Vol. 9 No. 7 JUL 2011

Vol. 9 No. 7 July 2011 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication July 2011, Volume 9 No. 7 (Download Full Journal) (Archive) (Download 2)

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Copyright © IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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1. Paper 29061119: Recovery function of Components of Additive Model of Biometric System Reliability in UML (pp. 1-4)
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Zoran Ćosić, Director, Statheros d.o.o., Kaštel Stari, Croatia
Jasmin Ćosić , IT Section of Police Administration, Ministry of Interior of Una-sana canton, Bihać, Bosnia and Hercegovina
Miroslav Bača , professor Faculty of Organisational and Informational science, Varaždin, Croatia

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Abstract- Approaches The development of biometric systems is undoubtedly on the rise in the number and the application areas. Modelling of system reliability and system data analysis after failure and the time of re-establishing the operating regime is of crucial importance for users of the system and also for producers of certain components. This paper gives an overview of the mathematical model of biometric system function recovery and its application through the UML model.
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Keywords- Additive model, Biometric system, reliability, recovery function, UML, component,
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2. Paper 26061114: Contour Based Algorithm for Object Tracking (pp. 5-10)
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A. M. Sallam, O. M. Elmouafy, R. A. Elbardany, A. M. Fahmy
Egyptian Armed Forces, Egypt

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Abstract— Video tracking system raises a wide possibility in today’s society. These systems are be used in various applications such as military, security, monitoring, robotic, and nowadays in day-to-day applications. However the video tracking systems still have many open problems and various research activities in a video tracking system are explores. This paper presents an algorithm for video tracking of any moving target with the use of edge detection technique within a window filter. The proposed system is suitable for indoor and outdoor applications. Our approach has the advantage of extending the applicability of tracking system and also, as presented here it improves theperformance of the tracker making feasible to be more accurate in detection and tracking objects. The goal of the tracking system is to analyze the video frames and estimate the position of a part of the input video frame (usually a moving object), our approach can detect and track any moving object and calculate its position. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to construct a motion tracking system for moving object. Where, at the end of this paper, the detail outcome and results are discussed using experimental results of the proposed technique.
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Keywords- Contour-based video tracking, Tracking system, image tracking, edge detection techniques, Video Tracking, window filter tracking.
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3. Paper 26061111: Human Iris Recognition in Unconstrained Environments (pp. 11-14)
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Mohammad Ali Azimi Kashani, Department of Computer Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University Branch Shoushtar, Shoushtar, Iran
Mohammad Reza Ramezanpoor Fini, Department of Computer Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University Branch Shoushtar, Shoushtar, Iran
Mahdi Mollaei Arani, Department of Computer Science & Research Branch, Payame Noor University, Ardestan, Iran

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Abstract — Designation of iris is one of biometric recognition methods .That use modal recognition technique and is base on pictures whit high equality of eye iris .Iris modals in comparison whit other properties in biometrics system are more resistance and credit .In this paper we use from fractals technique for iris recognition. Fractals are important in these aspects that can express complicated pictures with applying several simple codes. Until, That cause to iris tissue change from depart coordination to polar coordination and adjust for light rates. While performing other pre-process, fault rates will be less than EER, and lead to decreasing recognition time, account table cost and grouping precise improvement.
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Keywords-Biometrics; Identitydistinction;Identity erification; Iris modals.
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4. Paper 30041181: A Combined Method for Finger Vein Authentication System (pp. 15-19)
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Azadeh Noori Hoshyar, Department of Computer Science, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ir.Riza Sulaiman, Department of Industrial Computing, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia
Afsaneh Noori Hoshyar, Department of Industrial Computing, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia

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Abstract— Finger vein as a new biometric is developing in security purposes. Since the vein patterns are unique between each individual and located inside the body, forgery is extremely difficult. Therefore, the finger vein authentication systems have received extensive attention in public security and information security domains. According to the importance of these systems, the different techniques have been proposed to each stages of the system. The stages include image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and feature extraction, matching and recognition. While the segmentation techniques often appear feasible in theory, deciding about the accuracy in a system seems important. Therefore, this paper release the conceptual explanation of finger vein authentication system by combining two different techniques in segmentation stage to evaluate the quality of the system. Also, it applies Neural Network for authentication stage. The result of this evaluation is 95% in training and 93% in testing.
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Keywords- Finger Vein authentication; Vein recognition; Verification; Feature extraction; segmentation
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5. Paper 26061112: Colorization of Gray Level Images by Using Optimization (pp. 20-25)
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Hossein Ghayoumi Zadeh, Hojat Jafari, Alireza malvandi, Javad haddadnia
Department of Electrical Engineering, Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University, Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi, Iran

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Abstract — This article discusses the colorization of gray level images. Because of the technique applied in this paper, this method can be used in colorizing medical images. Color images achieved have good distinction and separation. The proposed method can be used to separate the objects in gray images. Our method is based on a simple premise: neighboring pixels in space-time that have similar intensities should have similar colors. We formalize this premise using a quadratic cost function and obtain an optimization problem that can be solved efficiently using standard techniques. In our approach an artist only needs to annotate the image with a few color scribbles, and the indicated colors are automatically propagated in both space and time to produce a fully colorized image or sequence.
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Keywords- colorization, Equalization, gray level
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6. Paper 30061154: Performance Comparison of Image Classifier Using DCT, Walsh, Haar and Kekre’s Transform (pp. 26-33)
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H. B. Kekre, Senior Professor, Computer Engineering, MP’STME, SVKM’S NMIMS University, Mumbai, India
Tanuja K. Sarode, Asst. Professor, Thadomal Shahani Engineering College, Mumbai, India
Meena S. Ugale, Asst. Professor, Xavier Institute of Engineering, Mumbai, India

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Abstract — In recent years, thousands of images are generated everyday, which implies the necessity to classify, organize and access them by easy and faster way. The need for image classification is becoming increasingly important. The paper presents innovative Image Classification technique based on feature vectors as fractional coefficients of transformed images using Discrete Cosine, Walsh, Haar and Kekre’s transforms. The energy compaction of transforms in higher coefficients is taken to reduce the feature vector size per image by taking fractional coefficients of transformed image. The various sizes of feature vectors are generated such as 8X8, 16X16, 32X32, 64X64 and 128X128. The proposed technique is worked over database of 1000 images spread over 10 different classes. The Euclidean distance is used as similarity measure. A threshold value is set to determine to which category the query image belongs to.
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Keywords— Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Walsh Transform, Haar Transform, Kekre’s Transform, Image Database, Transform Domain, Feature Vector
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7. Paper 30061156: Decreasing Control Overhead of ODMRP by Using Passive Data Acknowledgement (pp. 34-39)
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Robabeh Ghafouri, Department of computer, Shahr-e-Qods branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
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Abstract — On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) is a multicast routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. Although its simplicity and robustness to mobility, render it one of the most widely used MANET multicast protocols, it suffers from excessive control overhead and redundant data transmissions as the network size and the number of sources increase. This event wastes valuable resources - such as channel bandwidth- and increases the packets collision. In this paper, we present a new method for reducing control overhead of ODMRP and called the new protocol LFPA_ODMRP (Limited Flooding by Passive data Acknowledgements). LFPA_ODMRP restricts some nodes to flood Join-Query packets by using passive data acknowledgments. Consequently it limits the scope of Join-Query packets flooding and reduces the control overhead. Simulation results showed that the proposed method reduces the control overhead, end to end delay and at some conditions improves the data packet delivery ratio.
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Keywords-Ad hoc networks; multicast routing; ODMRP; passive acknowledgement; GLOMOSIM
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8. Paper 25061107: Mitigating App-DDoS Attacks on Web Servers (pp. 40-45)
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Ms. Manisha M. Patil, Dr .D. Y. Patil College of Engineering, Kolhapur, (Maharashtra) India.
Prof. U. L. Kulkarni, Konkan Gyanpeeth’s College of Engineering, Karjat, Dist.-Raigad, (Maharashtra) India
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Abstract — In this paper, a lightweight mechanism is proposed to mitigate session flooding and request flooding app-DDoS attacks on web servers. App-DDoS attack is Application layer Distributed Denial of Service attack. This attack prevents legitimate users from accessing services. Numbers of mechanisms are available and can be installed on routers and firewalls to mitigate network layer DDoS attacks like SYNflood attack, ping of death attack. But Network layer solution is not applicable because App-DDoS attacks are indistinguishable based on packets and protocols. A lightweight mechanism is proposed which uses trust to differentiate legitimate users and attackers. Trust to client is evaluated based on his visiting history and requests are scheduled in decreasing order of trust. In this mechanism trust information is stored at client side in the form of cookies. This mitigation mechanism can be implemented as a java package which can run separately and forward valid requests to server. This mechanism also mitigates request flooding attacks by using Client Puzzle Protocol. When server is under request flooding attack source throttling is done by imposing cost on client. Cost is collected in terms of CPU cycles.
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Keywords— DDoS attacks, App-DDoS, Trust.
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9. Paper 26061113: A Framework for Measuring External Quality of Web-sites (pp. 46-51)
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Ritu Shrivastava, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sagar Institute of Research Technology & Science, Bhopal 462041, India
Dr. R. K. Pandey, Director, University Institute of Technology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462041, India
Dr. M. Kumar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sagar Institute of Research Technology, Bhopal 462041, India

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Abstract — Web-sites are domain intensive and some important categories are social, cultural, entertainment, e-commerce, egovernment, museum, tourism, academic, etc. It is obvious that domains of Web-sites differ significantly, and hence a common yardstick cannot be applied to measure quality of all Web-sites. Signore, Loranca, Olsina, Tripathi, Kumar and others have tried to define quality characteristics that are domain specific. Attempts have also been made to empirically validate these quality characteristics models. While measuring quality of Websites from external point of view, that is quality in use, it has been observed that many quality characteristics are common across domains of Web-sites and some domain specific characteristics change. The authors, therefore, have made an attempt to evolve a common framework to measure external quality of Web-sites and have applied this framework to measure quality of academic institute Web-sites.
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Keywords-component; Web-site Quality, Academic domain, Hierarchical model, Attributes, Metrics
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10. Paper 26061115: A New Image Compression framework: DWT Optimization using LS-SVM regression under IWP-QPSO based hyper parameter optimization (pp. 52-60)
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S. Nagaraja Rao, Professor of ECE, G.Pullaiah College of Engineering & Technology, Kurnool, A.P., India
Dr.M.N.Giri Prasad, Principal, J.N.T.U.College of Engineering, Pulivendula, A.P., India

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Abstract — In this chapter, a hybrid model integrating DWT and least squares support machines (LSSVM) is proposed for Image coding. In this model, proposed Honed Fast Haar wavelet transform (HFHT) is used to decompose an original RGB Image with different scales. Then the LS-SVM regression is used to predict series of coefficients. The hyper coefficients for LS-SVM selected by using proposed QPSO technique called intensified worst particle based QPSO (IWP-QPSO). Two mathematical models discussed, one is to derive the HFHT that is computationally efficient when compared with traditional FHT, and the other is to derive IWP-QPSO that performed with minimum iterations when compared to traditional QPSO. The experimental results show that the hybrid model, based on LSSVM regression, HFHT and IWP-QPSO, outperforms the traditional Image coding standards like jpeg and jpeg2000 and, furthermore, the proposed hybrid model emerged as best in comparative study with jpeg2000 standard.
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Keywords- Model integrating DWT; Least squares support machines (LS-SVM); Honed Fast Haar wavelet transforms (HFHT); QPSO; HFHT; FHT.
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11. Paper 28061118: Analysis of Mobile Traffic based on Fixed Line Tele-Traffic Models (pp. 61-67)
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Abhishek Gupta, ME Student, Communication System, Engineering, Jabalpur Engineering College, M.P., India
Bhavana Jharia, Associate Professor, Department of EC, Jabalpur Engineering College, M.P., India
Gopal Chandra Manna, Sr. General Manager, BSNL, Jabalpur, M.P, India

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Abstract — An optimal radio network which provides and handle the largest amount of traffic for a given number of channels at a specified level of quality of service are designed by accurate traffic characterization and a precise analysis of mobile user’s behavior in terms of mobility and cellular traffic. This paper reviews the statistical characteristics of voice and message traffic. It investigated possible time-correlation of call arrivals in sets of GSM telephone traffic data and observes proximity of practical mobile traffic characteristics vis-à-vis classical fixed-line call arrival pattern, holding time distribution and inter-arrival pattern. The results indicated dominance of applicability of basic traffic model with deviations. A more realistic cause for call blocking experienced by users has also been analyzed.
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Keywords: GSM, Poisson distribution, Exponential distribution, Arrival pattern, Holding time Inter-arrival Pattern.
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12. Paper 29061122: An Analysis of GSM Handover based On Real Data (pp. 68-74)
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Isha Thakur, Communication System Engineering Branch, Jabalpur Engineering College, M.P., India
Bhavana Jharia, Jabalpur Engineering College, M.P., India
Gopal Chandra Manna, BSNL, Jabalpur, BSNL, Jabalpur

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Abstract — Handover decisions in GSM networks are based on the difference in received signal strength, between the serving cell and the neighboring cells. But in a practical scenario, particularly in city area ,considering difference in signal level strength alone , is an inferior criteria to decide handover issue ,because the towers are in close proximity & the absolute signal strength is quite good to continue the communication ,without much difficulty .Also, in these environments, multipath reflections, scattering due to moving vehicles & diffraction from multiple building edges ,contributes to poor signal quality, hence forcing the mobile to transmit more power to continue the communication. Continuation of an active call is one of the most important quality measures in the cellular systems. Handover process enables a cellular system to provide such a facility by transferring an active call from one cell to another. Different approaches have been proposed and applied in order to achieve better handover service, by various researchers. The principal parameters considered in the present work, which are used to evaluate handover techniques are: Received signal quality (RxQual), FER, Received signal level, MS-BS distance, transmit power (TxPower) & aggregate C/I. In the present work, thorough analysis has been done for the received signal strength difference threshold, along with other RF quality parameters. To ensure best performance to all mobile users at all times and all locations an active set of parameters has been calculated for critical values along with signal strength difference threshold.
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Keywords: Received signal quality (RxQual), FER, Received signal level (RxLev on uplink and downlink), MS-BS distance, transmit power (TxPower) & aggregate C/I.
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13. Paper 30061155: 2D Image Morphing With Wrapping Using Vector Quantization Based Colour Transition (pp. 75-82)
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H. B. Kekre, Senior Professor, Computer Engineering, MP’STME, SVKM’S NMIMS University, Mumbai, India
Tanuja K. Sarode, Asst. Professor, Thadomal Shahani Engineering College, Mumbai, India
Suchitra M. Patil, Lecturer, K.J.Somiaya College of Engineering, Mumbai, India

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Abstract — There is inherent lack of the motion in the photographs and paintings so they convey limited information. Using image morphing, it is now possible to add 2D motion to still photographs by moving and blending image pixels in creative ways. Image morphing is an image processing technique which seamlessly transforms one image into another image. Color transition method used in morphing play an important role as it decides the quality of the intermediate images generated by controlling the color blending rate. By blending colors uniformly throughout the process of morphing good morph sequence is generated. This morph sequence is balanced and contains earlier morphs similar to source and last morphs similar to the target image. In case of face image morphing if features are not aligned properly then double exposure is seen in the eyes and mouth region and this spoils entire morph sequence. In this paper new image wrapping and vector quantization based color transition methods are proposed for 2D face image morphing. Wrapping aligns the facial features and aids in generating good morphs and color transition blends colors during morphing.
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Keywords- image wrapping, colour transition, face normalization vector quantization, codebook interpolation.
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14. Paper 30061176: Enhanced Fast and Secure Hybrid Encryption Algorithm for Message Communication (pp.83-88)
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Shaik Rasool, Md Ateeq ur Rahman, G. Sridhar, K. Hemanth Kunar
Dept. of Computer Science & Engg, S.C.E.T., Hyderabad, India

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Abstract — This paper puts forward a safe mechanism of data transmission to tackle the security problem of information which is transmitted in Internet. The encryption standards such as DES (Data Encryption Standard), AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) are widely used to solve the problem of communication over an insecure channel. With advanced technologies in computer hardware and software, these standards seem not to be as secure and fast as one would like. In this paper we propose a hybrid encryption technique which provides security to both the message and the secret key. The Symmetric algorithm used has two advantages over traditional schemes. First, the encryption and decryption procedures are much simpler, and consequently, much faster. Second, the security level is higher due to the inherent poly-alphabetic nature of the substitution mapping method used here, together with the translation and transposition operations performed in the algorithm. Asymmetric algorithm RSA is worldwide known for its high security. In this paper a detailed report of the process is presented and analysis is done comparing our proposed technique with familiar techniques.
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Keywords-component; Cipher text, Encryption, Decryption, Substitution, Translation.
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15. Paper 17051104: Effective Classification Algorithms to Predict the Accuracy of Tuberculosis - A Machine Learning Approach (pp. 89-94)
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Asha. T, Dept. of Info.Science & Engg., Bangalore Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India
S. Natarajan, Dept. of Info. Science & Engg., P.E.S. Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India
K.N.B. Murthy, Dept. of Info. Science & Engg., P.E.S. Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India

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Abstract — Tuberculosis is a disease caused by mycobacterium which can affect virtually all organs, not sparing even the relatively inaccessible sites. India has the world’s highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) with million estimated incident cases per year. Studies suggest that active tuberculosis accelerates the progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Tuberculosis is much more likely to be a fatal disease among HIV-infected persons than persons without HIV infection. Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis has always been a problem. Classification of medical data is an important task in the prediction of any disease. It even helps doctors in their diagnosis decisions. In this paper we propose a machine learning approach to compare the performance of both basic learning classifiers and ensemble of classifiers on Tuberculosis data. The classification models were trained using the real data collected from a city hospital. The trained models were then used for predicting the Tuberculosis as two categories Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) and Retroviral PTB(RPTB) i.e. TB along with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The prediction accuracy of the classifiers was evaluated using 10-fold Cross Validation and the results have been compared to obtain the best prediction accuracy. The results indicate that Support Vector Machine (SVM) performs well among basic learning classifiers and Random forest from ensemble with the accuracy of 99.14% from both classifiers respectively. Various other measures like Specificity, Sensitivity, F-measure and ROC area have been used in comparison.
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Keywords-component; Machine learning; Tuberculosis; Classification, PTB, Retroviral PTB
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16. Paper 25061102: Comparison study on AAMRP and IODMRP in MANETS (pp. 95-103)
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Tanvir Kahlon & Sukesha Sharma, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
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Abstract— Mobile Ad-Hoc network is self configuring network of moving routers associated with wireless network. In these networks there is no fixed topology due to the mobility of nodes, interference, multipath propagation and path loss. The mobile nodes co-operate with each other to perform a particular task. Since there is a lack of infrastructure and the node mobility s larger than in wired network and even larger in fixed wireless networks, new routing protocols are proposed to handle the new challenges. Each new protocol has its own advantages and disadvantages. This paper focuses on the comparison between the two Multicast Routing Protocols AAMRP and IODMRP.
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Keywords— Multicast, Ad-Hoc wireless networks (MANETS) , AAMRP, IODMRP, ODMRP
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17. Paper 25061103: An Improvement Study Report of Face Detection Techniques using Adaboost and SVM (pp.104-108)
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Rajeev Kumar Singh, LNCT Bhopal, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh-462042, India
Prof. Alka Gulati, LNCT Bhopal, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh-462042, India
Anubhav Sharma, RITS Bhopal, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh-462042, India
Harsh Vazirani, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management Gwalior, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh-474010, India

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Abstract — In this paper, we have proposed a survey report of face detection techniques using Adaboost and SVM. Face Detection in computer vision and pattern recognition technology as an important subject has high academic value and commercial value. Face detection is a challenging and interesting problem. Face detection is a very an active research topic in the field of computer vision and pattern recognition, which is widely applied in the face recognition ,man-machine interface ,visual communication and so on.
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Keywords-component; formatting; style; styling; insert (key words)
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18. Paper 29061121: Clustering of Concept Drift Categorical Data using POur-NIR Method (pp.109-115)
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N. Sudhakar Reddy, SVCE, Tirupati, India
K.V.N. Sunitha, GNITS, Hyderabad, India

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Abstract - Categorical data clustering is an interesting challenge for researchers in the data mining and machine learning, because of many practical aspects associated with efficient processing and concepts are often not stable but change with time. Typical examples of this are weather prediction rules and customer’s preferences, intrusion detection in a network traffic stream. Another example is the case of text data points, such as that occurring in Twitter/search engines. In this regard the sampling is an important technique to improve the efficiency of clustering. However, with sampling applied, those sampled points that are not having their labels after the normal process. Even though there is straight forward method for numerical domain and categorical data. But still it has a problem that is how to allocate those unlabeled data points into appropriate clusters in efficient manner. In this paper the concept-drift phenomenon is studied, and we first propose an adaptive threshold for outlier detection, which is a playing vital role detection of cluster. Second, we propose a probabilistic approach for detection of cluster using POur-NIR method which is an alternative method
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Keywords- clustering, NIR, POur-NIR, Concept Drift nd node.

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19. Paper 29061126: ERP-Communication Framework: Aerospace Smart factory & Smart R&D Campus (pp. 116-123)
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M. Asif Rashid, Dept of Engineering Management National University of Science & Technology (NUST) Pakistan
Erol Sayin, Karabuk University, Turkey
Hammad Qureshi , SEECS, (NUST) Pakistan
Muiz-ud-Din Shami, CAE, National University of Science & Technology (NUST) Pakistan
Nawar Khan, Dept of Engineering Management (NUST) Pakistan
Ibrahim H. Seyrek, Gaziantep University

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Abstract — The advancement in management information systems and business intelligence has changed the dynamics of knowledge management. The integration of ERP module for strategic-collaboration among industry-R&D departments with university-wide “Smart-campus” has further reiterated the target focused team environment coupled with value-based corporate-culture. The integration of academia R&D units with industrial-production-units for knowledge-management as well as resource-management is becoming extremely multifaceted. Efforts are now targeted at evolving a “dynamic knowledge management model for higher education and for optimizing the knowledge-diffusion of “University-R&D programs”. This indeed fosters the vision of E-Commerce to K-Commerce for knowledge based economy. The philosophy of competitiveness demands that the integrated framework for ERP adoption be planned for complex-structured organizations prior to its deployment. This is meant so as to minimize ERP deployment-span in terms of time and to curtail financial overheads. This paper provides various dimensions of planning communication system-strategy for ERP in complex-structured organization through mapping of activities for Aerospace departments involved in R&D programs vis-à-vis academia-Industry collaborative-joint ventures.
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Keywords: Aerospace smart factry, ERP communication strategy, Communication channels, Technology diffusion.
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20. Paper 30061127: Analysis of Educational Web Pattern Using Adaptive Markov Chain For Next Page Access Prediction (pp. 124-128)
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Harish Kumar, PhD scholar, Mewar University, Meerut
Dr. Anil Kumar Solanki, Director, MIET Meerut.

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Abstract - The Internet grows at an amazing rate as an information gateway and as a medium for business and education industry. Universities with web education rely on web usage analysis to obtain students behavior for web marketing. Web Usage Mining (WUM) integrates the techniques of two popular research fields – Data Mining and the Internet. Web usage mining attempts to discover useful knowledge from the secondary data (Web logs). These useful data pattern are use to analyze visitors activities in the web sites. So many servers manage their cookies for distinguishing server address. User Navigation pattern are in the form of web logs .These Navigation patterns are refined and resized and modeled as a new format. This method is known as “Loginizing”. In this paper we study the navigation pattern from web usage and modeled as a Markov Chain. This chain works on higher probability of usage. Markov chain is modeled for the collection of navigation a pattern and used for finding the most likely used navigation pattern for a web site.
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Keyword: Web mining, web usage, web logs, Markov Chain.
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21. Paper 30061131: Advanced Routing Technology For Fast Internet Protocol Network Recovery (pp. 129-133)
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(1) S. Rajan, (2) Althaf Hussain H.B., (3) K. Jagannath, (4) G. Surendar Reddy, (5) K.N.Dharanidhar
(1) Associate Professor & Head, Dept. of CSE, Kuppam Engg. College., Kuppam, Chittoor(Dt.), A.P.
(2) Associate Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.
(3) Associate Professor, Dept .of IT, Kuppam Engg. College., Kuppam Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.
(4) Assistant Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.
(5) Assistant Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.
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Abstract - As the Internet takes an increasingly central role in our communications infrastructure, the slow convergence of routing protocols after a network failure becomes a growing problem. To assure RAPID recovery from link and node failures in IP networks, we present a new recovery scheme called numerous Routing Configurations (NRC). Our proposed scheme guarantees recovery in all single failure scenarios, using a single mechanism to handle both link and node failures, and without knowing the root cause of the failure. NRC is strictly connectionless, and assumes only destination based hop-by-hop forwarding. NRC is based on keeping additional routing information in the routers, and allows packet forwarding to continue on an alternative output link immediately after the detection of a failure. It can be implemented with only minor changes to existing solutions. In this paper we presenters, and analyze its performance with respect to scalability, endorsement path lengths, and load distribution after a failure. We also show how an estimate of the traffic demands in the network can be used to improve the distribution of the recovered traffic, and thus reduce the chances of congestion when NRC is used.
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22. Paper 30061146: Design and Implementation of Internet Protocol Security Filtering Rules in a Network Environment (pp. 134-143)
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Alese B.K., Adetunmbi O.A., Gabriel A.J.
Computer Science Department, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Nigeria

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Abstract - Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) devices are essential elements in network security which provide traffic filtering, integrity, confidentiality and authentication based on configured security policies. The complexities involved in the handling of these policies can result in policy conflicts that may cause serious security breaches and network vulnerabilities. This paper therefore presents a mathematical model developed for IPSec filtering rules and policies using Boolean expressions. A comprehensive classification of security policy conflicts that might potentially exist in a single IPSec device (intra-policy conflicts) or between different network devices (inter-policy conflicts) in enterprise networks is also presented. All these are implemented in user-friendly interfaces that significantly simplify the management and/or proper configuration of IPSec policies written as filtering rules, while minimizing network vulnerability due to security policy mis-configurations.
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Keywords: Anomalies, Conflicts, IPSec, Policy, Protocols.
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23. Paper 30061147: Design of a Secure Information Sharing System for E-policing in Nigeria (pp. 144-151)
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Alese B.K, Iyare O.M, Falaki S.O
Computer Science Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

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Abstract - Problems of National concerns such as kidnapping, ritual killings, prevention, detection and control of crimes, provision of security to lives and properties and many more necessitate information sharing, coordination and collaboration with members of the Police Force, Businesses and Citizens within the country. A number of daunting challenges exist towards the development of an efficient information sharing system. The principal challenge would be the development of a system that securely exchanges information between members of the police, businesses and the populace in other to restructure the police services. In this paper, a means was devised to secure the information sharing system for confidential sharing of secret information between members of the police force. The secure system which enforces access control and information confidentiality was based on the principles of Bell LaPadula model and the Rivest Shamir Adelman (RSA) algorithm. The system assures secure and stream-lined information sharing among the police to avoid intimidating activities.
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Key words: Rank, Information, Information Sharing, E-policing, Access Control, Confidentiality.
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24. Paper 30061165: A Security Generated Approach towards Mass Elections using Voting Software (pp. 152-160)
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Aradhana Goutam, Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues College of Engineering, Bandstand, Bandra(W), Mumbai 400050,Mahtraahara, India
Ankit Kandi, Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues College of Engineering, Bandstand, Bandra(W), Mumbai 400050, Mahtraahara, India
Manish Wagh, Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues College of Engineering, Bandstand, Bandra(W), Mumbai 400050, Mahtraahara, India
Kashyap Shah, Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues College of Engineering, Bandstand, Bandra(W), Mumbai 400050, Mahtraahara, India
Prathamesh Tarkar, Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues College of Engineering, Bandstand, Bandra(W), Mumbai 400050, Mahtraahara, India

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Abstract - Elections form the core of democratic society and, as such, are of monumental importance in democratic world. In order for an election to remain truly democratic, it must uphold four critical properties: privacy, incoercibility, accuracy and verifiability. In this paper we analyze threats against these properties during the three phases of an election (voter registration, casting votes, and tabulating votes), highlight specific ways voting systems have been compromised, summarize the weaknesses of current voting techniques, and give assurance to voters to ensure their votes are handled properly in upcoming elections. For an election to serve its purpose in a democracy, it must guarantee four properties:
• Privacy — voters have the right to keep their ballots secret.
• Incoercibility — voters cannot reveal the contents of their cast ballots.
• Accuracy — the final tally is the actual sum of all cast ballots.
• Verifiability — voters can prove to themselves that their ballots were cast as intended and counted, and anyone can prove that the final tally is accurate.
Violations of any of these properties, particularly in the form of security breaches, can disrupt the outcome of an election or discourage potential voters from participating. This can allow small groups of people to compromise the robustness and fairness of the election. Any failure to guarantee each citizen the right to cast one, and only one, vote in the election violates the fundamental principle of democracy.
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Keywords—online voting, Encryption, CAPTCHA, Biometric, Graphs/Charts
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25. Paper 31051198: Even Harmonious Graphs with Applications (pp. 161-163)
Full Text: PDF

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P.B. Sarasija, Department of Mathematics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil, TamilNadu, India.
R. Binthiya, Department of Mathematics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil, TamilNadu, India.

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Abstract— In this paper we plan to contribute an even harmonious labeling of some well known graphs. Let G(V,E) be a graph with p vertices and q edges. A graph G(p,q) is said to be even harmonious if there exists an injection f : V → { 0,1,…,2q} such that the induced mapping f*(uv) = (f(u)+f(v)) (mod 2q) is a bijection from E onto { 0,2,4,…,2(q-1)}.
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Keywords- Harmonious labeling, Path, Cycle, Complete bipartite graph, Bistar.
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26. Paper 26051130: Development of Enhanced Token using Picture Password and Public Key Infrastructure Mechanism for Digital Signature (pp. 164-170)
Full Text: PDF

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Oghenerukevwe E. Oyinloye /Achievers University Owo
Department of Computer and Information Systems, Achievers University, Owo & Achievers University, Owo, AUO, Ondo, Nigeria.

Ayodeji .I. Fasiku, Boniface K.Alese (PhD), Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure, FUTA, Nigeria.

Akinbohun Folake/ Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,Owo
Department of Computer Science, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo & Rufus Giwa Polythenic, Owo, Ondo, Nigeria.

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Abstract — the recent advances in actualizing a highly networked environment where data is been exchanged from one person to another electronically has given great concern for data integrity, confidentiality and security. It is stated that the exchange of information range from telephone conversation, computer files, signals e.t.c. The vulnerability of networks makes data exchange prone to a high level of security threats. Security mechanisms are been employed in the transport layer but there is a need to extend security mechanisms to the information/data been exchanged. Several security measures have been deployed so far Which include PINS, textual passwords (which are vulnerable to brute force, dictionary attack, complex meaningless password), graphical passwords and PKIs to reduce the risk of loss which can be valued at great amounts, but all of these have not provided the user the convenience and interest required to achieve full human capabilities in securing data. This paper proffers an improved solution for data security, integrity and confidentiality via the development of enhanced token for data signature using the underlining technologies of picture password algorithm and public key infrastructure.

Keywords- Digital Signature, Enhanced Token Private Key, Enhanced Token Public Key, Secure Hash Algorithm, Public Key Infrastructure, Picture Password algorithm, RSA
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