IJCSIS EDITORIAL BOARD

BEST PAPER AWARD

Vol. 7 No. 1 JAN 2010

Vol. 7 No. 1 January 2010 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication January 2010, Volume 7 No. 1 (Download Full Journal)
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Copyright © 2009-2010 IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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1. Paper 06011051: Scenario Based Worm Trace Pattern Identification Technique (pp. 001-009)
Full Text: PDF

Siti Rahayu S., Robiah Y., Shahrin S., Mohd Zaki M., Irda R., Faizal M. A.
Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Univeristi Teknikal Malaysia Melaka,
Durian Tunggal, Melaka,Malaysia


Abstract—The number of malware variants is growing tremendously and the study of malware attacks on the Internet is still a demanding research domain. In this research, various logs from different OSI layer are explore to identify the traces leave on the attacker and victim logs, and the attack worm trace pattern are establish in order to reveal true attacker or victim. For the purpose of this paper, it will only concentrate on cybercrime that caused by malware network intrusion and used the traditional worm namely blaster worm variants. This research creates the concept of trace pattern by fusing the attacker’s and victim’s perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose on attacker’s, victim’s and multi-step (attacker/victim)’s trace patterns by combining both perspectives. These three proposed worm trace patterns can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

Keywords— trace pattern; attack pattern; log;
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2. Paper 07011068: Avoiding Black Hole and Cooperative Black Hole Attacks in Wireless Ad hoc Networks (pp. 010-016)
Full Text: PDF

Abderrahmane Baadache, Laboratory of Industrial Technology and Information, University of A. Mira, Targua Ouzemour, 06000, Bejaia, Algeria. 
Ali Belmehdi, Laboratory of Industrial Technology and Information, University of A. Mira, Targua Ouzemour, 06000, Bejaia, Algeria. 


Abstract— In wireless ad hoc networks, the absence of any control on packets forwarding, make these networks vulnerable by various deny of service attacks (DoS). A node, in wireless ad hoc network, counts always on intermediate nodes to send these packets to a given destination node. An intermediate node, which takes part in packets forwarding, may behave maliciously and drop packets which goes through it, instead of forwarding them to the following node. Such behavior is called black hole attack. In this paper, after having specified the black hole attack, a secure mechanism, which consists in checking the good forwarding of packets by an intermediate node, was proposed. The proposed solution avoids the black hole and the cooperative black hole attacks. Evaluation metrics were considered in simulation to show the effectiveness of the suggested solution. 

Keywords- wireless ad hoc network; routing protocol; security; black hole; cooperative black hole.
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3. Paper 06011053: Design of Current Controller for Two Quadrant DC Motor Drive by Using Model Order Reduction Technique (pp. 017-024)
Full Text: PDF

K. Ramesh, EEE Department, Velalar College of Engg. & Tech., Erode - 638012, India
K. Ayyar, EEE Department, Velalar College of Engg. & Tech., Erode - 638012, India 
Dr. A. Nirmalkumar, EEE Department, BIT, Sathyamangalam, India
Dr. G. Gurusamy, EEE Department, BIT, Sathyamangalam, India


Abstract -In this paper, design of current controller for a two quadrant DC motor drive was proposed with the help of model order reduction technique. The calculation of current controller gain with some approximations in the conventional design process is replaced by proposed model order reduction method. The model order reduction technique proposed in this paper gives the better controller gain value for the DC motor drive. The proposed model order reduction method is a mixed method, where the numerator polynomial of reduced order model is obtained by using stability equation method and the denominator polynomial is obtained by using some approximation technique preceded in this paper. The designed controller’s responses were simulated with the help of MATLAB to show the validity of the proposed method.

Keywords- Current controller; Model order reduction; Integral Square Error.
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4. Paper 09011080: Wireless Congestion Control Protocol For Multihop Ad Hoc Networks (pp. 025-031)
Full Text: PDF

Mahendra kumar. S, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Velalar College of Engineering and Technology, Tamil Nadu, India. 
Senthil Prakash. K, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Velalar College of Engineering and Technology, Tamil Nadu, India.


Abstract— The traditional TCP congestion control mechanism encounters a number of new problems and suffers a poor performance when the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol is used in multihop ad hoc networks. Many of the problems result from medium contention at the MAC layer. In this paper, I first illustrate that severe medium contention and congestion are intimately coupled, and TCP’s congestion control algorithm becomes too coarse in its granularity, causing throughput instability and excessively long delay. Further, we illustrate TCP’s severe unfairness problem due to the medium contention and the tradeoff between aggregate throughput and fairness. Then, based on the novel use of channel busyness ratio, a more accurate metric to characterize the network utilization and congestion status, I propose a new wireless congestion control protocol (WCCP) to efficiently and fairly support the transport service in multihop ad hoc networks. In this protocol, each forwarding node along a traffic flow exercises the inter-node and intra-node fair resource allocation and determines the MAC layer feedback accordingly. The end-to-end feedback, which is ultimately determined by the bottleneck node along the flow, is carried back to the source to control its sending rate. Extensive simulations show that WCCP significantly outperforms traditional TCP in terms of channel utilization, delay, and fairness, and eliminates the starvation problem. 

Keywords-component; Medium access control; Congestion control; Fairness; Multihop ad hoc networks; WCCP;
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5. Paper 06011058: Saturation Throughput Analysis of IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Networks under High Interference Considering Capture Effects (pp. 032-039)
Full Text: PDF

Ponnusamy Kumar, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India.
A. Krishnan, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India. 


Abstract— Distributed contention based Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are the fundamental components for IEEE 802.11 based Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). Contention windows (CW) change dynamically to adapt to the current contention level: Upon each packet collision, a station doubles its CW to reduce further collision of packets. IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) suffers from a common problem in erroneous channel. They cannot distinguish noise lost packets from collision lost packets. In both situations a station does not receive its ACK and doubles the CW to reduce further packet collisions. This increases backoff overhead unnecessarily in addition to the noise lost packets, reduces the throughput significantly. Furthermore, the aggregate throughput of a practical WLAN strongly depends on the channel conditions. In real radio environment, the received signal power at the access point from a station is subjected to deterministic path loss, shadowing and fast multipath fading. In this paper, we propose a new saturation throughput analysis for IEEE 802.11 DCF considering erroneous channel and capture effects. To alleviate the low performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF, we introduce a mechanism that greatly outperforms under noisy environment with low network traffic and compare their performances to the existing standards. We extend the multidimensional Markov chain model initially proposed by Bianchi[3] to characterize the behavior of DCF in order to account both real channel conditions and capture effects, especially in a high interference radio environment. 

Keywords-throughput; IEEE802.11; MAC; DCF; capture
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6. Paper 06011057: Performance Evaluation of Unicast and Broadcast Mobile Ad-hoc Network Routing Protocols (pp. 040-046)
Full Text: PDF

Sumon Kumar Debnath, Dept. of Computer Science and Telecommunication Engineering, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh
Foez Ahmed, Dept. of Networks and Communication Engineering, College of Computer Science, King Khalid University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Nayeema Islam, Department of Information & Communication Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi- 6205, Bangladesh


Abstract— Efficient routing mechanism is a challenging issue for group oriented computing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The ability of MANETs to support adequate Quality of Service (QoS) for group communication is limited by the ability of the underlying ad-hoc routing protocols to provide consistent behavior despite the dynamic properties of mobile computing devices. In MANET QoS requirements can be quantified in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Data Latency, Packet Loss Probability, Routing Overhead, Medium Access Control (MAC) Overhead and Data Throughput etc. This paper presents an in-depth study of one-to-many and many-to many communications in MANETs and provides a comparative performance evaluation of unicast and broadcast routing protocols. Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) is used as unicast protocol and BCAST is used to represent broadcast protocol. The performance differentials are analyzed using ns-2 network simulator varying multicast group size (number of data senders and data receivers). Both protocols are simulated with identical traffic loads and mobility models. Simulation result shows that BCAST performs better than DSR in most cases.

Keywords-MANETs, DSR, BCAST, Unicast, Broadcast, Random way point model
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7. Paper 07011069: Deriving Relationship Between Semantic Models - An Approach for cCSP (pp. 047-054)
Full Text: PDF

Shamim H. Ripon, Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, UK
Michael Butler, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, UK


Abstract—Formal semantics offers a complete and rigorous definition of a language. It is important to define different semantic models for a language and different models serve different purposes. Building equivalence between different semantic models of a language strengthen its formal foundation. This paper shows the derivation of denotational semantics from operational semantics of the language cCSP. The aim is to show the correspondence between operational and trace semantics. We extract traces from operational rules and use induction over traces to show the correspondence between the two semantics of cCSP.

Index Terms—Compensating CSP, semantic relationship, trace semantics, operational semantics.
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8. Paper 14120912: The Importance Analysis of Use Case Map with Markov Chains (pp. 055- 062)
Full Text: PDF

Yaping Feng, Dept. of Computer engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Korea
Lee-Sub Lee, Dept. of Computer engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Korea


Abstract—UCMs (Use Case Maps) model describes functional requirements and high-level designs with causal paths superimposed on a structure of components. It could provide useful resources for software acceptance testing. However until now statistical testing technologies for large scale software is not considered yet in UCMs model. Thus if one applies UCMs model to a large scale software using traditional coverage-based exhaustive tasting, then it requires too much costs for the quality assurance. Therefore this paper proposes an importance analysis of UCMs model with Markov chains. With this approach not only highly frequently used usage scenarios but also important objects such as components, responsibilities, stubs and plug-ins can also be identified from UCMs specifications. Therefore careful analysis, design, implementation and efficient testing could be possible with the importance of scenarios and objects during the full software life cycle. Consequently product reliability can be obtained with low costs. This paper includes an importance analysis method that identifies important scenarios and objects and a case study to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. 

Keywords- Use Case Maps; Markov chain; Usability Testing.
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9. Paper 30120931: Convergence of Corporate and Information Security (pp. 063-068)
Full Text: PDF

Syed (Shawon) M. Rahman, PhD, Assistant Professor of Computer Science 
University of Hawaii-Hilo, HI, USA and Adjunct Faculty, Capella University, MN, USA Email: 
Shannon E. Donahue, CISM,CISSP, Ph. D. Student, Capella University, 225 South 6th Street, 9th Floor Minneapolis, MN 55402, USA


Abstract—As physical and information security boundaries have become increasingly blurry many organizations are experiencing challenges with how to effectively and efficiently manage security within the corporate. There is no current standard or best practice offered by the security community regarding convergence; however many organizations such as the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk Management (AESRM) offer some excellent suggestions for integrating a converged security program. This paper reports on how organizations have traditionally managed asset protection, why that is changing and how to establish convergence to optimize security’s value to the business within an enterprise.
 
Keywords-component; convergence; security; risk management; corporate; threats
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10. Paper 01011035: Image Retrieval Techniques based on Image Features: A State of Art approach for CBIR (pp. 069-076)
Full Text: PDF

Mr. Kondekar V. H., Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering,Walchand Institute of Technology, Solapur, Solapur University.
Mr. Kolkure V. S., Bharat Ratna Indira Gandhi Collage of Engineering, Solapur, Solapur University. 
Prof. Kore S.N., Walchand College of Engineering, Sangali. Shivaji University. 


Abstract-The purpose of this Paper is to describe our research on different feature extraction and matching techniques in designing a Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system. Due to the enormous increase in image database sizes, as well as its vast deployment in various applications, the need for CBIR development arose. Firstly, this paper outlines a description of the primitive feature extraction techniques like: texture, colour, and shape. Once these features are extracted and used as the basis for a similarity check between images, the various matching techniques are discussed. Furthermore, the results of its performance are illustrated by a detailed example. 

Keyword - CBIR, Feature Vector, Distance metrics, Similarity check, similarity matrix, Histogram, Wavelet Transform, variance, standard deviation.
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11. Paper 01011037: AHB Compatible DDR SDRAM Controller IP Core for ARM BASED SOC (pp. 077-085)
Full Text: PDF

Dr. R. Shashikumar, C. N. Vijay Kumar, M. Nagendrakumar, ECE dept, SJCIT, Chikkaballapur, Karnataka, India  
C. S. Hemanthkumar, JVIT, Bidadi


Abstract— DDR SDRAM is similar in function to the regular SDRAM but doubles the bandwidth of the memory by transferring data on both edges of the clock cycles. DDR SDRAM most commonly used in various embedded application like networking, image/video processing, Laptops ete. Now a day’s many applications needs more and more cheap and fast memory. Especially in the field of signal processing, requires significant amount of memory. The most used type of dynamic memory for that purpose is DDR SDRAM. For FPGA design the IC manufacturers are providing commercial memory controller IP cores working only on their products. Main disadvantage is the lack of memory access optimization for random memory access patterns. The ‘data path’ part of those controllers can be used free of charge. This work propose an architecture of a DDR SDRAM controller, which takes advantage of those available and well tested data paths and can be used for any FPGA device or ASIC design.[5]. In most of the SOC design, DDR SDRAM is commonly used. ARM processor is widely used in SOC’s; so that we focused to implement AHB compatible DDR SDRAM controller suitable for ARM based SOC design.

Keywords- AHB; DDR SDRAM; Verilog; IP core;
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12. Paper 01011038: High Throughput of WiMAX MIMO-OFDM Including Adaptive Modulation and Coding (pp. 086-091)
Full Text: PDF

Hadj Zerrouki, Mohamed Feham
Laboratoire de Systèmes de Technologies de l'Information et de Communication (STIC), University Abou Baker Belkaid, Tlemcen, Algeria.


Abstract— WiMAX technology is based on the IEEE 802.16 specification of which IEEE 802.16-2004 and 802.16e amendment are Physical (PHY) layer specifications. IEEE 802.16-2004 currently supports several multiple-antenna options including Space-Time Codes (STC), Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna systems and Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS). The most recent WiMAX standard (802.16e) supports broadband applications to mobile terminals and laptops. Using Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) we analyze the performance of OFDM physical layer in WiMAX based on the simulation results of Bit-Error-Rate (BER), and data throughput. The performance analysis of OFDM-PHY is done. In this paper, an extension to the basic SISO mode, a number of 2x2 MIMO extensions are analysed under different combinations of digital modulation (QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM) and Convolutional Code (CC) with 1/2 , 2⁄3 and 3/4 rated codes. The intent of this paper is to provide an idea of the benefits of multiple antenna systems over single antenna systems in WiMAX type deployments. 

Keywords-WiMAX; MIMO; OFDM; AMC; Space Time Block Codes; Spatial Multiplexing
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13. Paper 02011039: Performance Modeling and Evaluation of Traffic management for Mobile Networks by SINR Prediction (pp. 092-094)
Full Text: PDF

K. K. Guatam, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Roorkee Engineering & Management Technology Institute, Shamli (247774) India
Anurag Rai, Department of Information Technology, College of Engineering Roorkee, Roorkee (247667) India


Abstract— Over the recent years a considerable amount of effort has been devoted towards the performance evaluation and prediction of Mobile Networks. Performance modeling and evaluation of mobile networks are very important in view of their ever expending usage and the multiplicity of their component parts together with the complexity of their functioning. The present paper addresses current issues in traffic management and congestion control by (singal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio) SINR prediction congestion control, routing and optimization of cellular mobile networks.

Keywords- Mobile Networks, Modeling, call admission control, QoS (Quality of Service) SINR.
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14. Paper 03011041: Thai Rhetorical Structure Analysis (pp. 095-105)
Full Text: PDF

Somnuk Sinthupoun, Department of Computer Science, Maejo University, Chiangmai, Thailand 50290
Ohm Sornil, Department of Computer Science, National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok, Thailand 10240y


Abstract— A rhetorical structure tree (RS tree) is a representation of discourse relations among elementary discourse units (EDUs). A RS tree is very useful to many text processing tasks employing relationships among EDUs such as text understanding, summarization, and question-answering. Thai language with its unique linguistic characteristics requires a unique RS tree construction technique. This paper proposes an approach for Thai RS tree construction which consists of three major steps: EDU segmentation, Thai RS tree construction, and discourse relation (DR) identification. Two hidden markov models derived from grammatical rules are used to segment EDUs, a clustering technique with its similarity measure derived from Thai semantic rules is used to construct a Thai RS tree, and a decision tree whose features extracted from the rules is used to determine the DR between EDUs. The proposed technique is evaluated using three Thai corpora. The results show the Thai RS tree construction and the DR identification effectiveness of 94.90% and 82.81%, respectively.

Keywords- Thai Language, Element Discourse Unit, Rhetorical Structure Tree, Discourse Relation.
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15. Paper 04011042: Mobility Impact on Performance of Mobile Grids (pp. 106-111)
Full Text: PDF

A. S. Nandeppanavar, Department of ISE, Basaveshwar Engineering College, Bagalkot-587102, India
M. N. Birje, Department of ISE, Basaveshwar Engineering College, Bagalkot-587102, India
S. S. Manvi, Department of E&CE, Reva Institute of Technology & Management, Bangalore, India
Shridhar, Department of E&CE, Basaveshwar Engineering College, Bagalkot-587102, India


Abstract— Wireless mobile grids are one of the emerging grid types, which help to pool the resources of several willing and cooperative mobile devices to resolve a computationally intensive task. The mobile grids exhibit stronger challenges like mobility management of devices, providing transparent access to grid resources, task management and handling of limited resources so that resources are shared efficiently. Task execution on these devices should not be affected by their mobility. The proposed work presents performance evaluation of wireless mobile grid using normal walk mobility model. The normal walk model represents daily motion of users and the direction of motion is mostly symmetric in a real life environment; thus it is effective in location updating of a mobile station and in turn helps task distribution among these available mobile stations. Some of the performance parameters such as Task Execution Time, task failure rate, communication overhead on Brokering Server and Monitoring Cost are discussed. 

Keywords- Mobile Grids; Normal Walk Mobility Model; Mobility management; Collaborative Problem Solving; Task Management
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16. Paper 04011043: Analysis of Birth weight using Singular Value Decomposition (pp. 112-115)
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D. Nagarajan, Department of Mathematics, Salalah College of Technology, Salalah, Sultanate of Oman.
P. Sunitha, Department of Mathematics, S. T. Hindu College,Nagercoil, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India
V. Nagarajan, Department of Mathematics, S. T. Hindu College, Nagercoil, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India.
V. Seethalekshmi, Department of Mathematics, James College Technology, Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu, India


Abstract— The researchers have drawn much attention about the birth weight of newborn babies in the last three decades. The birth weight is one of the vital roles in the baby’s health. So many researchers such as [2],[1] and [4] analyzed the birth weight of babies. The aim of this paper is to analyze the birth weight and some other birth weight related variable, using singular value decomposition and multiple linear regression.

Keywords- Birth weight; Haemoglobin concentration; Maternal Weight; Maternal height; Singular value
decomposition.
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17. Paper 04011044: A Simple Method of Designing Dual loop Controller for Cold Rolling Mill  (pp. 116-120)
Full Text: PDF

S. Umamaheswari, Dept. of EIE, Mahendra Engg, College, Namakkal(Dt), India. 
V.Palanisamy, Principal/ Info Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India.  
M.Chidambaram, Director/ NIT, Trichy, India.


Abstract-The mathematical model (Interval Plant) of the web guide in rolling mill is controlled using PID controller. The given interval plant is approximated to first order plus time delay with integrator (FOPTDI) system. The dual loop control (DLC) method proposed by Jacob and chidambaram for design PID controllers is extended for FOPTD+I systems. The performance of the closed loop system is evaluated for both the original and the approximated model. The controllers are also tuned using Internal Model Control (IMC) and the performance is compared by simulation.

Index Terms -Interval plant, Double loop control , Direct synthesis method, IMC(Internal Model Control)
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18. Paper 05011046: Detection of Microcalcification in Mammograms Using Wavelet Transform and Fuzzy Shell Clustering (pp. 121-125)
Full Text: PDF

T. Balakumaran, Department of Electronics and communication Engineering, Velalar College of Engineering and Technology, Erode, TamilNadu, India.
Dr. ILA. Vennila, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, TamilNadu, India.
C. Gowri Shankar, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Velalar College of Engineering and Technology, Erode, TamilNadu, India. 


Abstract— Microcalcifications in mammogram have been mainly targeted as a reliable earliest sign of breast cancer and their early detection is vital to improve its prognosis. Since their size is very small and may be easily overlooked by the examining radiologist, computer-based detection output can assist the radiologist to improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed an algorithm for detecting microcalcification in mammogram. The proposed microcalcification detection algorithm involves mammogram quality enhancement using multirresolution analysis based on the dyadic wavelet transform and microcalcification detection by fuzzy shell clustering. It may be possible to detect nodular components such as microcalcification accurately by introducing shape information. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for microcalcification detection is confirmed by experimental results.

Keywords: Computer-aided diagnosis, dyadic wavelet transform, skewness and kurtosis, Fuzzy shell clustering.
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19. Paper 06011048: The Fast Haar Wavelet Transform for Signal & Image Processing (pp. 126-130)
Full Text: PDF

V. Ashok, Department of BME, Velalar College of Engg.&Tech., Erode, India – 638012 
T. Balakumaran, Department of ECE, Velalar College of Engg.&Tech, Erode, India – 638012
C. Gowrishankar, Department of EEE, Velalar College of Engg.&Tech, Erode, India – 638012
Dr. ILA.Vennila, Department of ECE, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, TamilNadu, India
Dr. A. Nirmal kumar, Department of EEE, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, TamilNadu, India


Abstract- A method for the design of Fast Haar wavelet for signal processing & image processing has been proposed. In the proposed work, the analysis bank and synthesis bank of Haar wavelet is modified by using polyphase structure. Finally, the Fast Haar wavelet was designed and it satisfies alias free and perfect reconstruction condition. Computational time and computational complexity is reduced in Fast Haar wavelet transform.

Keywords- computational complexity, Haar wavelet, perfect reconstruction, polyphase components, Quardrature mirror filter.
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20. Paper 06011054: A Survivability Strategy in Route Optimization Mobile Network by Memetic Algorithm (pp. 131-134)
Full Text: PDF

K. K. Guatam, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Roorkee Engineering & Management Technology Institute, Shamli (247774) India
Anurag Rai, Department of Information Technology, College of Engineering Roorkee, Roorkee (247667) India


Abstract— The capability to provide network service even under a significant network system element disruption is the backbone for the survival of route optimize of mobile network Technology in today’s world. Keeping this view in mind, the present paper highlights a new method based on memetic algorithm .

Keywords- Survivability, Mobile Network, memetic algorithm, PAN,
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21. Paper 06011055: Analysis of Large-Scale Propagation Models for Mobile Communications in Urban Area (pp. 135-139)
Full Text: PDF

M. A. Alim, M. M. Rahman, M. M. Hossain, A. Al-Nahid
Electronics and Communication Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh.


Abstract— Channel properties influence the development of wireless communication systems. Unlike wired channels that are stationary and predictable, radio channels are extremely random and don’t offer easy analysis. A Radio Propagation Model (RPM), also known as the Radio Wave Propagation Model (RWPM), is an empirical mathematical formulation for the characterization of radio wave propagation as a function of frequency. In mobile radio systems, path loss models are necessary for proper planning, interference estimations, frequency assignments and cell parameters which are the basic for network planning process as well as Location Based Services (LBS) techniques. Propagation models that predict the mean signal strength for an arbitrary transmitter-receiver (T-R) separation distance which is useful in estimating the radio coverage area of a transmitter are called large-scale propagation models, since they characterize signal strength over large T-R separation distances. In this paper, the large-scale propagation performance of Okumura, Hata, and Lee models has been compared varying Mobile Station (MS) antenna height, Transmitter-Receiver (T-R) distance and Base Station (BS) antenna height, considering the system to operate at 900 MHz. Through the MATLAB simulation it is turned out that the Okumura model shows the better performance than that of the other large scale propagation models.

Keywords- Path Loss; Okumura model; Hata model; Lee model;
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22. Paper 06011056: Performance Evaluation of TCP over Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (pp. 140-146)
Full Text: PDF

Foez Ahmed, College of Computer Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Sateesh Kumar Pradhan, College of Computer Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Nayeema Islam, Department of Information & Communication Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi- 6205, Bangladesh
Sumon Kumar Debnath, Dept. of Computer Science and Telecommunication Engineering, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh


Abstract— With the proliferation of mobile computing devices, the demand for continuous network connectivity regardless of physical location has spurred interest in the use of mobile ad hoc networks. Since Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the standard network protocol for communication in the internet, any wireless network with Internet service need to be compatible with TCP. TCP is tuned to perform well in traditional wired networks, where packet losses occur mostly because of congestion. However, TCP connections in Ad-hoc mobile networks are plagued by problems such as high bit error rates, frequent route changes, multi-path routing and temporary network partitions. The throughput of TCP over such connection is not satisfactory, because TCP misinterprets the packet loss or delay as congestion and invokes congestion control and avoidance algorithm. In this research, the performance of TCP in Ad-hoc mobile network with high Bit Error rate (BER) and mobility is studied and investigated. Simulation model is implemented and experiments are performed using the Network Simulatior-2 (NS-2).

Keywords- Ad Hoc Network, TCP, High Bit Error Rate, Route re-computation.
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23. Paper 07011060: Vision Based Game Development Using Human Computer Interaction (pp. 147-153)
Full Text: PDF

Ms. S. Sumathi, Bharath University, Chennai,India
Dr. S. K. Srivatsa, St.Joseph College of Engineering, Chennai,India
Dr. M. Uma Maheswari, Bharath University, Chennai,India


Abstract— A Human Computer Interface (HCI) System for playing games is designed here for more natural communication with the machines. The system presented here is a vision-based system for detection of long voluntary eye blinks and interpretation of blink patterns for communication between man and machine. This system replaces the mouse with the human face as a new way to interact with the computer. Facial features (nose tip and eyes) are detected and tracked in real-time to use their actions as mouse events. The coordinates and movement of the nose tip in the live video feed are translated to become the coordinates and movement of the mouse pointer on the application. The left/right eye blinks fire left/right mouse click events. The system works with inexpensive USB cameras and runs at a frame rate of 30 frames per second. 

Keywords: Human Computer Interface (HCI), SSR Filter, Hough transform
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24. Paper 07011061: Path Traversal Penalty in File Systems (pp. 154-159)
Full Text: PDF

M.I. Lali, F. Ahsan and A.F.M Ishaq 
Dept. of Computing Science, CIIT, Islamabad


Abstract—File systems are used to manage data in the form of files and directories. These directories are hierarchical in nature. Access to the stored data is achieved by traversing through the path from root level to the respective directory containing the required file. This complex nature of data storage mechanism has significant effects on the performance of file systems in terms of accessibility. For considering new optimizations for file system design, it is important to study existing ones. Therefore, we designed a benchmark application to measure the penalty over path traversal in different file systems. Here, we present our results for the impact of directory depth in Windows FAT32, NTFS, Linux EXT-2 and Solaris UFS files systems. Overall, It is found that there is a considerable performance degradation as we go deeper along the directory levels in all these file systems. 

Index Terms—File System Benchmark, File Server, File Systems, File Access Efficiency, Directory Depth.
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25. Paper 07011066: Using Statistical Moment Invariants and Entropy in Image Retrieval (pp. 160-164)
Full Text: PDF

Ismail I. Amr, College of Computers and Informatics, Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt
Mohamed Amin† , Passent El-Kafrawy† , and Amr M. Sauber†
† Faculty of science Department of Math and Computer Science, Menoufia University, Shebin-ElKom, Egypt


Abstract - Although content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is not a new subject, it keeps attracting more and more attention, as the amount of images grow tremendously due to internet, inexpensive hardware and automation of image acquisition. One of the applications of CBIR is fetching images from a database. This paper presents a new method for automatic image retrieval using moment invariants and image entropy, our technique could be used to find semi or perfect matches based on query-by-example manner, experimental results demonstrate that the purposed technique is scalable and efficient.

Keywords - Moment invariants, content-based image retrieval, image entropy.
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26. Paper 07011067: Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization of Clustering in Ad-Hoc Networks (pp. 165-169)
Full Text: PDF

Bhaskar Nandi, Subhabrata Barman, Soumen Paul
Haldia Institute of Technology, W.B, India.


Abstract:In this paper, we have to concentrate on implementation of Weighted Clustering Algorithm with the help of Genetic Algorithm (GA).Here we have developed new algorithm for the implementation of GA-based approach with the help of Weighted Clustering Algorithm (WCA) [4]. Cluster-Head chosen is a important thing for clustering in ad-hoc networks. So, we have shown the optimization technique for the minimization of Cluster-Heads(CH) based on some parameter such as degree-difference , Battery power (Pv), degree of mobility, and sum of the distances of a node in ad-hoc networks. Cluster-Heads selection of ad-hoc networks is an important thing for clustering. Here, we have discussed the performance comparison between deterministic approach and GA-based approach. In this performance comparison, we have seen that GA does not always give the good result compare to deterministic WCA algorithm. Here we have seen connectivity (connectivity can be measured by the probability that a node is reachable to any other node.) is better than the deterministic WCA algorithm [4].

Keywords- Adhoc Networks, GA, Cluster Head (CH), WCA.
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27. Paper 07011070: Multi-Product Inventory Optimization using Uniform Crossover Genetic Algorithm (pp. 170-179)
Full Text: PDF

S. Narmadha, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Park College of Engineering and Tekhnology, Coimbatore – 641659, Tamilnadu, India
Dr. V. Selladurai, Professor and Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore – 641014, Tamilnadu, India
G. Sathish, Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Anna University – Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India


Abstract - Inventory management is considered to be an important field in Supply Chain Management because the cost of inventories in a supply chain accounts for about 30% of the value of the product. The service provided to the customer eventually gets enhanced once the efficient and effective management of inventory is carried out all through the supply chain. The precise estimation of optimal inventory is essential since shortage of inventory yields to lost sales, while excess of inventory may result in pointless storage costs. Thus the determination of the inventory to be held at various levels in a supply chain becomes inevitable so as to ensure minimal cost for the supply chain. The minimization of the total supply chain cost can only be achieved when optimization of the base stock level is carried out at each member of the supply chain. This paper deals with the problem of determination of base-stock levels in a ten member serial supply chain with multiple products produced by factories using Uniform Crossover Genetic Algorithms. The complexity of the problem increases when more distribution centers and agents and multiple products were involved. These considerations leading to very complex inventory management process has been resolved in this work.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Inventory Optimization, Base Stock, Uniform Crossover, Genetic
Algorithm (GA), Supply Chain Cost
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28. Paper 07011071: Efficient Inventory Optimization of Multi Product, Multiple Suppliers with Lead Time using PSO (pp. 180-189)
Full Text: PDF

S. Narmadha, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Park College of Engineering and Tekhnology, Coimbatore – 641659, Tamilnadu, India
Dr. V. Selladurai, Professor and Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore – 641014, Tamilnadu, India
G. Sathish, Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Anna University – Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India


Abstract - With information revolution, increased globalization and competition, supply chain has become longer and more complicated than ever before. These developments bring supply chain management to the forefront of the management’s attention. Inventories are very important in a supply chain. The total investment in inventories is enormous, and the management of inventory is crucial to avoid shortages or delivery delays for the customers and serious drain on a company’s financial resources. The supply chain cost increases because of the influence of lead times for supplying the stocks as well as the raw materials. Practically, the lead times will not be same through out all the periods. Maintaining abundant stocks in order to avoid the impact of high lead time increases the holding cost. Similarly, maintaining fewer stocks because of ballpark lead time may lead to shortage of stocks. This also happens in the case of lead time involved in supplying raw materials. A better optimization methodology that utilizes the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, one of the best optimization algorithms, is proposed to overcome the impasse in maintaining the optimal stock levels in each member of the supply chain. Taking into account the stock levels thus obtained from the proposed methodology, an appropriate stock levels to be maintained in the approaching periods that will minimize the supply chain inventory cost can be arrived at. 

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Inventory Optimization, Base Stock, Multiple Suppliers, Lead Time, Particle Swarm
Optimization (PSO), Supply Chain Cost
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29. Paper 07011072: Test Case Generation using Mutation Operators and Fault Classification (pp. 190-195)
Full Text: PDF

Mrs. R. Jeevarathinam, Department of Computer Science, SNR Sons College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. 
Dr. Antony Selvadoss Thanamani, Associate Professor and Head, Department of Computer Science, NGM College, Pollachi, Tamilnadu, India. 


Abstract— Software testing is the important phase of software development process. But, this phase can be easily missed by software developers because of their limited time to complete the project. Since, software developers finish their software nearer to the delivery time; they don’t get enough time to test their program by creating effective test cases. . One of the major difficulties in software testing is the generation of test cases that satisfy the given adequacy criterion Moreover, creating manual test cases is a tedious work for software developers in the final rush hours. A new approach which generates test cases can help the software developers to create test cases from software specifications in early stage of software development (before coding) and as well as from program execution traces from after software development (after coding). Heuristic techniques can be applied for creating quality test cases. Mutation testing is a technique for testing software units that has great potential for improving the quality of testing, and to assure the high reliability of software. In this paper, a mutation testing based test cases generation technique has been proposed to generate test cases from program execution trace, so that the test cases can be generated after coding. The paper details about the mutation testing implementation to generate test cases. The proposed algorithm has been demonstrated for an example.
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30. Paper 14120913: An Energy Efficient and Reliable Congestion Control Protocol For Multicasting In Mobile Adhoc Networks (pp. 196-201)
Full Text: PDF

G. Sasi Bhushana Rao, Senior Professor, E C E Department, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
M. RajanBabu, Associate Professor, ECE Department, Lendi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jonnada, Vizianagaram, AndhraPradesh, India


Abstract— This paper presents an energy efficient and reliable congestion control protocol for multicasting in mobile adhoc networks (MANETs). Our proposed scheme overcomes the disadvantages of existing multicast congestion control protocols which depend on individual receivers to detect congestion and adjust their receiving rates. In the first phase of our protocol, we build a multicast tree routed at the source, by including the nodes with higher residual energy towards the receivers. In the second phase, we propose an admission control scheme in which a multicast flow is admitted or rejected depending upon on the output queue size. In the third phase, we propose a scheme which adjusts the multicast traffic rate at each bottleneck of a multicast tree. Because of the on-the-spot information collection and rate control, this scheme has very limited control traffic overhead and delay. Moreover, the proposed scheme does not impose any significant changes on the queuing, scheduling or forwarding policies of existing networks. Simulation results shows that our proposed protocol has better delivery ratio and throughput with less delay and energy consumption when compared with existing protocol.

Keywords-Congestion Control; Mobile Adhoc Networks; Multicasting; admission control; multicast tree.
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31. Paper 07110911: An Intelligent System For Effective Forest Fire Detection Using Spatial Data (pp. 202-208)
Full Text: PDF

K. Angayarkkani, Senior lecturer, D.G. Vaishnav College, Arumbakkam, Chennai, India.
N. Radhakrishnan, Geocare Research Foundation, #23/30, First main Road, Pammal, Chennai, India


Abstract— The explosive growth of spatial data and extensive utilization of spatial databases emphasize the necessity for the automated discovery of spatial knowledge. In modern times, spatial data mining has emerged as an area of voluminous research. Forest fires are a chief environmental concern, causing economical and ecological damage while endangering human lives across the world. The fast or early detection of forest fires is a vital element for controlling such phenomenon. The application of remote sensing is at present a significant method for forest fires monitoring, particularly in vast and remote areas. Different methods have been presented by researchers for forest fire detection. The motivation behind this research is to obtain beneficial information from images in the forest spatial data and use the same in the determination of regions at the risk of fires by utilizing Image Processing and Artificial Intelligence techniques. This paper presents an intelligent system to detect the presence of forest fires in the forest spatial data using Artificial Neural Networks. The digital images in the forest spatial data are converted from RGB to XYZ color space and then segmented by employing anisotropic diffusion to identify the fire regions. Subsequently, Radial Basis Function Neural Network is employed in the design of the intelligent system, which is trained with the color space values of the segmented fire regions. Extensive experimental assessments on publicly available spatial data illustrated the efficiency of the proposed system in effectively detecting forest fires.

Keywords- Data Mining, Remote Sensing, Spatial data, Forest Fire Detection, Color Space, Segmentation, Anisotropic diffusion, Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN).
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32. Paper 07120905: Performance Analysis and Optimization of Lumped Parameters of Electrostatic Actuators for Optical MEMS Switches (pp. 209-215)
Full Text: PDF

D. Mohana Geetha, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Kumaraguru college of Technology, Coimbatore641006, India.
M. Madheswaran, Center for Advanced Research, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Muthayammal Engineering College, Rasipuram 637408 , India.


Abstract – This Paper deals design and simulation of electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped beam and cantilever beam using finite element analysis method (FEM). A detailed study and performance analysis for various bias voltages is provided in this paper. The pull in voltages for different dimensions of the beams and the natural or the dominant modes and the corresponding eigenvalues have been studied for different bias voltages. The displacement of the beam is also studied for various dimensions of the beam. The results were obtained for the length and the width of both clamped –clamped beam and cantilever beam through extensive simulations. The results obtained shows that pull in voltages varies from 2348V to 772V and the natural frequencies vary from 102.92 KHz to 916.35 KHz.

Keywords- electrostatic, optical MEMS, clamped, cantilever, pull-in voltage.
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33. Paper 08011075: Modeling of Human Criminal Behavior using Probabilistic Networks (pp. 216-219)
Full Text: PDF

Ramesh Kumar Gopala Pillai, Research Scholar, R.V. Center for Cognitive Technologies, Bangalore, India 
Dr. Ramakanth Kumar .P, Professor, R.V. Center for Cognitive Technologies, Bangalore, India


Abstract— Currently, criminal’s profile (CP) is obtained from investigator’s or forensic psychologist’s interpretation, linking crime scene characteristics and an offender’s behavior to his or her characteristics and psychological profile. This paper seeks an efficient and systematic discovery of non-obvious and valuable patterns between variables from a large database of solved cases via a probabilistic network (PN) modeling approach. The PN structure can be used to extract behavioral patterns and to gain insight into what factors influence these behaviors. Thus, when a new case is being investigated and the profile variables are unknown because the offender has yet to be identified, the observed crime scene variables are used to infer the unknown variables based on their connections in the structure and the corresponding numerical (probabilistic) weights. The objective is to produce a more systematic and empirical approach to profiling, and to use the resulting PN model as a decision tool. 

Keywords-component; Modeling, criminal profiling, criminal behavior, probabilistic network, Bayes Rule
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34. Paper 08120906: Reaching the Unreached - A Role of ICT in Sustainable Rural Development (pp. 220-224)
Full Text: PDF

Mr.Nayak S.K., Head, Dept. of Computer Science, Bahirji Smarak Mahavidyalaya, Basmathnagar, Dist.Hingoli. (MS), India
Dr. S. B. Thorat, Director, Institute of Technology and Mgmt. Nanded, Dist.Nanded. (MS), India
Dr.Kalyankar N.V., Principal, Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya, Nanded Nanded (MS), India


Abstract— We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. ICT promises a fundamental change in all aspects of our lives, including knowledge dissemination, social interaction, economic and business practices, political engagement, media, education, health, leisure and entertainment. In India ICT applications such as Warana, Dristee, Sari, Sks, E-Chaupal, Cybermohalla, Bhoomi, E-Mitra, Deesha, Star, Setu, Friends, E-Seva, Lokmitra, E-Post, Gramdoot, Dyandoot, Tarahaat, Dhan, Akshaya, Honeybee, Praja are in functioning for rural development. ICT offers an opportunity to introduce new activities, new services and applications into rural areas or to enhance existing services. With more than 70% of the Indian population living in rural areas and earns its live hood by agriculture and allied means of income. ICTs can play a significant role in combating rural and urban poverty and fostering sustainable development through creating information rich societies and supporting livelihoods. If ICTs are appropriately deployed and realize the differential needs of urban and rural people, they can become powerful tools of economic, social and political empowerment. This paper introduces the application of ICT for rural development. The paper aims at improving the delivery of information to rural masses such as: technology information, marketing information, and information advice. This paper focuses digital divide and poverty eradication, good governance and the significance of internet for rural development. The paper concludes that ICTs offer the developing country, the opportunity to look ahead several stages of rural development by the use of internet. Effective use of ICT can demolish geographical boundaries and can bring rural communities closer to global economic systems and be of meaningful help to the underprivileged. 
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Keywords- ICT, RD, digital divide, , e-governance, procurement, poverty alleviation, empowement.
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35. Paper 08120909: A Proof Procedure for Testing Membership in Regular Expressions (pp.225-227)
Full Text: PDF

Keehang Kwon and Hong Pyo Ha, Dong-A University Department of Computer Engineering
Busan, Republic of Korea
Jiseung Kim, Kyung-IL University Department of Industrial Engineering, Daegu, Republic of Korea


Abstract – We propose an algorithm that test membership for regular expressions and show that the algorithm is correct. This algorithm is written in the style of a sequent proof system. The advantage of this algorithm over traditional ones is that the complex conversion process from regular expressions to finite automata is not needed. As a consequence, our algorithm is simple and extends easily to various extensions to regular expressions such as timed regular expressions or regular languages with the intersection. 

Keywords: regular expressions, proof theory, linear logic, algorithm.
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36. Paper 09011078: Impact of Random Loss on TCP Performance in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (IEEE 802.11): A Simulation-Based Analysis (pp. 228-233)
Full Text: PDF

Shamimul Qamar, Department of Computer Science, Colloge of Artsv & Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 
Kumar Manoj, IIT Roorkee, Saharanpur campus, Saharanpur,India


Abstract-Initially TCP was designed with the notion in mind that wired networks are generally reliable and any segment loss in a transmission is due to congestion in the network rather than an unreliable medium (The assumptions is that the packet loss caused by damage is much less than 1%) . This notion doesn’t hold in wireless parts of the network. Wireless links are highly unreliable and they lose segments all the time due to a number of factors. Very few papers are available which uses TCP for MANET. In this paper, an attempt have been made to justify the use of TCP variants (Tahoe and Reno) for loss of packet due to random noise introduces in the MANET. For the present analysis the simulation has been carried out for TCP variants (Tahoe and Reno) by introduces 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% noise. The comparison of TCP variants is made by running simulation for 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of data packet loss due to noise in the transmission link and the effect of throughput and congestion window has been examined. During the simulation we have observed that throughput has been decreased when a drop of multiple segments happens, further we have observed in the case of TCP variant (Reno) throughput is better at 1% (Figure 5) which implies a network with short burst of error and low BER, causing only one segment to be lost. When multiple segments are lost due to error prone nature of link, Tahoe perform better than Reno (Figure 13), that gives a significant saving of time (64.28%) in comparison with Reno (Table 4). Several simulations have been run with ns-2 simulator in order to acquire a better understanding of these TCP variants and the way they perform their function. We conclude with a discussion of whether these TCP versions can be used in Mobile Ad hoc Network?

Index Term- TCP, Tahoe, Reno, MANET, ns-2, Random noise
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37. Paper 16120916: Automatic diagnosis of retinal diseases from color retinal images (pp. 234-238)
Full Text: PDF

D. Jayanthi, PG Scholar, Dept of IT, Sri Venkateswara college of Engineering 
N. Devi, Senior Lecturer, Dept of IT, Sri Venkateswara college of Engineering 
S. SwarnaParvathi, Senior Lecturer, Dept of IT, Sri Venkateswara college of Engineering 


Abstract- Teleophthalmology holds a great potential to improve the quality, access, and affordability in health care. For patients, it can reduce the need for travel and provide the access to a super-specialist. Ophthalmology lends itself easily to telemedicine as it is a largely image based diagnosis. The main goal of the proposed system is to diagnose the type of disease in the retina and to automatically detect and segment retinal diseases without human supervision or interaction. The proposed system will diagnose the disease present in the retina using a neural network based classifier.The extent of the disease spread in the retina can be identified by extracting the textural features of the retina. This system will diagnose the following type of diseases: Diabetic Retinopathy and Drusen.

Keywords: Drusen, Diabetic Retinopathy, retinal diseases, Teleopthamology
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38. Paper 21120921: Changing Neighbors k-Secure Sum Protocol for Secure Multi-Party Computation (pp. 239-243)
Full Text: PDF

Rashid Sheikh,& Beerendra Kumar, SSSIST, Sehore, INDIA 
Durgesh Kumar Mishra, Acropolis Institute of Technology and Research Indore, INDIA


Abstract- Secure sum computation of private data inputs is an important component of Secure Multi-party Computation (SMC).In this paper we provide a protocol to compute the sum of individual data inputs with zero probability of data leakage. In our proposed protocol we break input of each party into number of segments and change the arrangement of the parties such that in each round of the computation the neighbors are changed. In this protocol it becomes impossible for semi honest parties to know the private data of some other party. 

Keywords- Secure Multi-party Computation (SMC), Privacy, Computation Complexity, Semi honest Parties, k-Secure Sum Protocol, Information Security, Trusted Third Party (TTP).
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39. Paper 23120926: A Probabilistic Model For Sequence Analysis (pp. 244-247)
Full Text: PDF

Amrita Priyam, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, India.
B. M. Karan, Dept. of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, India
G. Sahoo, Dept. of Information Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, India


Abstract— This paper presents a probabilistic approach for DNA sequence analysis. A DNA sequence consists of an arrangement of the four nucleotides A, C, T and G and different representation schemes are presented according to a probability measure associated with them. There are different ways that probability can be associated with the DNA sequence: one way is when the probability of an occurrence of a letter does not depend on the previous one (termed as unsuccessive probability) and in another scheme the probability of occurrence of a letter depends on its previous letter (termed as successive probability). Further, based on these probability measures graphical representations of the schemes are also presented. Using the diagram probability measure one can easily calculate an associated probability measure which can serve as a parameter to check how close is a new sequence to already existing ones.

Keywords-Successive Probability; Unsuccessive Probability; Transition Probability; Digram Probability;
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40. Paper 24120927: Dual Watermarking Scheme with Encryption (pp. 248-253)
Full Text: PDF

R. Dhanalakshmi, PG Scholar, Dept of CSE, Sri Venkateswara college, Of Engineering, India
K. Thaiyalnayaki, Assistant Professor, Dept of IT, Sri Venkateswara college, of Engineering, India


Abstract- Digital Watermarking is used for copyright protection and authentication. In the proposed system, a Dual Watermarking Scheme based on DWT-SVD with chaos encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. DWT and SVD have been used as a mathematical tool to embed watermark in the image. Two watermarks are embedded in the host image. The secondary is embedded into primary watermark and the resultant watermarked image is encrypted using chaos based logistic map. This provides an efficient and secure way for image encryption and transmission. The watermarked image is decrypted and a reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for the extraction of the primary as well as secondary watermark from the distorted image.

Keywords:
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41. Paper 28011029: Effort minimization in UI development by reusing existing DGML based UI design for qualitative software development (pp. 254-261)
Full Text: PDF

P. K. Suri, Professor, Department of Computer Sc. & Application, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India
Gurdev Singh, Department of Computer Sc. & Application, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India


Abstract— This paper addresses the methodology for achieving the user interface design reusability of a qualitative software system and effort minimization by applying the inference on the stored design documents. The pictorial design documents are stored in a special format in the form of keyword text [DGML tag based design]. The design document storage mechanism will expose the keywords per design stored. This methodology is having an inference engine. Inference mechanism search for the requirements and find the match for them in the available design repository. A match found will success in reusing it after checking the quality parameters of the found design module in the result set. DGML notations produces qualitative designs which helps in minimizing the efforts of software development life cycle.

Keywords- User interface design, Reusable user interface, User interface design engineering, Qualitative user interface design repre-sentation, Qualitative design, Design inference, Effort minimi-zation in UI development.
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42. Paper 22120924: Medical Image Compression using Wavelet Decomposition for Prediction Method (pp. 262-265)
Full Text: PDF

S. M. Ramesh, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of ECE, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Erode, India
Dr. A. Shanmugam, Professor, Dept. of ECE, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Erode, India


Abstract— In this paper offers a simple and lossless compression method for compression of medical images. Method is based on wavelet decomposition of the medical images followed by the correlation analysis of coefficients. The correlation analyses are the basis of prediction equation for each sub band. Predictor variable selection is performed through coefficient graphic method to avoid multicollinearity problem and to achieve high prediction accuracy and compression rate. The method is applied on MRI and CT images. Results show that the proposed approach gives a high compression rate for MRI and CT images comparing with state of the art methods.

Keywords - Correlation coefficient, Selection of predictor, Variable, DPCM, Arithmetic coding.
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44. Paper 13050924: New System for Secure Cover File of Hidden Data in the Image Page within Executable File Using Statistical Steganography Techniques (pp. 273-279)
Full Text: PDF

Md. Rafiqul Islam, A.W. Naji, A. A. Zaidan and B. B. Zaidan
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), P.O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


ABSTRACT— A Previously traditional methods were sufficient to protect the information, since it is simplicity in the past does not need complicated methods but with the progress of information technology, it become easy to attack systems, and detection of encryption methods became necessary to find ways parallel with the differing methods used by hackers, so the embedding methods could be under surveillance from system managers in an organization that requires the high level of security. This fact requires researches on new hiding methods and cover objects which hidden information is embedded in. It is the result from the researches to embed information in executable files, but when will use the executable file for cover they have many challenges must be taken into consideration which is any changes made to the file will be firstly detected by untie viruses , secondly the functionality of the file is not still functioning. In this paper, a new information hiding system is presented. The aim of the proposed system is to hide information (data file) within image page of execution file (EXEfile) to make sure changes made to the file will not be detected by universe and the functionality of the exe.file is still functioning after hiding process. Meanwhile, since the cover file might be used to identify hiding information, the proposed system considers overcoming this dilemma by using the execution file as a cover file.

keyword: Information Hiding, portable executable file, Steganography, Statistical Technique.
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45. Paper 07011064: An innovative platform to improve the performance of exact-string-matching algorithms (pp. 280-283)
Full Text: PDF

Mosleh M. Abu-Alhaj 1, M. Halaiyqah 2, Muhannad A. Abu-Hashem 2, Adnan A. Hnaif 1, O. Abouabdalla 1, and Ahmed M. Manasrah.
1: National Advanced IPv6 Center of Excellence, 2: Computer Science
University Sains Malaysia, Penang Malaysia


Exact-String-Matching is an essential issue in many computer science applications. Unfortunately, the performance of Exact-String-Matching algorithms, namely, executing time, does not address the needs of these applications. This paper proposes a general platform for improving the existing Exact-String-Matching algorithms executing time, called the PXSMAlg platform. The function of this platform is to parallelize the Exact-String-Matching algorithms using the MPI model over the Master/Slaves paradigms. The PXSMAlg platform parallelization process is done by dividing the Text into several parts and working on these parts simultaneously. This improves the executing time of the Exact-String-Matching algorithms. We have simulated the PXSMAlg platform in order to show its competence, through applying the Quick Search algorithm on the PXSMAlg platform. The simulation result showed significant improvement in the Quick Search executing time, and therefore extreme competence in the PXSMAlg platform.

Keywords- String matching, Parallel, Quick search
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46. Paper 18011012: A MAC Layer Based Defense Architecture for Reduction-of-Quality (RoQ) Attacks in Wireless LAN (pp. 284-291)
Full Text: PDF

Jatinder Singh, Director, Universal Institute of Engg. & Tech. Lalru-CHD (India)
Dr. Savita Gupta, Prof. Deptt. Of Computer Engg., UIET, PunjabUniversity, CHD, India
Dr. Lakhwinder Kaur, Reader, UCOE, Punjabi University, Patiala, India


Abstract - Recently an alternative of DDoS attacks called shrew attacks or Reduction-of-Quality (RoQ) has been identified which is very much difficult to detect. The RoQ attacks can use source and destination IP address spoofing, and they do not have distinct periodicity, and may not filter the attack packets precisely. In this paper, we propose to design the MAC layer based defense architecture for RoQ attacks in Wireless LAN which includes the detection and response stages. The attackers are detected by checking the RTS/CTS packets from the MAC layer and the corresponding attack flows are blocked or rejected. By our simulation results, we show that our proposed technique achieves reduces the attack throughput there by increasing the received bandwidth and reducing the packet loss of legitimate users.
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47. Paper 06011052: Application of k-Means Clustering algorithm for prediction of Students’ Academic Performance (pp. 292-295)
Full Text: PDF

Oyelade, O. J, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria.
Oladipupo, O. O, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria.
Obagbuwa, I. C, Department of Computer Science, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria.


Abstract— The ability to monitor the progress of students’ academic performance is a critical issue to the academic community of higher learning. A system for analyzing students’ results based on cluster analysis and uses standard statistical algorithms to arrange their scores data according to the level of their performance is described. In this paper, we also implemented k-mean clustering algorithm for analyzing students’ result data. The model was combined with the deterministic model to analyze the students’ results of a private Institution in Nigeria which is a good benchmark to monitor the progression of academic performance of students in higher Institution for the purpose of making an effective decision by the academic planners.

Keywords- k – mean, clustering, academic performance, algorithm. 

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49. Paper 06011099: Evolutionary Computation Algorithms for Cryptanalysis: A Study (pp. 306-310 )
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Poonam Garg, Information Technology and Management Dept., Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad - India
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Abstract -The cryptanalysis of various cipher problems can be formulated as NP-Hard combinatorial problem. Solving such problems requires time and/or memory requirement which increases with the size of the problem. Techniques for solving combinatorial problems fall into two broad groups – exact algorithms and Evolutionary Computation algorithms. An exact algorithms guarantees that the optimal solution to the problem will be found. The exact algorithms like branch and bound, simplex method, brute force etc methodology is very inefficient for solving combinatorial problem because of their prohibitive complexity (time and memory requirement). The Evolutionary Computation algorithms are employed in an attempt to find an adequate solution to the problem. A Evolutionary Computation algorithm - Genetic algorithm, simulated annealing and tabu search were developed to provide a robust and efficient
methodology for cryptanalysis. The aim of these techniques to find sufficient “good” solution efficiently with the characteristics of the problem, instead of the global optimum
solution, and thus it also provides attractive alternative for the large scale applications. This paper focuses on the methodology of Evolutionary Computation algorithms .

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Keywords : Cryptanalysis, Meta-Heuristic Optimization Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm, Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing

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