IJCSIS EDITORIAL BOARD

BEST PAPER AWARD

Vol. 9 No. 5 MAY 2011

Vol. 9 No. 5 May 2011 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication May 2011, Volume 9 No. 5 (Download Full Journal) (Archive)

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Copyright © IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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1. Paper 21041109: Minimum Bit Error Rate Beamforming Combined with Space-Time Block Coding using Double Antenna Array Group (pp. 1-6)
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Said Elnoubi, Electrical of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Waleed Abdallah, Tech. and App. Sc. Program, Al-Quds Open University, Jerusalem, Palestine
Mohamed M. M. Omar, Elect. & Comm. Eng., AAST, Abukir, Alexandria, Egypt
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Abstract — In this paper, we propose a Minimum Bit Error Rate (MBER) beamforming combined with Space-Time Block Coding (STBC) according to the number of antenna array. A class of adaptive beamforming algorithm has been proposed based on minimizing the BER cost function directly. Consequently, MBER beamforming is capable of providing significant performance gains in terms of a reduced BER. The beamforming weights of the combined system are optimized in such a way that the virtual channel coefficients corresponding to STBC-encoded data streams, seen at the receiver, are guaranteed to be uncorrelated. Therefore the promised achievable diversity order by conventional system with STBC can be obtained completely. Combined MBER beamforming with STBC single array performance measured by BER is compared under the condition of direction of arrival (DOA) and signal-to-noise ratio (S+R). The numerical simulation results of the proposed technique show that this minimum BER (MBER) approach utilizes the antenna array elements more intelligently and have a performance dependent of DOA and angular spread (AS).
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Keywords- MBER beamforming; STBC; DOA; angular spread; adaptive antenna array
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2. Paper 21041110: Analyzing and Comparing the Parsing Techniques of Asynchronous Message (pp. 7-12)
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Mr. P. Krishna Sankar, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer science and Engineering, Dr. Mahalingam College of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi – 642 003
Ms. N. P. Shangaranarayanee, Student, Department of Computer science and Engineering, Angel College of Engineering and Technology, Tirupur-641 665

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Abstract — Java API for XML Processing (JAXP) provided two methods for processing XML: Document Object Model (DOM) and Simple API for XML (SAX). The idea is to parse the whole document and construct a complete document tree in memory before it returns control to the client. This cannot be achieved through either by DOM nor by SAX. So StAX is introduced to achieve the idea. StAX does not suffer from the drawbacks faced while using DOM and SAX. A parser is a computer program or a component of a program that analyses the grammatical structure of an input with respect to a given formal grammar in a process known as parsing. Typically, a parser transforms some input text into a data structure that can be processed easily, e.g. for semantic checking, code generation or to help understanding the input. Such data structure usually captures the implied hierarchy of the input and forms a tree or even a graph. XML document as general tree structure and processing task as the extension from the parallel tree traversal algorithm for the classic discrete optimization problems. Unlike the Simple API for XML (SAX), StAX offers an API for writing XML documents. To be precise, it offers two APIs: a low-level, cursor-based API (XMLStreamWriter), and a higher-level, event-based API (XMLEventWriter). While the cursor-based API is best used in data binding scenarios (for example, creating a document from application data), the event-based API is typically used in pipelining scenarios where a new document is constructed from the data of input documents.
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Keywords— DOM, SAX, StAX, API, XML
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3. Paper 21041113: Analysis on Differential Router Buffer Size towards Network Congestion (pp. 13-17)
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Haniza N., Zulkiflee M., Abdul S.Shibgatullah, Shahrin S.
Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Melaka, Malaysia

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Abstract — Network resources are shared amongst a large number of users. Improper managing network traffic leads to congestion problem that degrades a network performance. It happens when the traffic exceeds the network capacity. In this research, we plan to observe the value of buffer size that contributes to network congestion. A simulation study by using OPNET Modeler 14.5 is conducted to achieve the purpose. A simple dumb-bell topology is used to observe several parameter such as number of packet dropped, retransmission count, end-to-end TCP delay, queuing delay and link utilization. The results show that the determination of buffer size based on Bandwidth-Delay Product (BDP) is still applicable for up to 500 users before network start to be congested. The symptom of near-congestion situation also being discussed corresponds to simulation results. Therefore, the buffer size needs to be determined to optimize the network performance based on our network topology. In future, the extension study will be carried out to investigate the effect of other buffer size models such as Stanford Model and Tiny Buffer Model. In addition, the buffer size has to be determined for wireless environment later on.
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Keywords – OPNET, network congestion, bandwidth delay product, buffer size
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4. Paper 25041129: Mobility Assisted Solutions for Well-known Attacks in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network (pp. 18-22)
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Abu Saleh Md. Tayeen, & A.F.M. Sultanul Kabir, Department of Computer Science, American International University Bangladesh (AIUB), Dhaka, Bangladesh
Razib Hayat Khan, Department of Telematics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway
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Abstract — Over the past few years the domain of wireless sensor networks applications is increasing widely. So security is becoming a major concern for WSN. These networks are generally deployed randomly and left unattended. These facts coupled together make it vulnerable to different dangerous attacks like node capture attack, node replication attack, wormhole attack, sinkhole attack etc. Several detection schemes and countermeasures have been proposed in the literature to defend against such attacks in static sensor networks. However these solutions rely on fixed locations of sensor nodes and thus do not work in mobile wireless sensor networks where sensor nodes are expected to have mobility nature. This paper provides summarization of typical attacks on mobile wireless sensor networks and survey about the literatures on few important countermeasures relevant to these attacks.
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Keywords- Mobility, Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks, Security, Mobile Nodes.
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5. Paper 26041131: Hybrid Multi-level Intrusion Detection System (pp. 23-29)
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Sahar Selim, Mohamed Hashem and Taymoor M. Nazmy
Faculty of Computer and Information Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

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Abstract — Intrusion detection is a critical process in network security. Nowadays new intelligent techniques have been used to improve the intrusion detection process. This paper proposes a hybrid intelligent intrusion detection system to improve the detection rate for known and unknown attacks. We examined different neural network & decision tree techniques. The proposed model consists of multi-level based on hybrid neural network and decision tree. Each level is implemented with the technique which gave best experimental results. From our experimental results with different network data, our model achieves correct classification rate of 93.2%, average detection rate about 95.6%; 99.5% for known attacks and 87% for new unknown attacks, and 9.4% false alarm rate.
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Keywords-component; network intrusion detection; neural network; Decision Tree; NSL-KDD dataset
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6. Paper 27041135: Skin Lesion Segmentation Algorithms using Edge Detectors (pp. 30-36)
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J. H. Jaseema Yasmin, Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National College of Engineering, Tirunelveli, India.
M. Mohamed Sathik, Associate Professor in Computer Science, Sadakathullah Appa College, Tirunelveli – India

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Abstract — An effective segmentation algorithm using log edge detector, for border detection of real skin lesions is presented which insinuate the excessive growth or regression of a melanoma, that helps in early detection of malignant melanoma and its performance is compared with the segmentation algorithm using canny detector, developed by us previously for border detection of real skin lesions. The experimental results demonstrate the successful border detection of noisy real skin lesions by the effective segmentation algorithm using log detector. We conclude that the segmentation algorithm using log detector, segments the lesion from the image even in the presence of noise for a variety of lesions, and skin types and its performance is better than the segmentation algorithm that we have developed previously that uses canny detector, for border detection of real skin lesions for noisy skin lesion diagnosis.
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Keywords- Segmentation; Skin Lesion; log edge detector; canny edge detector; Border detection; Melanoma.
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7. Paper 27041137: Query Data With Fuzzy Information In Object-Oriented Databases An Approach The Semantic Neighborhood Of Hedge Algebras (pp. 37-42)
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Doan Van Thang, Korea-VietNam Friendship Information Technology College, Department of Information systems, Faculty of Computer Science Da Nang City, Viet Nam
Doan Van Ban, Institute of Information Technology, Academy Science and Technology of Viet Nam, Ha Noi City, Viet Nam

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Abstract - In this paper, we present an approach for handling attribute values of object classes with fuzzy information and uncertainty in object-oriented database based on theory hedge algebraic. In this approach, semantics be quantified by quantitative semantic mapping of hedge algebraic that still preserving in order semantics may allow manipulation data on the real domain of attribute in relation with the semantics of linguistic. And then, evaluating semantics, searching information uncertainty, fuzziness and classical data entirely consistent based on the ensuring homogeneity of data types. Hence, we present algorithm that allow the data matching helping the requirements of the query data.
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8. Paper 29041145: A Low-Power CMOS Programmable CNN Cell and its Application to Stability of CNN with Opposite-Sign Templates (pp. 43-47)
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S. El-Din, A. K. Abol Seoud, and A. El-Fahar, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.
M. El-Sayed Ragab, School of Electronics, Comm. and Computer Eng., E-JUST., Alexandria, Egypt.

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Abstract -- In this paper, a novel VLSI architecture adaptation of the Cellular Neural Network (CNN) paradigm is described. It is based on a combination of MOS transistors operating in weak inversion regime. This combination has enabled a CMOS implementation of a simplified version of the original CNN model with the main characteristics of low-power consumption. Digitally selectable template coefficients are employed and a local logic and memory are added into each cell providing a simple dual computing structure (analog and digital). A four-quadrant analog multiplier is used as a voltage controlled current source which is feeding from the weighting factors of the template elements. The main feature of the multiplier is the high value of the weight voltage range which varies between the ground voltage and the supply voltage. A simulation example for stability of a class of nonreciprocal cellular neural network with opposite-sign template is presented.
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Keywords: Cellular Neural Network, Low-power CNN, Opposite-Sign Template.
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9. Paper 30041148: A novel model for Synchronization and Positioning by using Neural Networks (pp. 48-53)
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Hossein Ghayoumi Zadeh *, Siamak Janianpour and Javad Haddadnia
Department of Electrical Engineering, Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University, Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi, Iran

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Abstract — In this paper by using a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), a synchronization and positioning system is designed. Parameters that cause the system to be far from ideal condition such as S-Parameters, Noise Figure, IIP3, and Gain are considered that is one of the advantages of this system. In this stage this process is a little slow so by adding the neural network to the system the speed of synchronization is increased. By using the neural network the time needed to calculate the time difference of arrival (TDOA) is significantly decreases.
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Keywords-component; Global Positioning System, Low-noise amplifiers, Neural networks.
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10. Paper 30041149: Strategic Approach for Automatic Text Summarization (pp. 54-62)
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Mr. Ramesh Vaishya, Sr. Lecturer, Department of Computer Science & Engg, Babu Banarsi Das National Institute of Technology & Management, Lucknow, India
Dr. Surya Prakash Tripathi, Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engg, Institute of Engineering Technology, Lucknow, India

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Abstract — As the amount of information is increasing all the time, information modeling and analysis have become essential areas in information management. Information retrieval and storage is an essential part of Information processing. The major part of our useful information is in the form of text. Textual data which an individual goes through during daily processing are quite bulky and voluminous. The user can find the document from their internet and analyze all to sort out the relevant information. Analyzing the text by reading all textual data is infeasible. So the technology of automatic document summarizer may provide a solution to information overload problems. We propose an extractive text summarization system. Extractive summarization works by selecting a subset of sentences from the original text. Thus the system needs to identify most important sentences in the text. In our proposed work is to finding the important sentences using statistical properties like frequency of word, occurrence of important information in the form of numerical data, proper noun, keyword and sentence similarity factor. It depends on the net information content a particular sentence has. Any sentence having higher value is more relevance with respect to summary. Sentences are then selected for inclusion in the summary depending upon their relative importance in the conceptual network. The sentences (nodes in graph) are then selected for inclusion in final summary based on relative importance of sentence in the graph and weighted sum of attached feature score.
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11. Paper 30041186: Golomb Ruler Sequences Optimization: A BBO Approach (pp. 63-71)
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Shonak Bansal, Department of Electronics & Communications, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana, Haryana, India
Shakti Kumar, Computational Intelligence Laboratory, Institute of Science and Technology, Klawad, Haryana, India
Himanshu Sharma, Department of Electronics & Communications, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana, Haryana, India
Parvinder Bhalla, Computational Intelligence Laboratory, Institute of Science and Technology, Klawad, Haryana, India

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Abstract — The Four Wave Mixing (FWM) crosstalk with equally spaced channels from each other is the dominant nonlinear effect in long haul, repeaterless, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) lightwave fiber optical communication systems. To reduce FWM crosstalk in optical communication systems, unequally spaced channel allocation is used. One of the unequal bandwidth channel allocation technique is designed by using the concept of Golomb Ruler. It allows the gradual computation of a channel allocation set to result in an optimal point where degradation caused by inter–channel interference (ICI) and FWM is minimal. In this paper a new Soft Computing approach called Biogeography Based Optimization (BBO) for the generation and optimization of Golomb Ruler sequences is applied. It has been observed that BBO approach perform better than the two other existing classical methods i.e. Extended Quadratic Congruence (EQC) and Search Algorithm (SA).
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Keywords— Four wave mixing, Optimal Golomb Ruler, Soft Computing, Biogeography Based Optimization.
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12. Paper 21041108: Improving Enterprise Access Security Using RFID (pp. 72-77)
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Dr. zakaria Saleh, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
Dr Izzat Alsmadi, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
Ahmed Mashhour Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
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Abstract — Personal Computers now a day are widely used as workstations on many organizations networks. Hence, the securities of the workstations become an integral part of the overall security of the network. Consequently, any good access control solution should be designed in such a manner that key information cannot be retrieved without proper authentication. RFID can be used an alternative for providing extended user authentication. This study believes that the most secure methods include storing the access information on another secure device such as a smart card, or an RFID tag. Standard operations require that workstation to be configured in a way that involves interactive user authentication is instead of an automatic login where the password is stored on the workstation. Using an RFID system will insure that this requirement is kept intact. Many security systems fail not because of technical reasons, but because of the people who could protect a system were not following the basic security standards like locking the workstation before moving away. The proposed RFID system will enforce locking the workstation as soon as the user moves away from that computer unit.
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Keywords: RFID, Workstation Security, Authentication, Access Managers
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13. Paper 21041112: Enhancement of Stakeholders Participations in Water fall Process Model (Step towards reducing the defects in software product) (pp. 78-80)
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Mehar Ullah, Fasee Ullah, Muhammad Saeed Shehzad
Department of Computer Science, City University of Science & Information Technology (CUSIT), Peshawar, Pakistan

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Abstract — In complete software development life cycle, defects can be originated from any source such as from stakeholders, end users, or in understanding the scope of project or product. In water fall process model, all activities are performing in sequence and though it has its own drawbacks, which causes of different defects but one perspective of defects is the involvement of developer stakeholders in development process. The coordination problem between developer stakeholders of successive activities causes many problems such as improving defect ratios, managing the work within deadline time, productivity, reliability and quality of software. Coordination and communication problem among stakeholders is due to lack of communication power of stakeholders and proper way to understand his/her work to stakeholder of successive activity. To overcome this problem, we have proposed a strategy which can be implemented by project manager of team or with mutual coordination of team members.
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Keywords: Defects, Stakeholders, Defects ratio, Coordination, Communication
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14. Paper 21041115: Loopholes in Secure Socket layer and Sniffing (pp. 81-84)
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Amit Mishra, Department of Computer Science & Engg., Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, India
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Abstract — Network sniffing was considered as a major threat to network and web application. Every device connected to the Ethernet-network receives all the data that is passed on the segment. By default the network card processes only data that is addressed to it. However listening programs turn network card in a mode of reception of all packets – called promiscuous mode. So, a sniffer is a special program or piece of code that put the Network Interface Card (NIC) in the promiscuous mode. When NIC works in promiscuous mode, the user of that system can steal all the data including password etc. without generating any traffic. Any network system running the sniffer can see all the data movement over the network. Many sniffers like wireshark, Cain & Abel, ethersniff etc. are available at no cost on the internet. There are many proposed solutions are available for the detection of network sniffing including antisniff [1], SnifferWall [2], Sniffer Detector [3] etc. but any solution does not guarantee full security. Due to this reason many new techniques were developed including secure socket layer (https), one time password etc. but now there are some techniques that can be used to sniff this secure data. In this paper we are discussing different aspects of sniffing, methods to sniff data over secure socket network and detection of sniffer. The paper describes all the technical details and methods to perform this task.
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Keywords- Network sniffer; Ethernet; LAN; ARP; SSH; Ping
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15. Paper 27041134: Secure Communication with Flipping Substitute Permutation Algorithm for Electronic Copy right Management System (pp. 85-94)
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C. Parthasarathy, Sri Chandrashekhendra Saraswathi Viswa Mahavidyalaya University, Enathur, Kanchipuram – 631 561,
G. Ramesh Kumar, Department of Computer Science & Applications,Adhiparasakthi College of Arts & Science, G. B. Nagar, Kalavai - 632 506,Vellore District. Tamil Nadu,
Dr. S. K. Srivatsa,  St. Joseph’s College of Engg, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai-600 064

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Abstract - The main objective of this paper is to detect the existence of secret information hidden within an image. Cryptography is one of the most interested and important area in the computer industry that deals with secures transmission of information. Encryption, the process which helps for such secure transmission prevents hackers to access the information. And decryption helps to retrieve the original information. Cryptography provides many methods and techniques for secure communication. Currently there are many industry standard encryption/decryption algorithms including RSA, Rijndael, Blowfish and so forth. However, they are fairly complex and require that one spend a lot of time to comprehend and implement them. This paper introduces simple Encryption/decryption algorithm that is fast and fairly secure. The algorithm manipulates a 128-bit input using flipping, Substitution, and Permutation to achieve its encryption/decryption.
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Keywords - Cryptography, Hacker, Security, attack Steganography, Watermarking, compression, authentication.
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16. Paper 29041143: Context Based Word Sense Extraction in Text: Design Approach (pp. 95-99)
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Ranjeetsingh S. Suryawanshi, Prof. D. M. Thakore, Kaustubh S. Raval
Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, College of Engineering, Dhankawadi, Pune – 411043

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Abstract - Today user performs most of his work with electronic document. Due to huge volumes of unstructured electronic texts available, it requires automated techniques to analyze and extract knowledge from these repositories of information. This unstructured text can be available in the form of emails, normal text document and HTML files etc. Understanding meanings and semantics of these texts is a complicated problem. This problem becomes more vital, when meanings with respect to context, have to be extracted. Text mining, also known as Intelligent Text Analysis, extract interesting information and knowledge from unstructured text. The agent for Context Based Sense Extraction in Text formulates the standard Natural language processing rules with certain weights. These weights for each rule ultimately support in deciding the particular meaning of a word and sentence. In this paper architecture and design of Context Based Word Sense Extraction have been presented.
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Keywords- Text Mining, Word Sense, Data Mining.
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17. Paper 30041153: An Overview on Radio Access Technology (RAT) Selection Algorithms for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks (pp. 100-105)
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J. Preethi, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore, India
Dr. S. Palaniswami, Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Government College of Technology, India

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Abstract — Next generation wireless networks (NGWN) will be heterogeneous in nature where different radio access technology coexist in the same coverage area. The coexistence of different RATs require a need for Joint Radio Resource Management (JRRM) to support the provision of quality of service and efficient utilization of radio resources. The Joint Radio Resource Management (JRRM) manages dynamically the allocation and deallocation of radio resources between different Radio Access Technology (RAT). The homogenous Call Admission Control (CAC) algorithms do not provide a single solution to address the heterogeneous architectures which characterize next generation wireless networks. This limitation of homogeneous CAC algorithms necessitates the development of RAT selection algorithms for heterogeneous wireless network. The goal is to select the most suitable RAT for each user. This paper investigates ten different approaches for selecting the most appropriate Radio Access Technology (RAT) for incoming calls among the Heterogeneous Wireless Networks. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed. This RAT selection works in two steps; the first step is to select a suitable combination of cells among the different RATs. The second step chooses the most appropriate RAT to which the users can be attached and to choose the suitable bandwidth to allocate for the users.
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Keywords- Radio Access Technology (RAT) selection, Joint Radio Resource Management (JRRM), Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.
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18. Paper 30041156: Interactive Information System For Online Processing Geo-Technological Data (GTD) Sinking Wells (pp. 106-108)
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Safarini Osama, IT Department, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA
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Abstract —: Online management of drilling requires the choice of an informed decision of many possible because of the volume of incoming and processed GTD, problem arising in the functioning through management situations. The importance here is the information management process to enable effective man-machine decision. So the purpose of work is to Develop a methodology, algorithm and program for processing (compression and classification) GTD sinking wells, confirming the geological GTD, for example, marks mining drill bits;
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Keywords- Man-machine decision, Geo-technological data, classification, compression, correlation, measures of similarity, marks mining drill bits, data mining geology, Information Component, Euclidean and Hamming Distance.
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19. Paper 30041155: Extended RR-scheduling Algorithm (pp. 109-113)
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Prof. Sunita Chand, Prof. Teshu Chaudhary, Manoj Kumar
Krishna Engineeering College, 95-Loni Road, Near Mohan Nagar,U.P-201007, India

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Abstract- RR-scheduling algorithm was designed for the time-sharing system or interactive systems. The first process in the queue run until it expires its quantum (i.e. runs for as long as the time quantum), then the next process in the queue runs and so on. RR scheduling is implemented with timer interrupts. When a process is scheduled, the timer is set to go off after the time quantum amount of time expires. When process expire its quantum, a context switch takes place. The state of the running process is saved and context of next process in the ready queue is loaded in CPU registers. it gives good response time, but can give bad waiting time. We propose here a modification to round robin scheduling algorithm which not only gives good response time but also shows reduction in waiting time. If the processes in the ready queue are arranged in the increasing order of the expected CPU burst time instead of first come first serve manner, the waiting time of the processes will decrease in addition to fast response time.
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20. Paper 30041158: Enhancement of Throughput for Single Hop WPAN’s using UWB- OFDM Physical layer (pp. 114-118)
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Ch. Subrahmanyam, Department of ECE, Scient Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India
K. Chennakesava Reddy, Department of ECE, TKR College of Engg. & Tech., Hyderabad, India
Syed Abdul Sattar, Department of ECE, Royal Institute of Tech. & Science, Hyderabad, India

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Abstract — One of the significant and secure agents for the UWB (Ultra Wide Band) based alternative physical layer for WPAN’s (Wireless Personal Area Networks) is MB – OFDM (Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). In this presentation, the simulation ejaculates for single Hop WPAN depending upon the OFDM UWB physical layer are expounded. In this effect, the transmittal systems for the data progressions of 55 Mbps, 200 Mbps, and 480 Mbps are applied because these three are correspondents for lowest progression, the highest the compulsion rate and the greatest optional rate resultantly. We applied both 4mX 4m and 10mX10m insular fields for the network regions for the single Hop sketches in the simulation designs. The prevalent functions of the single Hop WPANS like average End – to – End Delay and Packet Failure Rate(PFR) and Throughputs for the entire source – target oriented pairs are replicated by imparting the Qualnet network simulator.
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Keywords- OFDM, Single Hop, Throughput, UWB, WPAN’s
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21. Paper 30041159: Enhancement of Throughput for Multi Hop WPAN’s Using UWB - OFDM Physical layer (pp. 119-125)
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Ch. Subrahmanyam, Department of ECE, Scient Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India
K. Chennakesava Reddy, Department of ECE, TKR College of Engg. & Tech., Hyderabad, India
Syed Abdul Sattar, Department of ECE, Royal Institute of Tech. & Science, Hyderabad, India

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Abstract — One of the most significant determinants for the UWB (Ultra Wide Band) based substitutive physical layer for WPANS (Wireless Personal Area Networks) is MB – OFDM (Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). This paper deals in the manipulation outcomes for Multi-Hop WPAN depending upon the UWB - OFDM physical layer are exhibited. However, the spectrum radius of MB-OFDM UWB machines is quite minimal, and single-hop transmissions may not be sufficient for WPANs functionalizing at huge-data-rates. Therefore, a multi-hop provisional WPAN machine is appropriated at this juncture so as to maximize the coverage of UWB radio. Performance of the entire machine is achieved to determine if the Quality-of-Service conditions can, now even, be sustained when an IEEE 802.15.3 TDMA MAC stratum is used in multi-hop correspondence situations. Simulation outputs for Multi Hop WPAN standing on the UWB - OFDM physical layer are reproduced in this paper. In this mode of functioning, the transmitting machines for the data rates of 200 Mbps, 480 Mbps are used because these two are the directives for the highest compulsion rate and the greatest optional rate respectively. We used both 9mX 9m and 20mX20m geographical areas for the networks fields for the Multi Hop scenarios in this simulation model. The critical functionalities of the Multi Hop WPANS like average End – to – End Delay and Packet Failure Rate(PFR) and for all the source – Destination pairs are manipulated and restricted by employing the Qualnet network simulator.
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Keywords- Multi hop, OFDM, Throughput, UWB, WPAN’s
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22. Paper 30041162: Face Recognition Using Biogeography Based Optimization (pp. 126-131)
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Er. Navdeep Kaur Johal, Er.Poonam Gupta, Er. Amandeep Kaur
Computer Science & Engineering, Rayat Institute of Engineering & Information Technology (RIEIT), Railmajra, Punjab, India

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Abstract - Feature selection (FS) is a global optimization problem in machine learning, which reduces the number of features, removes irrelevant, noisy and redundant data, and results in acceptable recognition accuracy. It is the most important step that affects the performance of a pattern recognition system. This paper presents a novel feature selection algorithm based on Biogeography Based Optimization (BBO). Biogeography-based optimization (BBO) is a recently-developed EA motivated by biogeography, which is the study of the distribution of species over time and space. The algorithm is applied to coefficients extracted by discrete cosine transforms (DCT). The proposed BBO-based feature selection algorithm is utilized to search the feature space for the optimal feature subset where features are carefully selected according to a well defined discrimination criterion. Evolution is driven by a fitness function defined in terms of maximizing the class separation (scatter index). The classifier performance and the length of selected feature vector are considered for performance evaluation using the ORL face database. Experimental results show that the BBO-based feature selection algorithm was found to generate excellent recognition results with the minimal set of selected features.
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Keywords: Face Recognition, Biogeography Based Optimization, DCT, Feature Selection
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23. Paper 30041165: A Novel Steganographic Methodology For Secure Transmission Of Images (pp. 132-137)
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B.V.Ramadevi, D. Lalitha Bhaskari, P.S.Avadhani
Department of Computer Science & Systems Engineering, AUCE(A), Andhra University,Visakhapatnam

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Abstract - In recent days steganographic techniques have gained a lot of significance in many of the security applications. In this paper a two layered secure methodology for transmitting multimedia data is proposed and implemented. In the first layer, encoding based compression of the message to be hidden is done based on G_delization and Alphabetic coding (AC). In the second layera steganographic approach is adopted for embedding of the encoded text into the cover image under frequency domain and the obtained stego image is transmitted securely using a novel encryption and decryption methods.
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Keywords: Alphabetic Coding, Cover image, Encryption, Decryption, G_delization, stego image.
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24. Paper 30041188: A New Dynamic Data Allocation Algorithm for Distributed Database (pp. 138-141)
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Fardin Esmaeeli Sangari, Sama Technical and vocational training college, Islamic Azad university, Urmia branch, Urmia, Iran
Seyed Mostafa Mansourfar, Sama Technical and vocational training college, Islamic Azad university, Sahand branch, Sahand, Iran

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Abstract - Data and fragment allocation is an important issue in distributed database systems. Data allocation is carried out based on data access dynamic and static patterns. This paper proposes a new strategy for data allocation named Relative Threshold Algorithm (RTA) in non-repeated distributed database. Proposed algorithm does reallocation data fragments by changing access pattern to data fragments. This algorithm proposes data fragments migrate at the site that has at most availability to fragments. Simulation results show that RTA performance is better than existing algorithms in term of hit ratio. It also reduces requirement space. We believe the reduction of storage overhead make RTA more attractive in distributed database systems.
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Keywords-component: Distribute Database; Dynamic Data Allocation
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25. Paper 30041172: Establishing an Effective Combat Strategy for Prevalent Cyber- Attacks (pp. 142-148)
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Vivian Ogochukwu Nwaocha, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Computer Science Department
Inyiama H.C., University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Computer Science Department

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Abstract — As organisations continue to incorporate the Internet as a key component of their operations, the global cyber-threat level is increasing. One of the most common types of cyber-threats is known as the Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack – an attack preventing users from accessing a system for a period of time. Recent DDoS attacks have left large corporate and government networks inaccessible to customers, partners and users for hours or days, resulting in significant financial, reputational, and other losses. The attack power of a Distributed DoS (DDoS) attack is based on the massive number of attack sources instead of the vulnerabilities of one particular protocol. DDoS attacks, which aim at overwhelming a target server with an immense volume of useless traffic from distributed and coordinated attack sources, are a major threat to the stability of the Internet. The number and assortment of both the attacks as well as the defense mechanisms is outrageous. Though an array of schemes has been proposed for the detection of the presence of these attacks, classification of the TCP flows as a normal flow or a malicious one, identifying the sources of the attacks and mitigating the effects of the attacks once they have been detected, there is still a dearth of complete frameworks that encompass multiple stages of the process of defense against DDoS attacks. The growing use of cloud computing services and shared infrastructure is further increasing the importance of having a considered plan for managing such attacks. For a proactive mitigation against DDoS attacks, we propose an integrated framework which would handle the classification, mitigation and traceback of these attacks. Thus, developing an effective mitigation strategy is an important measure to minimize the risk posed to an organisation by the threat of DDoS attacks.
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Keywords-attacks; classification; cyber, detection; distributed denial of service (DDoS); intrusion; mitigation, traceback;
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26. Paper 21041114: Accurate And Efficient Crawling The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value (pp. 149-153)
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Suneet Kumar, Associate Professor, DIT Dehradun
Anuj Kumar Yadav, Assistant Professor, DIT Dehradun
Rakesh Bharti, Assistant Professor, DIT Dehradun
Rani Choudhary, Sr. Lecturer, DBIT Ghaziabad

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Abstract — Searching Focused web crawlers have recently emerged as an alternative to the well-established web search engines. While the well-known focused crawlers retrieve relevant web-pages, there are various applications which target whole websites instead of single web-pages. For example, companies are represented by websites, not by individual web-pages. To answer queries targeted at websites, web directories are an established solution. In this paper, we introduce a novel focused website crawler to employ the paradigm of focused crawling for the search of relevant websites. The proposed crawler is based on two-level architecture and corresponding crawl strategies with an explicit concept of websites. The external crawler views the web as a graph of linked websites, selects the websites to be examined next and invokes internal crawlers. Each internal crawler views the web-pages of a single given website and performs focused (page) crawling within that website. Our experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed focused website crawler clearly outperforms previous methods of focused crawling which were adapted to retrieve websites instead of single web-pages.
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Keywords- Deep Web; Quality Documents; Surface Web; Topical Database.
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27. Paper 22111012: Mobile Phone Augmented Reality Business Card (pp. 154-164)
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Edmund Ng Giap Weng, Centre of Excellence for Semantic Technology and Augmented Reality, Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Behrang Parhizkar, Faculty of Information & Communication Technology, LIMKOKWING University of Creative technology Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Teo Tzong Ren, Centre of Excellence for Semantic Technology and Augmented Reality, Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Arash Habibi Lashkari, Faculty of Information & Communication Technology, LIMKOKWING University of Creative technology Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

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Abstract - The main idea for this project is to introduce the technology of Mobile Phone Augmented Reality (AR) and develop an application for business card. AR technology is rather easier to introduce to the public by using Mobile Phone (Symbian OS). Thus, this project can brings up the basic idea of Mobile Phone AR technology and its application on a physical Business Card. Virtual 3D map is the information that display on Mobile Phone by using AR technology, while typical Business Card functions as marker which assist in marker tracking and location identifying process. Furthermore, lower end graphic is the challenge of this project in order to robust the capability of Mobile Phone followed by enhances efficiency rendering process in real time with AR technology.
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Keywords:
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28. Paper 25041127: Evercookies: Extremely Persistent Cookies (pp. 165-167)
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Mohd. Shadab Siddiqui, Deepanker Verma
UPTU: CS&E, SRMCEM, Lucknow, India

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Abstract — Now a days, internet marketing is on peak. Most of the companies use internet for marketing and advertisements of their business. For tracking visitors, cookies are stored in their browser by these company websites. But what, if visitor deleted the cookies stored? So it is really difficult to maintain a 100% correct record of visitors. So a new type of cookie is created which is really difficult to delete. The main purpose of this is to identify a returning visitor even if he/she has tried to delete the cookies stored in the browser. Samy Kamkar created a java script API for creating persistent cookies. This API is called evercookie.
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Keywords- evercookie, persistent cookie, advance visitor tracking.
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29. Paper 27041136: Potential Research into Spatial Cancer Database by Using Data Clustering Techniques (pp. 168-173)
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N. Naga Saranya, Research Scholar (C.S), Karpagam University, Coimbatore-641021, Tamilnadu, India.
Dr. M. Hemalatha, Head, Department of Software Systems, Karpagam University, Coimbatore-641021, Tamilnadu, India

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Abstract — Data mining, the taking out of hidden analytical information from large databases. Data mining tools forecast future trends and behaviors, allowing businesses to build practical, knowledge-driven decisions. This paper discusses the data analytical tools and data mining techniques to analyze data. It allows users to analyze data from many different dimensions or angles, sort it, and go over the relationships identified. Here we are analyzing the medical data as well as spatial data. Spatial data mining is the process of difficult to discover patterns in geographic data. Spatial data mining is measured a more difficult face than traditional mining because of the difficulties associated with analyzing objects with concrete existences in space and time. Here we applied clustering techniques to form the efficient cluster in discrete and continuous spatial medical database. The clusters of random shapes are created if the data is continuous in natural world. Furthermore, this application investigated data mining techniques (clustering techniques) such as Exclusive clustering and hierarchical clustering on the spatial data set to generate the well-organized clusters. The tentative results showed that there are certain particulars that are evolved and cannot be apparently retrieved as of raw data.
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Keywords- Data Mining, Spatial Data Mining, Clustering Techniques, K-means, HAC, Standard Deviation, Medical Database, Cancer Patients, Hidden Analytical.
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30. Paper 23111016: Augmented Reality For Museum Artifacts Visualization (pp. 174-185)
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Edmund Ng Giap Weng, Centre of Excellence for Semantic Technology and Augmented Reality, Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Behrang Parhizkar, Faculty of Information & Communication Technology, LIMKOKWING University of Creative technology Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Lina Chai Hsiao Ping, Centre of Excellence for Semantic Technology and Augmented Reality, Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Arash Habibi Lashkari, Faculty of Information & Communication Technology, LIMKOKWING University of Creative technology Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

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Abstract - Recently, advances in computer graphics and interactive techniques have increased the visual quality and field of Augmented Reality (AR) applications. Research into indoor exhibition systems associated with the use of AR technologies is getting general. This project describes an AR based system for overlaying computer generated information on the real world where museum artifacts are digitized in this project and superimposed in real scene. Furthermore, this project also presents the information of the artifacts in virtual form. 3D models are created and rendered in an AR environment providing an opportunity for museum visitors to visualize virtual artifacts in the context of other contextual information.
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Keywords:
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31. Paper 28041140: Cancelable Biometrics - A Survey (pp. 186-195)
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Indira Chakravarthy, Associate Professor,Dept of CSE, Geethanjali College of Engg & Technology , Hyderabad
Dr. VVSSS. Balaram, Professor & Head,Dept of Information Technology, Sreenidhi Institute of Science & Technology , Hyderabad
Dr. B. Eswara Reddy, Associate Professor & Head, Dept of CSE, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur

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Abstract — In recent times Biometrics has emerged as a reliable, convenient and effective method of user authentication. However, with the increasing use of biometrics in several diverse applications, concerns about the privacy and security of biometric data contained in the database systems has increased. It is therefore imperative that Biometric systems instill confidence in the general public, by demonstrating that, these systems are robust, have low error rates and are tamper proof. In this context, Biometric template security and revocability becomes an important issue. Protecting a biometric template assumes extreme importance because unlike a password or token, which when compromised can easily be revoked or replaced, a biometric cannot be replaced, once it is compromised. Besides if the same biometric trait is used in multiple applications, a user can be potentially tracked from one application to the other by cross matching biometric databases. Cancelable biometrics attempts to solve this problem by constructing revocable biometric templates. This paper attempts to bring out the various methods followed by different researchers towards building such technology.
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Keywords- Cancelable biometrics, Biometric template, Salting, Biophasoring, Noninvertible transforms, Key binding, Key generation.
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32. Paper 30041196: Reusable Code for CSOA-Services: Handling Data Coupling and Content Coupling (pp. 196-199)
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Shakeel Ahmad, Sheikh Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Ahmad Jan, Muhammad Zubair Asghar and Bashir Ahmad
Institute of Computing and Information Technology Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan

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Abstract — ‘Customized-SOA services are loosely coupled’; this should not be a slogan but be physically present. For adopting such features, code for each service should be independent. Common coupling, external coupling, control coupling can be eliminated but data coupling and content coupling may not be removed. But these two coupling types can be handled in such a way that code for each CSOA-service can be treated as a single unit. Here author proposed a strategy to design a code for Customized-SOA service with handling data coupling and content coupling. Such type of code for a CSOA-service will be very useful for reusing service in another CSOA-application. And also such code can be easily changed according to needs of users.
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Keywords- Customized-SOA, Loosely Coupling, Data Coupling, Content Coupling, Reusability.
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33. Paper 30041189: Computing the Efficiency of a DMU with Stochastic Inputs and Outputs Using Basic DEA Models (pp. 200-204)
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M. Nabahat, Sama technical and vocational training school, Islamic Azad university, Urmia branch, Urmia, Iran
F. Esmaeeli sangari, Sama technical and vocational training school, Islamic Azad university, Urmia branch, Urmia, Iran
S. M. Mansourfar, Sama technical and vocational training school, Islamic Azad university, Sahand branch, Sahand, Iran

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Abstract - This paper tries to introduce essential models of stochastic and deterministic models (DEA) using the Chance Constrained Programming model to measure the DMU, that enter the system simultaneously with the stochastic inputs and outputs. Considering the fact that by adding a Decision Making Unit to the series of DMUs the efficiency frontier may change, the main goal is to change the available essential stochastic models of DEA and compute the amount of efficiency of the DMU and its position in respect to the old frontier. Finally an Example is shown to highlight the procedure of changing the stochastic model to deterministic model.
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Keywords- DEA; Stochastic Programming; Efficiency; frontier
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34. Paper 30041195: Concentration on Business Values for SOA-Services: A Strategy for Service’s Business Values and Scope (pp. 205-208)
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Bashir Ahmad, Sheikh Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Zubair Asghar, Muhammad Ahmad Jan and Shakeel Ahmad
Institute of Computing and Information Technology Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan

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Abstract —Markets simply buy that what industry produce. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) enrolment in market works on this formula. Produced services in SOA work for many organization. Is it possible to incorporate business values of different organization in same service? Different authors suggest different business value’s practices. But still confusion is in same place that “people fail to explain SOA business value”. Although SOA business values is some time very hard to find because there will no a particular user of service. Here author evaluated the different business value’s practices and suggest a strategy for extracting SOA business values. Proposed strategy can help users to get themselves familiar with upcoming new services. Hence with proposed strategy, architect can design the service according to user needs.
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Keywords- SOA; Business Values; Service;
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35. Paper 31011180: Load-Balancing Geographic Routing Algorithm (ELBGR) For Wireless Sensor Networks (pp. 209-218)
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Nazia Perwaiz, Department of Computer Engineering, NUST College of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Dr. Muhammad Younus Javed, Department of Computer Engineering, NUST College of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

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Abstract - The major challenges faced by wireless sensor networks are energy-efficiency and self-organization. A thorough literature study of routing in WSNs shows that there exist so many routing protocols for WSNs, each of which has the common objective of trying to get better throughput and to extend the lifetime of the sensor network. In this research work the Location-based or Geographic routing in WSN is mainly focused for energy issues and a location based WSN routing protocol ELBGR (Energy aware & Load Balancing Geographic Routing) is proposed that features the energy efficiency and self organization of the wireless sensor networks. This protocol extends the lifetime of the network and balances the energy consumption of the nodes within the network. ELBGR considers neighbor’s energy levels, packet reception rate and the locations of the nodes for data forwarding purpose. Each node knows geographic location, energy levels and PRR of its neighbors. The proposed algorithm selects a set of relative optimal nodes from all neighbors called Forwarding Nodes Set (FNS) in the first phase and in the next phase from FNS, the Optimal Forwarding Node (OFN) is finally selected for forwarding purpose. The proposed algorithm balances the energy levels among all the neighbors. A comparison has been made between pre-existing routing algorithms Greedy routing, EAGR, EEAR, HHEAA and the proposed one ELBGR. The Simulation results (in OMNET++) show that the proposed algorithm gives better performance in terms of higher success rate, throughput and less number of dead nodes and it effectively increases the lifetime of the sensor networks.
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Keywords: WSN; Geographic routing; Energy efficient; Load balancing
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36. Paper 30041194: Custom Software under the Shade of Cloud Computing (pp. 219-223)
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Sheikh Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Ahmad Jan, Bashir Ahmad, Shakeel Ahmad and Muhammad Zubair Asghar
Institute of Computing and Information Technology Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan

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Abstract — A thing which is fruitful for everyone, who will not use that? Cloud computing is such shaded tree, where anyone can sit. Each automated organization has its own custom software which is the replacement of manual work. Custom software is installed on each organization’s machine and connected with database server. Server may be crash; simple fault in local network can occur or complexities about maintenance can hang whole custom application. So organizations can run their custom software in cloud computing environment and run their application on smooth way without any tension or confusion. Here author suggest a strategy how Desktop Based Custom Application (DBCS) can be converted in to Cloud Based Custom Software (CBCS). Since CBCS will be uploaded on FTP so organization’s users can access outside the organization. Here authors also provide the concept and implementation of Tinny Application (TA), which will work as barriers. By using TA, organization can take advantages of cloud computing, but CBCS will not work outside organization as DBCS.
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Keywords- Cloud Computing, Custom Software, CBCS, DBCS, TA, FTP
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37. Paper 27041118: Performance Analysis of The RAOA Protocol With Three Routing Protocols For Various Routing Metrics (pp. 224-230)
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Lt. Dr. S. Santhosh Baboo, D G Vaishnav College, Arumbakkam, Chennai – 106.
V. J. Chakravarthy, Dravidian University

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Abstract - In this paper, we have proposed a new RAOA protocol (Right Angle or Ant Search). It is a reactive (on-demand) routing protocol. This is done in route reply (RREP) method. During route reply when more than one route replies are about to reach to source there are high chances that they create congestion at the last point. This congestion is a cause for possible collisions. We tried to reduce this possibility of collisions. We propose to include delay in RREP when RREP is one hop away from the source. We compared the performance of the our proposed protocol RAOA with three prominent routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, namely Ad hoc On Demand Distance vector (AODV), Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). We have chosen four performance metrics, such as Average Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Load, and Throughput. The performance simulations are carried out on NS-2. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network size and simulation times. The simulation result confirms that RAOA performs well in terms of Average Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Load, and Throughput.
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Keywords: Ad-hoc Networks, Collision, Congestion, Average Delay, Performance Analysis, Routing protocols, Simulation.

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38. Paper 30041152: Multimedia Design Issues for Internet Telephony Protocols in Current High Performance Networks (pp. 231-239)
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A. Jayachandran ,Asst. Professor, CSE dept, PSN College of Engineering and Technology, Tirunelveli, India
Dr. R. Dhanasekaran, Principal , Syed Ammal Engineering college, Ramnad, India
P. Rajan, Professor in MCA dept, PSN College of Engineering and Technology, Tirunelveli, India

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Abstract - The rapid growth of media content distribution [5] on the internet in the past few years has brought with it commensurate increases in the cost of distributing the content. Underlying the internet access trends at a global scheme i.e. how people use the internet is a challenging problem i.e. typically addressed by network frames. We seek to understand the intrinsic reasons for the well known phenomenon of heavy tailed degree in the internet. AS graph and anywhere that the contrast to traditional model based on preferential attachment and centralized optimization the present degree of the internet can be explained by the evolution of wealth associated with each ISP. Our extensive numerical and simulation examples have shown that the proposed scheme achieves satisfied accuracy and computational efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed detection and trace back methods are verified through extensive simulations and internet datasets.
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Keywords : Peer to peer , Network security, Security policy, Content delivery, 3G/4G networks, Grid and Cloud computing
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39. Paper 30041174: Framework for Customized-SOA Projects (pp. 240-243)
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Sheikh Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Zubair Asghar, Shakeel Ahmad, Bashir Ahmad and Muhammad Ahmad Jan
Institute of Computing and Information Technology Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan

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Abstract — Presentation, business logic and information access are becoming modern trends for developing SOA applications. Building blocks of SOA include logical grouping of components to accomplish business functionality. Although Enterprise SOA application has no. of development methodologies, but CSOA (Customized SOA) application development is still at beginner level. Customized SOA application is just like customized software for an organization with no entry of physical material except logical material. Due to common characteristics of RUP and SOA, authors proposed a Business Modeling based model for CSOA. Proposed model for CSOA is a development framework which uses the discipline & practices of SOMA and RUP for the proper management of utilizing the basic characteristics of SOA such as reusing & changing existing service with less effort, adding new service at any time, developing new services with future plan and etc. Author suggests that proposed model will be the best development framework for COSA with respect to rest of models.
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Keywords- SOA, CSOA, SOMA, RUP and Service.
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41. Paper 30041161: Energy Efficient Cluster Head Election using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Networks (pp. 255-260)
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Mostafa Basirnezhad, Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Dr. Masoud Niazi Torshiz, Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

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Abstract — Routing problem is one of important issues in wireless sensor networks and many methods for this purpose is presented. One of these methods is the method of clustering. In this method suitable cluster head can be effective for efficiency and network lifetime. Nodes in the clustering approach can be divided into several groups and each group has a node with the name of cluster head which collect data from the rest nodes of the cluster and leads them to the sink. Although clustering reduces energy consumption, there might be some problem. The main problem is that the most energy consumption is gathered on the cluster head. To overcome this problem in clustering methods, energy consumption should be distributed that could be done by choosing appropriate Cluster head. In this paper a clustering trend based on the clusters reorganization and selecting fuzzy Cluster head is introduced. Fuzzy variables remaining energy of node distance of node to sink and average distance of node to other nodes to select Cluster heads considered. We compare the proposed algorithm terms of energy consumption and network lifetime with LEACH, Gupta and CHEF methods. Simulation results show that the proposed method in comparison with other methods have been improved considerably.
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Keywords- increased network lifetime; clustering; fuzzy logic; wireless sensor networks
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42. Paper 30041169: Effective Formal Procedure of Alternate Routings in MANET Improving Quality of Service (pp. 261-267)
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Shakeel Ahmed and A. K. Ramani, School of Computer Science and Information Technology, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, India
Nazir Ahmad Zafar, Department of Computer Science, King Faisal University, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia

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Abstract — Various protocols are proposed in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) for finding the best route from source to destination however, there doesn’t exist any real protocol considering all the parameters needed to attain acceptable level of Quality of Service (QoS) for real-time interactive applications. Consequently this is an open research problem and has become a challenging issue for today’s network services. Due to mobility of the nodes in MANET the topology changes frequently, the nodes are self organized, lack centralized control and move freely. Many of the routing protocols proposed maintain only one route to the specified node and do not consider important QoS parameters like bandwidth, packet type and the route is rediscovered in these protocols by the source node when the earlier route fails. In this paper, we have proposed a new Formal approach of multipath node-disjoint routings based on AODV protocol which uses two node-disjoint routes between source and destination to improve QoS. In the proposed approach mobility of nodes, bandwidth requirement, and battery life are considered in route discovery process that can significantly reduce end-to-end delay and increase packet delivery ratio. Dynamic graphs are used to model the network topology since the nodes of MANET are not fixed. Investigation and analysis of the proposed routing protocol is carried out by employing formal techniques. Z notation is used to describe the formal model because of its abstract and rigorous power of specifying the properties. The specification is analyzed and validated using Z Eves tool.
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Keywords-Ad Hoc networks; Alternate route; QoS; Formal methods; Z notation; Validation
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43. Paper 31121066: Speed Response and Performance Degradation of High Temperature Gamma Irradiated Silicon PIN Photodiodes (pp. 268-275)
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Abd El-Naser A. Mohamed (1), Nabil A. Ayad (2), Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed (1*) and Hazem M. El-Hageen1, (2)
(1) Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering Department, Faculty Electronic Engineering, Menouf, 32951, Egypt
(2) Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Naser City, Cairo, Egypt

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Abstract ─ In the present paper, we have been investigated deeply and parametrically the speed response of Si PIN photodiodes employed in high temperature-irradiated environment. The radiation-induced photodiodes defects can modify the initial doping concentrations, creating generation recombination centres and introducing trapping of carriers. Additionally, rate of the lattice defects is thermally activated and reduces for increasing irradiation temperature as a result of annealing of the damage. Nonlinear relations are correlated to investigate the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage dependences of the Si PIN photodiodes, where thermal and gamma irradiation effects are considered over the practical ranges of interest. Both the ambient temperature and the irradiation dose possess sever effects on the electro-optical characteristics and consequently the photo-response time and SNR of Si PIN photodiodes. In this paper, we derive the transient response of a Si PIN photodiode for photogeneration currents, when it is exposed to gamma radiation at high temperature. An exact model is obtained, which may be used to optimize the responsivity and speed of these irradiated devices over wide range of the affecting parameters.
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Keywords: Radiation effects, PIN photodiode, Optoelectronics, Transient current, Dark current, Photocurrent, Quantum efficiency, Responsitivity.
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44. Paper 30041176: A Multistage Detection and Elimination of Spurious Singular Points in Degraded Fingerprints (pp. 276-283)
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Zia Saquib, Santosh Kumar Soni, Sweta Suhasaria, Center for Development of Advanced Computing, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400049, India
Dimple Parekh, Rekha Vig, NMIMS University, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400056, India

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Abstract — Singular point (SP) detection is one of the most crucial phases in fingerprint authentication systems and is used for fingerprint classification, alignment and matching. This paper presents a multistage approach for detection and elimination of spurious singular points especially in degraded fingerprints. The approach comprises three stages. In the first stage, two different methods, viz., quadrant change and orientation reliability measure, are independently employed on the same image to generate two sets of candidate singular points. The second stage performs the multiscale analysis on a set of candidate SPs located by reliability method, which improves the approximation by reducing the list of SPs. In the third stage, the spurious singular points are detected and thereby eliminated by taking the intersection of the two sets of SPs. This model is tested on a proprietary (Lumidigm Venus V100 OEM Module sensor) fingerprint database at 500 ppi resolution. The experimental results show that the approach effectively eliminates the spurious SPs from the noisy and highly translated/rotated fingerprint images. The proposed scheme is also compared with one of the state-of-the-art techniques, the experimental results prove its superiority over the later.
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Keywords- Spurious Singular Points, Multiscale Analysis, Orientation Consistency, Quadrant Change, Reliability, Minimum Inertia, Maximum Inertia.
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45. Paper 25041128: Practical Implementation Of Matlab Based Approach For Face Detection Using Feedforward Network (pp. 284-290)
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Meenakshi Sharma, Sukhvinder Singh, Dr. N Suresh Rao
Sri Sai College Of Engg. & Tech., Pathankot, Jammu University

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Abstract - The objective is to recognise and identify faces, not previously presented to or in some way processed by the system. There are many datasets involved in this project. Some of them are the ORL, MIT database which consisting of a large set of images of different people. The database has many variations in pose, scale, facial expression and details. Some of the images are used for training the system and some for testing. The test set is not involved in any part of training or configuration of the system, except for the weighted committees as described in a section later on.
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Keywords- Face recognition, PCA,Symbols, Matlab, Feedforward Network.
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46. Paper 30041168: Reducing False Alerts Using Intelligent Hybrid Systems (pp. 291-297)
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Sravan Kumar Jonnalagadda, Subha Sree Mallela
D.M.S.S.V.H. College of Engineering, Department of Information Technology, Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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Abstract - Currently, computer systems manage large amounts of data over the network. The growth of data communications has involved an increase in unauthorized accesses and data manipulation with the resulting security violations. Hackers and intruders have made many successful attempts to bring down high-profile company networks and web services. Many methods have been developed to secure the network infrastructure and communication over the Internet, among them the use of firewalls, encryption, and virtual private networks. Since it is impossible to predict and identify all the vulnerabilities of a network, and penetration into a system by malicious intruders cannot always be prevented, intrusion detection systems (IDS) are essential entities for ensuring the security of a networked system. . An IDS is software (or hardware) designed to detect unwanted attempts at accessing, manipulating, or disabling of computer systems, mainly through a network.. This paper begins with a review of the most well-known intrusion detection technique called snort. The aim of this paper is to present an anomaly detection processor that extends Snort to a hybrid scheme. Finally, the design of a distributed HIDS is proposed that consists of a group of autonomous and cooperating agents. Distributed hybrid intrusion detection system comprising of a multi-agent framework with computational intelligent techniques to reduce the data features to create lightweight detection systems and a hybrid intelligent system approach to improve the detection accuracy.
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Keywords- Network Security, Intrusion detection systems, tcpdump, Snort, Rule structure, Hybrid IDS, anomaly detection processor, Episode Rules
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47. Paper 31041173: A Matlab Implementation of The Back-Propagation Approach for Reusability of Software Components (pp. 298-302)
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Meenakshi Sharma (1),Priyanka Kakkar (2), Dr. Parvinder Sandhu (3)
Sri Sai College Of Engg. & Tech., Pathankot (1,2),,Rayat Kharar (3)

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Abstract - Before the age of the computer, there were many mathematical problems that humans could not easily solve, or more precisely (and this distinction is extremely important) humans were too slow in solving. Computers enabled these often simple but slow and tedious tasks to be performed quickly and accurately. The first problems solved with computers were calculating equations to resolve important physical problems, and later displaying a nice GUI, making word processors and so on. However, there are many common tasks which are trivial for humans to perform (without even any conscious effort) yet which are extremely difficult to formulate in a way that a computer may easily solve.
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Keywords:- Reusability, JISC, GUI, back-propagation algorithm.

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48. Paper 30041157: Decision tree Induction Algorithm for Classification of Image Data (pp. 303-306)
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Kesari verma, Department of Computer Science, National Institute of Technology, Raipur, India
Ligendra Kumar Verma, Department of Computer Science, Raipur Institute of Technology, Raipur, India
Ajay Dewangan, Vivekananda College of Technology, Raipur, India

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Abstract— Image classification is one of the challenge problems of image processing. This paper proposes a novel method for classification of image data. The paper emphasis on major classification methods and some extension on existing decision tree induction algorithm [4].
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Keywords- Image Classification, Feature Extraction

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