IJCSIS EDITORIAL BOARD

BEST PAPER AWARD

Vol. 9 No. 8 AUG 2011

Vol. 9 No. 8 August 2011 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication August 2011, Volume 9 No. 8 (Download Full Journal) (Archive) (Download 2)

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Copyright © IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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1. Paper 19071101: Working in an Inter-Organisational Context: The Relevance of IT Governance and Business-IT Alignment (pp. 1-4)
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Carl Stolze, Novica Zarvić, Oliver Thomas
Fachgebiet Informationsmanagement und Wirtschaftsinformatik
University of Osnabrueck
Osnabrueck, Germany

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Abstract — In an ever more globalized world value creation in inter-organizational environments is more and more becoming the norm. In this paper we examine the relevance of IT governance and Business-IT Alignment in those inter-organizational contexts. We compare practitioners’ and academics’ evaluation of certain statements as a first stage of research to look into potential differences in perception and derive future research opportunities.
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Keywords: enterprise architecture, alignment, governance
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2. Paper 25071118: Efficient Cryptographic Technique for Securing and Accessing Outsourced Data (pp. 5-10)
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Hasan Omar Al-Sakran, Fahad Bin Muhaya, Irina Serguievskaia
Management Information Systems Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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Abstract —
Today there is an eminent need for providing efficient access to and securing large amounts of outsourced data, especially when interacting with untrusted servers. In this paper, we propose a mechanism to solve this problem. We propose an efficient encryption system that enables searching and moving encrypted data without violations of privacy. We assume that this system is working in an untrusted environment. The untrusted server cannot learn anything about the encrypted data or about the encrypted queries. The efficiency of the proposed system is achieved through the use hashing technique, which enable the answering of queries in constant time regardless of the data size.
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Keywords - security; data outsourcing; privacy; untrusted severs; access control; hash function.
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3. Paper 24071115: A New Expert System for Pediatric Respiratory Diseases by Using Neural Network (pp. 11-17)
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A. A. Radwan (1), H. M. El Bakry (2), H. M. El Hadad (3)
(1) Dean, Faculty of computer science and information system, Minia University, Minia, Egypt
(2) Department of Information System, Faculty of Computer Science & Information Systems, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
(3) Faculty of Computer science, Nahda University, Beni- Suef, Egypt

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Abstract — The successful application of data mining in highly visible fields like e-business and marketing have led to the popularity of its use in knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) in other industries and sectors. Among these sectors that are just discovering data mining are the fields of medicine and public health. The medical industries collect huge amounts of healthcare data which, unfortunately, are not “mined” to discover hidden information. We can describe this data as being ‘information rich’ yet ‘knowledge poor’. In the present study, we briefly examine the use of the most important data mining techniques such as Artificial Neural Network to massive volume of data in medical field which is pediatric respiratory disease. After we had trained the network with 699 cases contains input vector and target vector, we tested it with 20 cases without the target vector. The output of the tested cases is one of the following eight examinations (bronchiolitis, pneumonia, acute epiglottitis, pleurisy, emphysema, acute laryngotracheobronchitis, bronchial asthma and bronchiectasis). The present data explained that 90% of all test cases represent the correct examination. This mean that the experimental results on this medical data illustrate that neural networks are important in Diagnosis of medical data, especially for a large amount of data in a high-dimensional space.
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Keywords-component; Data mining, artificial neural network, medical application respiratory diseases
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4. Paper 25071122: “Chain of Digital Evidence” Based Model of Digital Forensic Investigation Process (pp. 18-24)
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Jasmin Ćosić , IT Section of Police Administration, Ministry of Interior of Una-sana canton, Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Zoran Ćosić, director, Statheros d.o.o., Kaštel Stari, Croatia
Miroslav Bača, Faculty of Organization and Informatics, University of Zagreb, Varaždin, Croatia

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Abstract - Computer forensics is essential for the successful prosecution of criminals in computer (cyber) crime. Digital investigation process must be done in a lawful way, and some proposed steps must be followed in order for evidence to be accepted by the court of law. The digital forensic investigation process will be successful, if we follow simple rules. The aim of this paper is to compare different existing models and framework developed in recent years and propose a new framework based on “chain of digital evidence”. This Framework will be modeled using a UML – Use Case and Activity diagrams. The authors also warns of certain shortcomings and suggests some recommendation for further research.
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Keywords- digital forensic; computer forensic; models of digital forensic; cyber crime investigation; digital forensic framework.
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5. Paper 26071123: Constructivist-Based Framework for Teaching Computer Science (pp. 25-31)
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Anuja Meetoo-Appavoo, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mauritius
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Abstract — The business world is constantly evolving and is increasingly complex. Computer science graduates are expected to demonstrate competencies to efficiently solve business problems and communicate intelligently with IT professionals. However, education has been criticised for failing the task. The traditional method of teaching may not be appropriate for teaching computer science and meet the requirements of the business world. Constructivism provides an alternative foundation for rethinking and redesigning teaching practices. This paper proposes a constructivist-based framework for teaching computer science that exploits students’ existing knowledge from real-life and explicitly addresses the process of knowledge construction. It eventually fosters further growth and development of the students’ mind.
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Keywords-component; Learning theories, constructivism, computer science education, framework.
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6. Paper 30071146: Effects and Evaluation of a Pre-School Education Program Using an E-learning System (pp. 32-38)
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Keiichi Shounai, Masahiko Sugimoto, Hidetaka Kobayashi, Mamoru Fujita, Satoshi Kotaki
Takushoku University Hokkaido Junior College, Fukagawa-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
Manabu Ishihara, Oyama National College of Technology, Oyama-shi, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan

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Abstract — At universities, new students’ scholastic achievements have become more varied because of the university’s increased entrance ratio. Each university must now work to improve new students’ scholastic achievements. This study aims to develop a system to ensure new students’ scholastic achievements. We implemented the pre-school education program using an e-learning system in the three months before entering a university and investigated the program’s effects. The targets include the participating and non-participating new students. The investigation data are students’ attendance and question responses after entering college. Results of attendance and question response data showed that participating new students maintained study habits after entering school.
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Keywords: e-learning system, pre-school education program, question presentation, study habit maintenance, obtain college entry requirements
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7. Paper 31071160: Secure Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks: State of the art and future works (pp. 39-44)
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Merad Boudia Omar Rafik, STIC Laboratory, University of Tlemcen, Algeria
Feham Mohammed, STIC Laboratory, University of Tlemcen, Algeria

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Abstract – Recently, solutions based on the aggregation of encrypted data have been proposed to reduce the cost of communication while maintaining data confidentiality. These solutions improve network security by using homomorphic encryption (i.e, without decrypting the ciphertext). The latter provides algebraic calculations directly on the encrypted data. During the past five years, several results have proven that elliptic curves cryptography is feasible on devices with limited resources such as wireless sensor networks (WSN). In this paper, we develop and discuss current solutions based on the mechanisms mentioned above and we discuss prospects for this area of research.
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Keywords; Wireless Sensor Network ; WSN ; homomorphic encryption; Elliptic Curve Cryptography; ECC; Data aggregation.
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8. Paper 31071167: Enforcing Learning Activities Policies in Runtime Monitoring System for E-learning Environments (pp. 45-53)
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Turki Alghamdi, Hussien Zedan, Ali Alzahrani
Software Technology Research Laboratory, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK LE1 9BH

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Abstract — Most educational institutes are involved with both the e-learning and classroom-based learning methods. Nowadays, quality and flexibility properties become essential in learning. The classroom-based learning lack in flexibility but offers a good quality in learning process. On the other hand, developing the e-learning system to meet the efficiency in both quality and flexibility is the attention for researchers. To overcome the deficiency in the quality property in e-learning system, we provide in this paper a runtime monitoring system which based on learning activities policy to attains both quality and manageability properties with respect of flexibility property. Obviously, keeping track of learning activities performed by student can prevent problems that affect the student progress. In addition, learning activity policy can control the learning behaviour of the student.
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Keywords — Learning Activity, Policy, Runtime Monitoring, Student Tracking, VLE
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9. Paper 24071116: A General Architecture For Decision Making During Sports (pp. 54-59)
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Mohammed Y Aalsalem, School of Computer Science, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Wazir Zada Khan, School of Computer Science, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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Abstract — Ubiquitous computing technologies are getting more and more popular and are slowly penetrating in all the fields of daily human life. In recent years a reasonable amount of research is done in the field of sports using ubiquitous computing. This research work is a mere effort for automated decision making during sports of most common interest leveraging ubiquitous computing. In this paper, we have proposed a general architecture that helps referees or umpires of different games in making justice on a field ground and taking good and accurate decisions. Our proposed architecture consists of four layers i.e. Data generation/ acquisition layer, data communication layer, data processing layer and data presentation or reporting layer. Each layer has its own functionality and works independently. The proposed architecture can be applied to various games for accurate decisions.
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Keywords- Ubiquitous Computing; General Architecture; Decision Making; Context Awareness; Sports.
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10. Paper 31071168: Performances Evaluation of Enhanced Basic Time Space Priority combined with an AQM (pp. 60-66)
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Said El Kafhali, Mohamed Hanini, Abdelali El Bouchti, Abdelkrim Haqiq
Computer, Networks, Mobility and Modeling laboratory
Department of Mathematics and Computer
FST, Hassan 1st University, Settat, Morocco
e-NGN Research group, Africa and Middle East

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Abstract — Active Queue Management (AQM) is an efficient tool in the network to avoid saturation of the queue by warning the sender that the queue is almost full to reduce its speed before the queue is full. The buffer management schemes focus on space management, in the other hand scheduling priorities (focusing on time management) attempt to guarantee acceptable delay boundaries to applications for which it is important that delay is bounded. Combined mechanisms (time and space management) are possible and enable networks to improve the perceived quality for multimedia traffic at the end users. The key idea in this paper is to study the performance of a mechanism combining an AQM with a time-space priority scheme applied to multimedia flows transmitted to an end user in HSDPA network. The studied queue is shared by Real Time and Non Real Time packets. We propose a mathematical model using Poisson and MMPP processes to model the arrival of packets in the system. The performance parameters are analytically deducted for the Combined EB-TSP and compared to the case of Simple EB-TSP. Numerical results obtained show the positive impact of the AQM added to the EB-TSP on the performance parameters of NRT packets compared to the Simple EB-TSP.
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Keywords-component; HSDPA; Multimedia Flow; Congestion Control ; QoS; MMPP; Active Queue Management; Queueing Theory; Performance Parameters.
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11. Paper 25071120: A System for Social Network Extraction of Web Complex Structures (pp. 67-75)
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Amir Ansari, Mehrdad Jalali
Department of Software Engineering, Mashhad Branch - Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

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Abstract — A social network is social structure composed of nodes which generally are individually or organizationally and are connected based on several common traits. Currently, social networks are applied in wide parts of the web. Its popularity is due to discovery of connections hidden in the web and its representation in a visual manner. Social networks are used in many levels from households to nations. They play an important role in finding solutions to problems, management of organizations and in individual’s success rate to meet their goals. It is difficult to define social web structure and resulting structures are often very complex, unperceivable and unusable. They are usually limited to specific usage and production steps of a network for each structure are not provided comprehensively and homogenously. In present study we present a comprehensive system to discover social networks from each structure and we have used web usage mining techniques to discover hidden data existing in web server log file and used these data to remove social network challenges. In this system, a novel architecture has been provided for users clustering. We will use site structure to achieve better results and delete users review pages. Results of analysis indicate that this kind of discovery can be used for most applications and structures and this system will discover all available connections in web site as much as possible.
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Keywords- Social Network, Social Network extraction, Social Network Analysis, Web Usage Mining
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12. Paper 28071131: Protecting the Content - Using Digest Authentication System and Other Techniques (pp. 76-85)
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Raman Kumar, Naman Kumar and Neetika Vats
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
D A V Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab, India.

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Abstract - With the upcoming technologies available for hacking passwords, there is a need to provide users with a secure environment that protect their resources against unauthorized access by enforcing control mechanisms. The security sensitive environments protect their resources against malicious user. To counteract the increasing threat, digest authentication provides an alternate method for protecting your web content, has proved to be an asset as it is user friendly. It provides client a completely unique and secured authentication tool to work on. This paper however proposes a hypothesis regarding the use of digest authentication technique. This forms the basis for a secure communication between the communicating entities. Several password authentication protocols have been introduced each claiming to withstand to the several attacks, including replay, password file compromise, denial of service, etc. In essence, we present an improvement to digital authentication system using secure shell and configuring certificate authentication. Therefore, the proposed system is secure and efficient against notorious conspiracy attacks.
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Keywords: Secure Shell (SSH), Digest Authentication, htaccess, server, client and Other Attacks.
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13. Paper 31071161: Model Based Cancer Data Classification using Advanced ART Neural Network based Technique (pp. 86-91)
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Sandhia Valsala, College of Computer Studies, AMA International University, Salamabad, Kingdom of Bahrain
Dr. Sayed Sayeed Ahmed, College of Computing, Al Ghurair University, Dubai, UAE

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Abstract — In today's world, in which computerized recognition is expanding its horizons in the field of medicine, breast cancer classification is receiving wide attention. In this application, artificial neural networks have achieved reasonable recognition rates. Classification of cancerous cells as either malignant or benign is a serious and life-altering decision. However, to improve performance, a technique is needed to screen the features of the input data, to extract the important ones and suppress those that are irrelevant. In this paper, we used Neural network based on ART (Adaptive Resonance Theory), to design the proposed cancer data classification system. The Performance of the classification algorithm was tested with the breast cancer database called “Wisconsin Breast Cancer Database”. We evaluated the performance and compared the results of classification of the breast cancer data using k-means and ART.
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Keywords: Classification, Neural network, malignant, benign
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14. Paper 31071163: Electronic-City and its Importance to Achieve the Information Society (pp. 92-95)
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Mohammad Behrouzian Nejad, Young Researchers Club, Dezfoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezfoul, Iran
Ebrahim Behrouzian Nejad, Department of Computer Engineering, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

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Abstract — Providing information and communication technology is advancing rapidly and the world communities are undergoing dramatic changes. Today, one of the main factors in development and growing rapidly is the electronic industry. Electronic-City is also one of the achievements of modern information technology is in use. Factors such as: population growth and increasing urbanization, the problems for many citizens and administrators has created. Electronic-City, one of the needs of managers and citizens and used to supply services to the city. Electronic-City, as a society need to enter the third millennium and the information is known. In this paper we try to study concepts, practices, benefits, limitations and the necessity of using force in Electronic-City, to examine our information society, to guide to effective enforcement of implementation of the Electronic-City to suit the circumstances in which we correct decision on how to apply, implement and develop it to adopt.
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Keywords- Electronic-City, Electronic Citizen, Information Society, Information Technology.
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15. Paper 20071109: Predictive Analytical Model for Requirement Volatility in ICT Projects (pp. 96-104)
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Malaya Kumar Nayak and Sanghamitra Mohanty,
Department of Computer Science & Applications, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India

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Abstract — The requirement development and management are very important to the software development of ICT projects. One of the root cause of failure of the ICT software project is the ignorance of the identifying the important requirements of the clients when the requirements are of dynamic nature. The proposed research article discusses about one such issue called requirement volatility. In real-time practice, very often there are changes in the requirement which effect software components to be redesigned incurring higher cost in projects. Higher requirement volatility will cause the resulting software to have higher defect density. The research article highlights one predictive based model for requirement volatility, which is based on regression analysis of the operational point’s changes. The simulation results show the better accuracy of predicting the requirement volatility as well as assist in establishing requirement stability in ICT projects.
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Keywords— Risk planning, ICT, Cost estimation, Project planning, Requirement volatility
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16. Paper 26071127: Software Requirement Analysis Enhancements by Prioritizing Requirement Attributes Using Rank Based Agents (pp. 105-114)
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Ashok Kumar, Department of Computer Science and Applications, Department of Computer Science and Applications
Vinay Goyal, Department of MCA, Panipat Institute of Engineering & Technology, Panipat, India

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Abstract - This paper proposes a new technique in the domain of Agent oriented software engineering. Agents work in autonomous environments and can respond to agent triggers. Agents can be very useful in requirement analysis phase of software development process, where they can react towards the requirement triggers and result in aligned notations to identify the best possible design solution from existing designs. Agent helps in design generation process, which includes the use of Artificial intelligence. The results produced clearly shows the improvements over the conventional reusability principles and ideas.
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17. Paper 27071130: Tag Recommendation System for Social Annotation System (pp. 115-120)
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Ali Kohi, Department of Software Engineering, Mashhad Branch - Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Mehrdad Jalali, Department of Software Engineering, Mashhad Branch - Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Seyed Javad Ebrahimi, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Mashhad Branch - Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

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Abstract — Recently applications of social tagging systems have increased. These systems allow users to organize, manage and search the required resource freely, thus by combination and integration of recommendation systems in social software, assisting users to appropriately assign tag to resources and try to improve annotation among users. The challenges of recommendation systems are large-scale data, inconsistence data, usage of time-consuming machine learning algorithms, long and unreasonable time of recommendation and not being scalable to the demands of real world applications. Recently more efforts have been conducted to solve these problems. In this paper we proposed a tag recommendation system that is able to work with large-scale data and being applied in real world. The proposed system’s evaluation performed on a dataset collected from Delicious.com. The results demonstrated the efficiency and accuracy of proposed system.
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Keywords- collaborative-based; collaborative tagging system; folksonomies; recommendation system; social tagging system; tag recommender
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18. Paper 28071132: Green Computing Approach to Improve Algorithmic Efficiency through Associating Rule Mining (pp. 121-128)
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Latika Mehrotra, Computer Science Department Central India Institute of Technology, Indore M.P, India
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Abstract - Green computing is the action of using computing resources skillfully. Contemporary IT systems have confidence in a difficult mix of people, hardware and networks, virtually a green computing action must be systemic in nature, and address more and more cultured problems. Green computing is the absolute requirement to take care of environment and save energy along with operational expenses in today's increasingly competitive world. The focus of computation has shifted to efficient power consumption, less computations by improving Algorithmic efficiency and alternative energy sources. In this paper an effort is made to show how a product can remain green in all of its four stages that is designing, manufacturing & implementation, utilizing and disposal. Fining frequent item set is a key issue in data mining; the Apriori algorithms use candidate itemsets to generate Frequent item set, but this approach is highly time-consuming because of self joining and prunining . To look for an algorithm that can avoid the generating of vast volume of candidate item sets, DSIM (Data-Set Intersection Method) algorithm uses set intersection method to find the maximal frequent item set. This process is performed by deleting items in infrequent 1-itemset and merging duplicate transaction repeatedly; the process is performed by generating intersections of transactions and deleting unneeded subsets recursively. This algorithm differs from all other methods which are used for discovering maximal frequent itemset. Also Showing how various kinds and sizes of monitors can reduce the power consumption. Reduction in power consumption not only increases system stability but also lowers the heat dissipation. Thus reducing energy consumption, save money and lessen the impact on environment. Also creating awareness to the end user by showing how much difference the back light makes to the power consumption. Thus encouraging green computing.
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Index Terms—Green computing, product life cycle, data mining, maximum frequent itemsets, candidate itemsets, intersection
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19. Paper 30061153: Implementation of Dynamic Time Warping for Video Indexing (pp. 129-134)
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S. Prasanna, Research Scholar, Department of MCA, Vels university, Chennai-600117, India
Dr. S. Purushothaman, Principal, Sun College of Engineering, and Technology, KK District-629902, India
Dr. A. Jothi, Dean, School of Computing Sciences, Vels university, Chennai-600117, India

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Abstract - This paper presents implementation of dynamic time warping method (DTWM) to identify a video frame from a set of videos. The input for the search of a frame is speech uttered by persons. DTWM is applied to audio contents of various frames. The length of audio information will not be same at different instances. In such situation DTWM approach will be much better compared to template method. In order to improve the performance of DTWM, Radial basis function has been used. The performance of the proposed system is based on the quality of the audio stored inside the frames.
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Keywords – Dynamic Time Warping Methods, Audio indexing, Video retrieval, Speech recognition.

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20. Paper 30071144: A Study about Developing Trends in Information Retrieval from Google to Swoogle (pp. 135-140)
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S. Kalarani, Department of Information Technology, St. Joseph’s Institute of Technology, Chennai - 119
Dr. G. V. Uma, Department of IST, Anna University, Chennai 26

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Abstract — Information retrieval technology has been central to the success of the Web. Web 2.0 is defined as the innovative use of the World Wide Web to expand social and business growth and to explore collective intelligence from the community. The features of Web 2.0 include user behavior and software design perspectives. A high level technical architecture is included in Web 2.0 features. Google Web Search is a web search engine owned by Google Inc. and is the most-used search engine on the Web. Google receives several hundred million queries each day through its various services. The main purpose of Google Search is to hunt for text in WebPages. Also the functionality of Google search engine in retrieving the information is based on the 3 principles. Keyword Search, where the search engine examines its index and provides a listing of best-matching web pages according to its criteria, usually with a short summary containing the document's title and sometimes parts of the text. The index is built from the information stored with the data and the method by which the information is indexed. Page Rank is a link analysis algorithm, used by the Google Internet search engine that assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents. In simple words this means that your results will be ordered by the relative importance of your search terms in the document. Google also uses Indexing. It has an index of all pages it's crawled based on the terms in each page. Inverted index technique is now replaced and stores the information as stems. Another principle is finally, we point out the limitations of the current technologies in order to analyze the new technology development in the Web 3.0 model. The core of the Semantic Web is “ontology”. Also the requirements of ontology in the context of the Web are outlined. Advantages of using ontology in both knowledge-base-style and database-style applications are demonstrated using one real world application.
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Keywords-component; Keyword search, knowledge base, indexing, inverted index, ontology, page ranks, stemming, Web 2.0, Web 3.0-based on ontology.
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21. Paper 31071158: Data Mining and its Application in Banking Industry: A Survey (pp. 141-145)
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Mohammad Behrouzian Nejad, Young Researchers Club, Dezfoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezfoul, Iran
Ebrahim Behrouzian Nejad, Department of Computer Engineering, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran
Mehdi Sadeghzadeh, Faculty Member of Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr Branch, Mahshahr, Iran

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Abstract — Human progress in recent decades in the field of collecting and storing data and results, has led to dramatically increase the size of the database. Importantly, this large database, information and knowledge that can be extracted from them, to do this, the use of intelligent and structured approach is needed. Data Mining, a new scientific field of information retrieval is the database. Data Mining can extract the information in the database and data related to critical business knowledge needed to become. Through Data Mining, organizations and banks in particular, to extract hidden information from large databases, customers can determine their value and to predict their future behavior. In this paper, basic concepts, advantages, limitations and Data Mining applications in various industries and the banking industry, especially in the areas of marketing and customer relationship management, risk management, fraud detection, and gain and retain customers is introduced and studied.
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Keywords- Data Mining, Database, Banking Industry, Customer Relationship Management
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23. Paper 31071165: Experimental Study of Various Data Masking Techniques with Random Replacement using Data Volume (pp. 154-158)
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Ravikumar G K & Dr. B. Justus Rabi, Dr MGR University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Dr.Ravindra S. Hegadi, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
Manjunath T.N & Archana R A, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

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Abstract - Data masking is the process of protecting sensitive data from thefts and hackers. The main objective is to protect the privacy of individuals and security of society which is becoming crucial for effective function over the internet. Privacy enforcement today is being handled primarily through governments legally. We aim to provide uniform data masking architecture for masking the sensitive data like finance, retail, insurance securities etc. For development or testing purposes and study of various data masking techniques for different applications and their comparison study using statistical parameters. In this paper, we study the comparison of various data masking techniques using data samples for analysis. The results strongly suggest random replacement method can be used across the domains starting from critical businesses like finance, banking and securities...etc. We have proposed an algorithm for random replacement. As the advent of onsiteoffshore business model has resulted in security of sensitive data concerns on the part of the clients storing data with third party database service providers. No research has done on the comparison study of various data masking techniques which give a comfortable confidence to the customers for off shoring, we have been successful in this direction and have compared the random replacement method with other methods like encryption, shuffling, scrubling, order of masking with respect to sample data patterns and the results strongly emphasize the ‘Random Replacement’ as one of the standard method for data masking with the highest order of security.
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Keywords- Data Masking; Shuffling; Substitution; Testing; Random Replacement.
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24. Paper 31071171: Comparision Analysis of Contrast Restoration of Weather Degraded Images using Histogram and MSRCR algorithm (pp. 159-164)
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Charanpreet Kaur, Electronics and Communication Engg., IET, Bhaddal, Ropar, India.
Danvir Mandal, Electronics and Communication Engg., IET, Bhaddal, Ropar, India.

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Abstract — In outdoor environment vision system, weather effects are complex noise. They degrade the performance of vision algorithm such as feature detection, segmentation and object recognition. Removal of rain streaks in video is a challenging problem due to the random spatial distribution and fast motion of rain but removal of rain from image is more challenging. As we know, each drop refracts and reflects the environment, producing sharp intensity changes in an pixel in video. We can get the original value of pixel from one frame of the video or the other but in case of single frame i.e. image, we cannot get the original value of pixel if once corrupted either with rain, fog, mist, snow. In this paper we have used histogram method and MSRCR method to remove rain from image on the basis of chromatic property of rain. After comparing the results we come to know that histogram method is giving more efficient results in comparison with other algorithm. Our work is applicable where we deal with the performance of vision such as feature detection, segmentation, and object recognition. These algorithms are also applicable in case of tracking and surveillance so as to make the vision application more efficient.
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Keywords- Chromatic property, PSNR, Entropy, histogram values, tracking and surveillance.
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25. Paper 31071176: Implementation of Image processing techniques in the automatic meter reading employed in critical & hazardous processes (pp. 165-170)
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S. Arun, Research Scholar, Singhania University & Assistant Professor VelTech High Tech, Chennai
Dr. VenuGopla Rao.M , Supervisor, Singhania University & Professor KL University, Hyderabad

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Abstract - This thesis dissertation discusses research in the automation of reading a energy meter. The hardware required is a wireless camera pointed at the meter to be read. This meter can be a water, electricity or gas meter. After the wireless camera collects the image from the utility meter it transmits the image to a computer through a receiver. The computer analyzes the image with pattern recognition technology to obtain the numbers. We use image processing techniques in this thesis, including image preprocessing, image segmentation (Otsu threshold method),and number recognition. Finally we create a graphical user interface using Visual Basic. In order to realize this goal we use a method called pattern recognition in this thesis. Pattern recognition is a technology which includes face, voice, and fingerprint recognition. Today it is being applied to more and more fields than ever before, and we use number recognition in this thesis. Number recognition has been widely used in identification, asset management, highway toll management, access management, and pet management just to name a few.
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Keywords: Recognition Technology, Pattern Recognition, Otsu
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26. Paper 31071180: Biometrics In Fingerprint Recognition Using Distance Vector Method (pp. 171-176)
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Sumeet Dhawan, Dept. of Information Technology, Adesh Institute of Engineering & Technology, Faridkot, India
Amit Makkar, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Adesh Institute of Engineering & Technology, Faridkot, India

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Abstract - A lot of fingerprint features have been defined for the representation of the fingerprint. Among the features, ridge ending and ridge bifurcation are the most widely used ones. These features are known as minutiae points. Utilizing more information other than minutiae is much helpful for large scale fingerprint recognition application. By considering some predefined features one can derive new features for the verification of the fingerprint. In this thesis, we proposed a new feature for fingerprint images. This new feature is named as Distance Vector. A Distance Vector counts the minutiae points in each row of a particular fingerprint image. A Distance Vector is associated with every fingerprint in the database. At the time of enrollment this feature is stored with the concerned fingerprint and at the time of matching this feature is matched with the Distance Vector of each fingerprint in the template database. This process increases the reliability of the fingerprint recognition task. In the first stages, image normalization and orientation of the ridges are estimated.
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Keywords- Biometrics; Optical Character Recognition; DIP-Digital Image Processing; Minutiae; Fingerprint Identification Recognition
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27. Paper 31071182: Review of e-Government Policy and Outcomes in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (pp. 177-181)
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Mohammed Ateeq Alanezi, Ahmad Kamil Mahmood, Shuib Basri
Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Malaysia

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Abstract - Public sector organizations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were directed to place their communications and services online in 2005, in part to promote internet-based technologies throughout the country. Due to political and technical issues, the internet was late to the region; however, the advent of useful and affordable mobile devices accelerated private and commercial take up of data-sharing technologies, and Saudi Arabia currently has one of the highest national growth rates in this regard. Late adoption means that the Kingdom bypassed many early issues of large-scale technological change as managers could select from a range of proven technologies, nevertheless the traditionalist Saudi society remained until recently largely unconvinced of the benefits of the internet. Using the two aspects of rapidly improving technological infrastructure and a reticent family-based national consumer profile, this paper relates the progress of internet-based adoption in an emerging market through the prism of e-government status in Saudi Arabia. The issues raised in the context of Saudi Arabia have application in the Arab world and other emerging markets, especially Islamic.
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Keywords: e-government in Saudi Arabia; internet usage; website quality standards.
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28. Paper 31071183: 3D Parity Bit Structure: A novel technique to correct maximal number of bits in a simpler way (pp. 182-186)
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Dr. Pushpa R. Suri, Dept. of Computer Sc. & Applications, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India
Sukhvinder Singh Deora, Dept. of Computer Applications, NC Institute of Computer Sciences, Israna, Panipat, India
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Abstract — Transmission of bits over the Internet is vulnerable to errors due to various reasons. The use of Parity bits was suggested to detect and correct some of the error. This paper discusses a novel 3D Parity Bit Approach, which enhances the chances of detecting and correcting large number of bits in a 3D block of bits. We use the 3D Arrays to first organize the bits to be transmitted and then calculate its 3D parity bit structure. The information along with the 3D parity bits is transmitted and used at the receiver’s end to detect and correct possible erroneous bits. The proposed technique is simple to use as compared to other techniques and give commendable results too.
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Keywords- Error detection and correction, Parity bit, checksums, Cyclic Redundancy Codes (CRC), 3D Array.
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29. Paper 31071184: Facial Tracking Using Echostate Neural Network (pp. 187-193)
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P. Mayilvahanan, Research scholar, Dept. of MCA, VELS University, Pallavaram, Chennai, India
Dr. S. Purushothaman, Principal, Sun College of Engineering & Technology, Kanyakumari – 629902, Tamil Nadu, India.
Dr. A. Jothi, Dean, School of Computing Sciences, VELS University, Pallavaram, Chennai, India

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Abstract -- This paper implements facial tracking in video using Echostate neural network(ESNN). There is no unique method that claims perfect facial tracking in video transfer. The local features of a frame are segmented. A ratio is found based on a criteria and output of ESNN is used for transferring the necessary information of the frame from one system to another system. A decision approach, with a threshold, is used to detect if there is any change in the local object of the successive frames. The performance of the algorithm in reconstructing the tracked object is about 95%.
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Keywords- Echostate neural network; Watershed algorithm; Motion Estimation.
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30. Paper 16031111: Simulation based review for analyzing the performance of routing protocols for MANETs (pp. 194-202)
Full Text: PDF

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Sonika Kandari, Mahadevi Institute of Technology, Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
M.K. Pandey, PhD Guide, Director-Computer Science & Application, Amrapali Institute of Management and Computer Application, Uttarakhand Technical University, Uttarakhand

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Abstract— The recent area of mobile computing has become more important following the recent widespread drive towards mobile and adhoc networks, wireless sensor networks and vehicular ad hoc networks tracking technologies and their Applications. The availability of high bandwidth 3G infrastructure and the pervasive deployment of low cost Wi-Fi infrastructure around the world serve to accelerate the development of Mobile Computing. Mobile routing protocols are attracting the attention of research community. One of the major challenges facing mobile ad-hoc networks is the absence of a proper routing protocol that may provide good quality of service. Mobile ad hoc networking technologies have increasingly been applied to both military and civilian applications, and the requirements of providing better services in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are growing, accordingly. However, the nature of MANET, which are highly dynamic topologies, raise many challenges in developing efficient, reliable and scalable routing protocols for MANETs. In the MANET, cooperation between the nodes is required to route multi-hop messages from the source to destination due to the limited transmission range of each node.
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Keywords- ad hoc network ; mobility ; MANET ; proactive; reactive ; uni-casting multicasting, routing protocol
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31. Paper 19071102: Noise Reduction in Fast Fading Channel Using OFDM/TDM (pp. 203-215)
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Mr. A. Sagaya selvaraj, Department of Electronics and Communication Engg., IFET College of Engineering, Villupuram -108, Research Scholar, Anna University, Chennai, India
Dr. R.S.D. Wahidabanu, Department of Electronics and Communication Engg., Govt.College of Engg. Salem-1, Anna University, Coimbatore, India

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Abstract - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) modulation is being used more and more in telecommunication, wired and wireless.. OFDM can be implemented easily, it is spectrally efficient and can provide high data rates with sufficient robustness to channel imperfections. MMSE-FDE can improve the transmission performance of OFDM combination with time division multiplexing (OFDM/TDM). To improve the tracking ability against fast fading robust pilot-assisted channel estimation is done that uses time-domain filtering on a slot-by-slot basis and frequency-domain interpolation. The mean square error (MSE) of the channel estimator is obtained and then a tradeoff between improving the tracking ability against fading and the noise reduction is done. BER is calculated by mat lab simulator and compared with conventional OFDM. It is proved that the OFDM/TDM using MMSE-FDE achieves a lower BER and provides better tracking ability against fast fading.
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Keywords: Orthoganal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM), BER (Bit Error Rate), MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error), Feedback Decision Equalization
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32. Paper 31071175: T-Fuzzy Subsemiautomata with Thresholds (pp. 216-220)
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M. Basheer Ahamed, Department of Mathematics, University of Tabuk, Tabuk-71491, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
J. Michael Anna Spinneli, Department of Mathematics, Karunya University, Coimbatore-641114, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Abstract - Rosenfeld introduced fuzzy subgroup in the year 1971. Bhakat and Das introduced (Î,Î,Úq) fuzzy subgroup in 1996. In 2003 Yuan introduced fuzzy subgroup with thresholds. Bao Qing Hu introduced T- fuzzy subgroup with thresholds in the year 2010. In this paper we have defined T-fuzzy kernel with thresholds and T-fuzzy subsemiautomata with thresholds and some results concerning them.
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Key words: T-fuzzy subgroup with threshold; T-fuzzy kernel with thresholds and T-fuzzy subsemiautomata with thresholds.
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33. Paper 31071148: Analysis of a Novel Hash Function Based upon Chaotic Nonlinear Map with Variable Parameter (pp. 221-228)
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M. Nouri, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Iran
S. Abazari Aghdam, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, South Tehran Islamic Azad University, Iran
P. Pourmahdi, Electrical Engineering Department, A.B.A, Institude of Higher Education, Tehran, Iran
M. Safarinia, Electrical Engineering Department, A.B.A, Institude of Higher Education, Tehran, Iran

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Abstract — In this paper a parallel Hash algorithm construction based on chaotic maps with variable parameters is proposed and analyzed. The two core characteristics of the recommended algorithm are parallel processing mode and chaotic behaviors. A chaos system also creates a random behavior subsequently, but at the same time a chaos system is wholly deterministic. Moreover in this paper, an algorithm for one way hash function construction based on chaos theory is introduced. The proposed algorithm contains variable parameters dynamically obtained from the position index of the corresponding message blocks. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the algorithm can assure all performance requirements of hash function in an efficient and flexible style and secure against birthday attacks or meet-in-the-middle attacks, which is good choice for data integrity or authentication.
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Index Terms—Hash function; Two-dimensional coupled map lattices; Spatiotemporal chaos; Chaotic nonlinear map; variable parameter

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34. Paper 26071124: Aspect-Oriented Approach for the Improvement of the Reliability and Time Performance of a Fault-Tolerant System (pp. 229-237)
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Khalid Bouragba, Hicham Belhadaoui, Mohammed Ouzzif, Mounir Rifi
Laboratoire RITM ESTC, CED ENSEM, UH2C, Casablanca, Maroc

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Abstract — The principle of separation of concerns is a basis element in the software engineering and allows for the division of properties, becoming smaller each time, so as to master their complexity, from the design phase to achievement phase. This paper proposes the probabilistic assessment of critical fault-tolerant programmed systems to improve reliability and availability of an embedded system. In addition, to improve their response time, we use separation of concerns approach, functional (behavior) and non-functional (control). This phase will be achieved by developing a simulator based on aspect-oriented programming (AspectJ). The main objective is to show the impact of this separation on the response time when a hardware architecture of a processor executes instructions and routines of a software application correctly. The probabilistic assessment is based on the failure rate of software instructions executed on hardware architecture of a stack processor whose choice will be justified. The failures considered in this work are the basis of a study of decomposition and refinement carried out by the NFR Framework. As a result, this work has treated the issue of hardware / software interaction in programmed critical systems and the improvement of execution time.
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Keywords-component; Non-functional requirement, separation of concerns, AspectJ, NFR Framework, reliability,Performance.
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35. Paper 21071113: Design and Implementation of Extendable Media Streaming Application: Case Study of Windows 2003 Voice Recorder (pp. 238-245)
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Ezekiel U. Okike, Department of computer Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Ayorinde Afolayan, Department of computer Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

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Abstract — Any data that changes meaningfully with respect to time can be characterized as time-based media. Such media data can be obtained from a variety of sources, such as local or network files, cameras, microphones, and live broadcasts. A key characteristic of time-based media is that it requires timely delivery and processing such that once the flow of media data begins, there are strict timing deadlines that must be met both in terms of receiving and presenting the data. For this reason, time-based media is often referred to as streaming media and is delivered in a steady stream that must be received and processed within a particular timeframe to produce acceptable results. This study evaluates a streaming medium, the Window’s sound recorder application, investigates the problem of limited recording period of 60 seconds, and implements a Unified Modeling language (UML) based design framework for an extendable media recorder application which overcomes the 60 seconds recording limitation of the system.
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Keywords- media streaming; extendability; unified modeling, design and implementation.
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36. Paper 19071104: QoS enabled Cluster Based Routing Protocols in MANETs (pp. 246-250)
Full Text: PDF

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Narendar Reddy Mandhadi, PhD. Scholar, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Osmania University, Hyderabad – A.P – India
Dr. Lakshmi Rajamani, Professor & HEAD, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Osmania University, Hyderabad – A.P – India

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Abstract — Ad hoc wireless network is a dynamic multi-hop network, which is established by a group of mobile nodes on a shared wireless channel. Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi hop radio network. The design and analysis of routing protocols is an important issue in dynamic networks such as packet radio and ad- hoc wireless networks. While the previously proposed scheduling algorithms have been shown to perform well in providing fair sharing of bandwidths among the single-hop wireless flow, they have not considered the multi-hop flow with an end-to-end perspective. Hierarchical, cluster-based routing greatly reduces the routing table sizes (compared to host- based routing) and the amount of routing related signaling traffic, at the expense of reducing path efficiency and generating some management traffic. This paper focuses on QoS enabled Cluster based routing schemes for mobile ad hoc networks. The feasible path from source to a destination is calculated using the QoS information available with either cluster heads or with each cluster members. Non-overlapping clusters are created using the dynamic cluster creation algorithm. Packets are routed according to the QoS information available with each gateway node. Because of the hierarchical nature of cluster architecture, the performance is unaffected by the increase in the number of mobile nodes, and the Packet Loss is reduced. The clustering algorithm dynamically manages the handover and hence the efficiency is not degraded by node mobility.

Keywords— Mobile ad hoc network (MANET), Quality of Service (QoS), QoS enabled Routing, FQMM, Dynamic Cluster Creation Algorithm

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