human gait has found considerable interest in recent computer vision research. So far, however, contributions to this topic exclusively dealt with the tasks of person identification or activity recognition. In this paper, we consider a different application for gait analysis and examine its use as a means of deducing the physical well-being of people. The proposed method is based on transforming the joint motion trajectories using wavelets to extract spatio-temporal features which are then fed as input to a vector quantiser; a self-organising map for classification of walking patterns of individuals with and without pathology. We show that our proposed algorithm is successful in extracting features that successfully discriminate between individuals with and without locomotion impairment.

Keywords- Human locomotion; Gait analysis; Feature extraction; Self-organising maps; Diagnostic signatures
28. Paper 30011055: Design and Performance Analysis of Unified Reconfigurable Data Integrity Unit for Mobile Terminals (pp. 184-191)
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L.Thulasimani, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore-641004, India
M. Madheswaran, Centre for Advanced Research, Dept. of ECE, Muthayammal Engineering College, Rasipuram-637408, India

Abstract—Security has become one of the major issue in mobile services. In the development of recent mobile devices like Software Defined Radio (SDR) secure method of software downloading is found necessary for reconfiguration. Hash functions are the important security primitives used for authentication and data integrity. In this paper, VLSI architecture for implementation of integrity unit in SDR is proposed. The proposed architecture is reconfigurable in the sense it operates in two different modes: SHA-192 and MD-5.Due to applied design technique the proposed architecture achieves multi-mode operation, which keeps the allocated area resource at minimized level. The proposed architecture also achieves highspeed performance with pipelined designed structure. Comparison with related hash function implementation have been done in terms of operating frequency, allocated-area and area-delay product. The proposed Integrity Unity can be integrated in security systems for implementation of network for wireless protocol, with special needs of integrity in data transmission.

Index Terms — SDR, reconfigurability, SHA-192, Unified architecture, Hardware utilization
29. Paper 30011058: Soft Computing – A step towards building Secure Cognitive WLAN (pp. 192-198)
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S. C. Lingareddy, KNS Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India.
Dr B Stephen Charles, Stanley Stephen College of Engg, Kurnool, India.
Dr Vinaya Babu, Director of Admission Dept., JNTU, Hyderabad, India
Kashyap Dhruve, Planet-i Technologies, Bangalore, India.

Abstract— Wireless Networks rendering varied services has not only become the order of the day but the demand of a large pool of customers as well. Thus, security of wireless networks has become a very essential design criterion. This paper describes our research work focused towards creating secure cognitive wireless local area networks using soft computing approaches. The present dense Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) pose a huge threat to network integrity and are vulnerable to attacks. In this paper we propose a secure Cognitive Framework Architecture (CFA). The Cognitive Security Manager (CSM) is the heart of CFA. The CSM incorporates access control using Physical Architecture Description Layer (PADL) and analyzes the operational matrices of the terminals using multi layer neural networks, acting accordingly to identify authorized access and unauthorized usage patterns. 

Keywords- Cognitive Networks, Back Propogation, Soft Computing, IEEE 802.11, WLAN Security, Cognitive Framework Architecture, Multilayered Feedforward Neural Network (MFNN), Physical Architecture Description Layer(PADL), Cognitive Security Manager(CSM).
30. Paper 31011062: A Hybrid System based on Multi-Agent System in the Data Preprocessing Stage (pp. 199-202)
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Kobkul Kularbphettong, Gareth Clayton and Phayung Meesad 
The Information Technology Faculty, King Mongkut’s University of Technology, North Bangkok, Thailand

Abstract—We describe the usage of the Multi-agent system in the data preprocessing stage of an on-going project, called e-Wedding. The aim of this project is to utilize MAS and various approaches, like Web services, Ontology, and Data mining techniques, in e-Business that want to improve responsiveness and efficiency of systems so as to extract customer behavior model on Wedding Businesses. However, in this paper, we propose and implement the multi-agent-system, based on JADE, to only cope data preprocessing stage specified on handle with missing value techniques. JADE is quite easy to learn and use. Moreover, it supports many agent approaches such as agent communication, protocol, behavior and ontology. This framework has been experimented and evaluated in the realization of a simple, but realistic. The results, though still preliminary, are quite. 

Keywords-component; multi-agent system, data preprocessing stage, Web services, ontology, data mining techniques, e-Wedding, JADE.
31. Paper 31011064: New Approach to Identify Common Eigenvalues of real matrices using Gerschgorin Theorem and Bisection method (pp. 203-205)
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D. Roopamala , Dept. of Compute science, SJCE, Mysore, India 
S. K. Katti, Dept. of Compute science, SJCE, Mysore, India

Abstract—In this paper, a new approach is presented to determine common eigenvalues of two matrices. It is based on Gerschgorin theorem and Bisection method. The proposed approach is simple and can be useful in image processing and noise estimation.

Keywords- Common Eigenvalues, Gerschgorin theorem, Bisection method, real matrices.
32. Paper 31011066: A Survey of Naïve Bayes Machine Learning approach in Text Document Classification (pp. 206-211)
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Vidhya. K. A, Department of Computer Science, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India 
G. Aghila, Department of Computer Science, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India

Abstract— Text Document classification aims in associating one or more predefined categories based on the likelihood suggested by the training set of labeled documents. Many machine learning algorithms play a vital role in training the system with predefined categories among which Naïve Bayes has some intriguing facts that it is simple, easy to implement and draws better accuracy in large datasets in spite of the naïve dependence. The importance of Naïve Bayes Machine learning approach has felt hence the study has been taken up for text document classification and the statistical event models available. This survey the various feature selection methods has been discussed and compared along with the metrics related to text document classification.
Keyword- Text Mining, Naïve Bayes; Event models, Metrics, probability distribution.
33. Paper 31011067: Content based Zero-Watermarking Algorithm for Authentication of Text Documents (pp. 212-217)
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Zunera Jalil, & Anwar M. Mirza, FAST National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan 
Maria Sabir, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract- Copyright protection and authentication of digital contents has become a significant issue in the current digital epoch with efficient communication mediums such as internet. Plain text is the rampantly used medium used over the internet for information exchange and it is very crucial to verify the authenticity of information. There are very limited techniques available for plain text watermarking and authentication. This paper presents a novel zero-watermarking algorithm for authentication of plain text. The algorithm generates a watermark based on the text contents and this watermark can later be extracted using extraction algorithm to prove the authenticity of text document. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm against tampering attacks identifying watermark accuracy and distortion rate on 10 different text samples of varying length and attacks.

Keywords-watermarking; copyright protection; authentication; security; algorithm
34. Paper 31011068: Secure Multicast Key Distribution for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (pp. 218-223)
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D. SuganyaDevi, Asst. Prof, Department of Computer Applications, SNR SONS College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
Dr.G.Padmavathi, Prof. and Head, Dept. of Computer Science, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract— Many emerging applications in mobile adhoc networks involve group-oriented communication. Multicast is an efficient way of supporting group oriented applications, mainly in mobile environment with limited bandwidth and limited power. For using such applications in an adversarial environment as military, it is necessary to provide secure multicast communication. Key management is the fundamental challenge in designing secure multicast communications. In many multicast interactions, new member can join and current members can leave at any time and existing members must communicate securely using multicast key distribution within constrained energy for mobile adhoc networks. This has to overcome the challenging element of “1 affects n” problem which is due to high dynamicity of groups. Thus this paper shows the specific challenges towards multicast key management protocols for securing multicast key distribution in mobile ad hoc networks, and present relevant multicast key management protocols in mobile ad hoc networks. A comparison is done against some pertinent performance criteria.

Keywords - Key Management, MANET, Multicast Communication and Security
35. Paper 31011071: Nonlinear Filter Based Image Denoising Using AMF Approach (pp. 224-227)
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T. K. Thivakaran, Asst. Professor, Dept. of I.T, Sri Venkateswara College of Engg, Chennai.
Dr. RM. Chandrasekaran, Professor, Anna University, Trichy

Abstract: This paper proposes a new technique based on nonlinear Adaptive Median filter (AMF) for image restoration. Image denoising is a common procedure in digital image processing aiming at the removal of noise, which may corrupt an image during its acquisition or transmission, while retaining its quality. This procedure is traditionally performed in the spatial or frequency domain by filtering. The aim of image enhancement is to reconstruct the true image from the corrupted image. The process of image acquisition frequently leads to degradation and the quality of the digitized image becomes inferior to the original image. Filtering is a technique for enhancing the image. Linear filter is the filtering in which the value of an output pixel is a linear combination of neighborhood values, which can produce blur in the image. Thus a variety of smoothing techniques have been developed that are non linear. Median filter is the one of the most popular non-linear filter. When considering a small neighborhood it is highly efficient but for large window and in case of high noise it gives rise to more blurring to image. The Centre Weighted Median (CWM) filter has got a better average performance over the median filter [8]. However the original pixel corrupted and noise reduction is substantial under high noise condition. Hence this technique has also blurring affect on the image. To illustrate the superiority of the proposed approach by overcoming the existing problem, the proposed new scheme (AMF) Adaptive Median Filter has been simulated along with the standard ones and various performance measures have been compared. 

Key words: Noise; Image Filters; AMF Filter; PSNR.
36. Paper 31011072: Securing Our Bluetooth Mobiles From Intruder Attack Using Enhanced Authentication Scheme And Plausible Exchange Algorithm (pp. 228-233)
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Ms.A.Rathika, Ms. R.Saranya, Ms.R.Iswarya
VCET, Erode, India
Abstract- When Bluetooth devices come within the range of another, an electronic conversation takes place to determine whether the devices in range are known or whether one needs to control the other. Most Bluetooth devices do not require any form of user interaction for this to occur. If devices within range are known to one another, the devices automatically form a network known as a pairing. Authentication addresses the identity of each communicating device. The sender sends an encrypted authentication request frame to the receiver. The receiver sends an encrypted challenge frame back to the sender. Both perform a predefined algorithm. The sender sends its findings back to the receiver, which in turn either allows or denies the connection. There are three different functions for authentication in Bluetooth-E1, E2, and E3. E1 is used when encrypting the authorization challenge-response values.E2 is for generating different link keys.E3 is used when creating the encryption key.

Key words: link key, primitive root, challenge response scheme
37. Paper 31011074: Knowledge Management (pp. 234-238)
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Mohsen Gerami, The Faculty of Applied Science of Post and Communications, Danesh Blv, Jenah Ave, Azadi Sqr, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract- This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

Keywords-component; Knowledge Management; Information; Tacit Knowledge; Explicit Knowledge; Law
38. Paper 31011075: Wireless IP Telephony (pp. 239-243)
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Mohsen Gerami, The Faculty of Applied Science of Post and Communications, Danesh Blv, Jenah Ave, Azadi Sqr, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract—The convergence of traditional telecommunications and the Internet is creating new network-based service delivery opportunities for telecommunications companies carriers, service providers, and network equipment providers. Voice over Wireless IP is one of the most exciting new developments emerging within the telephony market. It is set to revolutionize the delivery of mobile voice Services and provide exciting new opportunities for operators and service providers alike. This survey discusses principal of Wireless IP Telephony.
Keywords- IP telephony; Convergence; Wireless; Internet; Wi-Fi ;
39. Paper 31011078: Reconfigurable Parallel Data Flow Architecture (pp. 244-251)
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Dr. Hamid Reza Naji, International Center for Science & high Technology and Environmental Sciences, Kerman Graduate University of Technology

Abstract- This paper presents a reconfigurable parallel data flow architecture. This architecture uses the concepts of multi-agent paradigm in reconfigurable hardware systems. The utilization of this new paradigm has the potential to greatly increase the flexibility, efficiency, expandability of data flow systems and to provide an attractive alternative to the current set of disjoint approaches that are currently applied to this problem domain. The ability of methodology to implement data flow type processing with different models is presented in this paper.

Key Words: Dataflow, Reconfigurable Systems, Multiagents
40. Paper 31100967: Model Based Ceramic tile inspection using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Euclidean Distance (pp. 252-256)
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Samir Elmougy1, Ibrahim El-Henawy2, and Ahmed El-Azab3 
1Dept. of Computer Science, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud Univ., Riyadh 11543, Saudi Arabia 
2Dept. of Computer Science, Faculty of Computer and Information Sciences, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt 
3Dept. of Computer Science, Misr for Engineering and Technology (MET) Academy, Mansoura, Egypt

Abstract— Visual inspection of industrial products is used to determine the control quality for these products. This paper deals with the problem of visual inspection of ceramic tiles industry using Wavelet Transform. The third level the coefficients of two dimensions Haar Discrete Wavelet Transform (HDWT) is used in this paper to process the images and feature extraction. The proposed algorithm consists of two main phases. The first phase is to compute the wavelet transform for an image free of defects which known as reference image, and the image to be inspected which known as test image. The second phase is used to decide whether the tested image is defected or not using the Euclidean distance similarity measure. The experimentation results of the proposed algorithm give 97% for correct detection of ceramic defects. 

Keywords- Visual inspection; DWT; Euclidean distance.
41. Paper 06011047: An Analytical Approach to Document Clustering Based on Internal Criterion Function (pp. 257-261)
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Alok Ranjan, Department of Information Technology, ABV-IIITM, Gwalior, India
Harish Verma, Department of Information Technology, ABV-IIITM, Gwalior, India
Eatesh Kandpal, Department of Information Technology, ABV-IIITM, Gwalior, India
Joydip Dhar, Department of Applied Sciences, ABV-IIITM, Gwalior, India

Abstract—Fast and high quality document clustering is an important task in organizing information, search engine results obtaining from user query, enhancing web crawling and information retrieval. With the large amount of data available and with a goal of creating good quality clusters, a variety of algorithms have been developed having quality-complexity trade-offs. Among these, some algorithms seek to minimize the computational complexity using certain criterion functions which are defined for the whole set of clustering solution. In this paper, we are proposing a novel document clustering algorithm based on an internal criterion function. Most commonly used partitioning clustering algorithms (e.g. k-means) have some drawbacks as they suffer from local optimum solutions and creation of empty clusters as a clustering solution. The proposed algorithm usually does not suffer from these problems and converge to a global optimum, its performance enhances with the increase in number of clusters. We have checked our algorithm against three different datasets for four different values of k (required number of clusters).
Keywords—Document clustering; partitioning clustering algorithm; criterion function; global optimization
42. Paper 30011060: Role of Data Mining in E-Payment systems (pp. 262-266)
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Sabyasachi Pattanaik, Partha Pratim Ghosh
FM University, Balasore

Abstract - Data Mining deals extracting hidden knowledge, unexpected pattern and new rules from large database. Various customized data mining tools have been developed for domain specific applications such as Biomedicine, DNA analysis and telecommunication. Trends in data mining include further efforts towards the exploration of new application areas and methods for handling complex data types, algorithm scalability, constraint based data mining and visualization methods. In this paper we will present domain specific Secure Multiparty computation technique and applications. Data mining has matured as a field of basic and applied research in computer science in general. In this paper, we survey some of the recent approaches and architectures where data mining has been applied in the fields of e-payment systems. In this paper we limit our discussion to data mining in the context of e-payment systems. We also mention a few directions for further work in this domain, based on the survey.

Key words: Distributed Data Mining (DDM), Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC), Privacy preserving, Data Mining (PPDM), web mining, application service providers (ASP).
43. Paper 30120933: Facial Gesture Recognition Using Correlation And Mahalanobis Distance (pp. 267-272)
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Supriya Kapoor, Computer Science Engg., Lingaya,s Institute of Mgt & Tech., India
Shruti Khanna, Computer Science Engg., Lingaya,s Institute of Mgt & Tech., India
Rahul Bhatia, Information Technology Engg., Lingaya,s Institute of Mgt & Tech.,India

Abstract- Augmenting human computer interaction with automated analysis and synthesis of facial expressions is a goal towards which much research effort has been devoted recently. Facial gesture recognition is one of the important component of natural human-machine interfaces; it may also be used in behavioural science , security systems and in clinical practice. Although humans recognise facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine is still a challenge. The face expression recognition problem is challenging because different individuals display the same expression differently. This paper presents an overview of gesture recognition in real time using the concepts of correlation and Mahalanobis distance.We consider the six universal emotional categories namely joy, anger, fear, disgust, sadness and surprise.

Keywords –Gesture recognition; Cross correlation; Mahalanobis Distance
44. Paper 28011035: FP-tree and COFI Based Approach for Mining of Multiple Level Association Rules in Large Databases (pp. 273-279)
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Virendra Kumar Shrivastava, Department of Computer Engineering, Singhania University, Pacheri Bari, (Rajsthan), India
Dr. Parveen Kumar, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology, Panipat (Haryana), India 
Dr. K. R. Pardasani, DDept. of Maths & MCA,
Maulana Azad National Inst. Of Tech., Bhopal, (M. P.) India

Abstract - In recent years, discovery of association rules among itemsets in a large database has been described as an important database-mining problem. The problem of discovering association rules has received considerable research attention and several algorithms for mining frequent itemsets have been developed. Many algorithms have been proposed to discover rules at single concept level. However, mining association rules at multiple concept levels may lead to the discovery of more specific and concrete knowledge from data. The discovery of multiple level association rules is very much useful in many applications. In most of the studies for multiple level association rule mining, the database is scanned repeatedly which affects the efficiency of mining process. In this research paper, a new method for discovering multilevel association rules is proposed. It is based on FP-tree structure and uses cooccurrence frequent item tree to find frequent items in multilevel concept hierarchy.

Keywords: Data mining, discovery of association rules, multiple-level association rules, FP-tree, FP(l)-tree, COFI-tree, concept hierarchy.

45. Paper 28011032: A GA based Window Selection Methodology to Enhance Window based Multi wavelet transformation and thresholding aided CT image denoising technique (pp. 280-288)
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Syed Amjad Ali, Department of ECE, Lords Institute of Engineering and Technology, Himayathsagar, Hyderabad 8
Srinivasan Vathsal, Professor and Director, R&D, Bhaskar Engineering College, Yenkapally, Moinabad, Ranga reddy Dist
K. Lal kishore, Rector, Jawahar Lal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally , Hyderabad

Abstract— Image denoising is getting more significance, especially in Computed Tomography (CT), which is an important and most common modality in medical imaging. This is mainly due to that the effectiveness of clinical diagnosis using CT image lies on the image quality. The denoising technique for CT images using window-based Multi-wavelet transformation and thresholding shows the effectiveness in denoising, however, a drawback exists in selecting the closer windows in the process of window-based multi-wavelet transformation and thresholding. Generally, the windows of the duplicate noisy image that are closer to each window of original noisy image are obtained by the checking them sequentially. This leads to the possibility of missing out very closer windows and so enhancement is required in the aforesaid process of the denoising technique. In this paper, we propose a GA-based window selection methodology to include the denoising technique. With the aid of the GA-based window selection methodology, the windows of the duplicate noisy image that are very closer to every window of the original noisy image are extracted in an effective manner. By incorporating the proposed GA-based window selection methodology, the denoising the CT image is performed effectively. Eventually, a comparison is made between the denoising technique with and without the proposed GA-based window selection methodology.

Keywords-Denoising Technique; Window Selection Methodology; Genetic Algorithm (GA); Computed Tomography (CT) image; Closer Windows.
46. Paper 19011015: Investigation and Assessment of Disorder of Ultrasound B-mode Images (pp. 289-293)
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Vidhi Rawat, Department of Biomedical Engineering Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, India.
Alok jain, Department of electronics Engineering, Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, India.
Vibhakar shrimali, Department of Trg. & Technical Education, Govt. of NCT Delhi, Delhi. Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, India.

Abstract— Digital image plays a vital role in the early detection of cancers, such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, lungs cancer, cervical cancer. Ultrasound imaging method is also suitable for early detection of the abnormality of fetus. The accurate detection of region of interest in ultrasound image is crucial. Since the result of reflection, refraction and deflection of ultrasound waves from different types of tissues with different acoustic impedance. Usually, the contrast in ultrasound image is very low and weak edges make the image difficult to identify the fetus region in the ultrasound image. So the analysis of ultrasound image is more challenging one. We try to develop a new algorithmic approach to solve the problem of non clarity and find disorder of it. Generally there is no common enhancement approach for noise reduction. This paper proposes different filtering techniques based on statistical methods for the removal of various noise. The quality of the enhanced images is measured by the statistical quantity measures: Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).

Keywords- fetus image, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).
47. Paper : (pp.)
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