IJCSIS EDITORIAL BOARD

BEST PAPER AWARD

Vol. 9 No. 4 APR 2011

Vol. 9 No. 4 April 2011 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication April 2011, Volume 9 No. 4 (Download Full Journal) (Archive)

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Copyright © IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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1. Paper 28031141: Dynamic Rough Sets Features Reduction (pp. 1-10)
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Walid MOUDANI (1), Ahmad SHAHIN (1), Fadi SHAKIK (1), and Félix Mora-Camino (2)
(1) Lebanese University, Faculty of Business, Dept. of Business Information System, Lebanon
(2) Air Transportation Department, ENAC, 31055 Toulouse, France

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Abstract— Nowadays, and with the current progress in technologies and business sales, databases with large amount of data exist especially in retail companies. The main objective of this study is to reduce the complexity of the classification problems while maintaining the prediction classification quality. We propose to apply the promising technique Rough Set theory which is a new mathematical approach to data analysis based on classification of objects of interest into similarity classes, which are indiscernible with respect to some features. Since some features are of high interest, this leads to the fundamental concept of “Attribute Reduction”. The goal of Rough set is to enumerate good attribute subsets that have high dependence, discriminating index and significance. The naïve way of is to generate all possible subsets of attribute but in high dimension cases, this approach is very inefficient while it will require 2d -1 iterations. Therefore, we apply Dynamic programming technique in order to enumerate dynamically the optimal subsets of the reduced attributes of high interest by reducing the degree of complexity. Implementation has been developed, applied, and tested over a 3 years historical business data in Retail Business. Simulations and visual analysis are shown and discussed in order to validate the accuracy of the proposed tool.
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Keywords- Data Mining; Business Retail; Rough Sets; Attribute Reduction; Classification; Dynamic Programming.
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2. Paper 30031145: A Study on the Performance of Classical Clustering Algorithms with Uncertain Moving Object Data Sets (pp. 11-16)
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Angeline Christobel . Y, College of Computer Studies, AMA International University, Salmabad, Kingdom of Bahrain
Dr. Sivaprakasam, Department of Computer Science, Sri Vasavi College, Erode, India

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Abstract— In recent years, real world application domains are generating data with uncertainty, incomplete and probabilistic in nature. Examples of such data include location based services, sensor networks, scientific and biological databases. Data mining is widely used to extract interesting patterns in the large amount of data generated by such applications. In this paper, we addressed the classical mining and data-analysis algorithms, particularly clustering algorithms, for clustering uncertain and probabilistic data. To model uncertain database, we simulated a moving object database with two states: one contains real location and another contains outdated recorded location. We evaluated the performance and compared the results of clustering the two states of location data with k-means, DBSCAN and SOM.
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Key Words: Data Mining, Uncertain Data, Moving Objects Database, Clustering.
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3. Paper 14031106: Bijection and Isomorphism on Graph of Sn(123; 132) from One of (n − 1) Length Binary Strings (pp. 17-20)
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A. Juarna & A.B. Mutiara
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Gunadarma University, Jl. Margonda Raya No.100, Depok 16424, Indonesia

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Abstract — Simion and Schmidt showed in 1985 that the cardinality of the set Sn(123,132) length n permutations avoiding the patterns 123 and 132, is 2n-1, but in the other side 2n-1 is the cardinality of the set Bn-1 = {0,1}n-1 of length (n-1) binary strings. Theoretically, it must exist a bijection between Sn(123,132) and Bn-1. In this paper we give a constructive bijection between Bn-1 and Sn(123,132); we show that it is actually an isomorphism and illustrate this by constructing a Gray code for Sn(123,132) from a known similar result for Bn-1. As we noted that an isomorphism between two combinatorial classes is a closeness preserving bijection between those classes, that is, two objects in a class are closed if and only if their images by this bijection are also closed. Often, as in this paper, closeness is expressed in terms of Hamming distance. Isomorphism allows us to find out some properties of a combinatorial class X (or for the graph induced by the class X) if those properties are found in the pre image of the combinatorial class X; some mentioned properties are hamiltonian path, graph diameter, exhaustive and random generation, and ranking and unranking algorithms.
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Keywords-pattern-avoiding permutations; binary strings, constructive bijection; Hamming distance; combinatorial isomorphism.
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4. Paper 28031140: An Investigation of QoS in Ubiquitous Network Environments (pp. 21-30)
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Aaqif Afzaal Abbasi, Mureed Hussain
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Abstract — Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning is a critical issue when it is applied to networks, consisting of different Architectures, Schemas and Technologies. The Resource Reservation Control Mechanisms and the ability of Priority Assignment up to desired Performance levels are must for ensuring QoS Standards. The paper briefly reviews QoS framework Architectures and derive their shortcomings for improvement in Degradation/ Attenuation and Network Service Congestion Control issues in Ubiquitous Network Environments.
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Keyword: QoS, Ubiquitous, Mobility, Handover, Performance, Heterogenous
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5. Paper 31031181: Information Agents in Database Systems as a New Paradigm for Software Developing Process (pp. 31-34)
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Eva Cipi, Department of informatics engineering, University of Vlora, Vlora, Albania,
Betim Cico, Department of informatics engineering, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

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Abstract— This work aims at giving new possible solutions combining an information agents architecture and database techniques in the management of information. We consider agents as powerful tools for handling the systems’ complexity and very efficient to bring modularity in software development. Here is presented a case study of an agent-based architecture which uses information agents dedicated to the specific tasks of the business process management and other intelligent agents that will try to extract the knowledge from databases and to offer intelligent decisions.
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Keywords- information agent; database system; software development; multi-agent-based architecture;
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6. Paper 28031142: Determination of the Traveling Speed of a Moving Object of a Video Using Background Extraction and Region Based Segmentation (pp. 35-39)
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Md. Shafiul Azam, Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Pabna Science and Technology University, Pabna, Bangladesh.
Md. Rashedul Islam, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Leading University, Sylhet, Bangladesh
Md. Omar Faruqe, Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

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Abstract —This paper is concerned with the determination of the traveling speed of a moving object of a video clip based on subsequent object detection techniques. After preprocessing of the original image sequence, which is sampled from the video camera, the target moving object is detected with the improved algorithm in which the moving object region can be extracted completely through several processing of background extraction and region based segmentation such as region-connection, region- merging, and region-clustering methods. Among the multiple moving objects of the video, the target object has been detected based on particular criteria of region that it occupies. Then the results of these processing can be used to determine the traveling speed of the target moving object from changes of its coordinate position from the video frames. Among the different video file format, Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) format has been used to examine our experiments.
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Keywords-Background Extraction; Region Based Segmentation;Reference Image, Speed Determination.
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7. Paper 14031105: An introduction to Biometrics (pp. 40-47)
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Sarah BENZIANE, Institut of maintenance and industrial security, University of Oran, Algeria
Abdelkader BENYETTOU, Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Science & Technology Mohamed Boudiaf of Oran, Algeria

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Abstract— Biometric recognition has been studied over10 years, the biometric use was only limited for the police application’s before .During this period, many different problems to the recognition were addressed; when looking to its potential advantages, this technology is now considered for a very great number of other applications. This paper gives an overview of different research on biometrics.
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Keywords-component; biometrics; modalities; biometric system; databases
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8. Paper 14031107: Score-Level Fusion for Efficient Multimodal Person Identification using Face and Speech (pp. 48-53)
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Hanaa S. Ali, Mahmoud I. Abdalla,
Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

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Abstract — In this paper, a score fusion personal identification method using both face and speech is introduced to improve the rate of single biometric identification. For speaker recognition, the input speech signal is decomposed into various frequency channels using the multi-resolution property of wavelet transform. For capturing the characteristics of the signal, the Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) of the wavelet channels are calculated. For the recognition stage, hidden Markov models (HMMs) are used. Comparison of the proposed approach with the MFCCs conventional method shows that the proposed method not only effectively reduces the influence of noise but also improves recognition. For face recognition, the wavelet-only scheme is used in the feature extraction stage of face and nearest neighbour classifier is used in the recognition stage. The proposed method relies on fusion of approximations and horizontal details subbands normalized with z-score at the score level. After each subsystem computes its own matching score, the individual scores are finally combined into a total score using sum rule, which is passed to the decision module. Although fusion of horizontal details with approximations gives small improvement in face recognition using ORL database, their fused scores prove to improve recognition accuracy when combining face score with voice score in a multimodal identification system. The recognition rate obtained with speech in noisy environment is 97.08% and the rate obtained from ORL face database is 97.92%. The overall recognition rate using the proposed method is 99.6%.
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Keywords:
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9. Paper 17021102: Access Control Via Biometric Authentication System (pp. 54-63)
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Okumbor Anthony N., Computer Centre, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Nigeria
S. C. Chiemeke (Ph.D), Associate Professor Computer Science, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

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Abstract— Presently, the conventional systems such as possession of an object like a key or identity card, or the knowledge of a password or login used by the Delta State government of Nigeria to verify her personnel for access to the state scholarship scheme are prone to a lot of inadequacies, such as fraud and identity theft. In other to overcome this problem, this research proposes an alternative solution in the area of Biometrics technology using advanced computer techniques as a widely adopted front-line security. In this research, the concept and related literatures is reviewed. The method adopted in carrying out the research, is study of the existing system and evolutionary prototyping of the new system. The developed solution is essentially a pattern recognition system that captures an individual data and fingerprint and uses the minutiae algorithm as a determinant for authentication. The application is developed using the Visual Basic.Net framework for the front-end, fingerprint SDK as a component and MS SQL Server for the backend. ‘BioPersonnel Authenticator’ provides positive identification; it is user friendly, flexible and supports various device. On deployment of the application it serves as a data repository for the state and it is recommended for adoption by other organs of government.
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Keywords- Authentication, Biometrics, Template and Reference
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10. Paper 22031123: A Middleware Platform for Pervasive Environment (pp. 64-73)
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Vasanthi. R, Research Scholar, Computer Science and Engineering, Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu , India
Dr. R.S.D. Wahidabanu, Research Supervisor, Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu , India

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Abstract — The basic goal of pervasive computing is to develop technologies that allow smart devices to automatically adapt to changing environments and contexts, making the environment largely imperceptible to the user. One big barrier to the wide spread development of pervasive computing applications lies in the increased complexity of the programming task. There is a big gap between high-level application requirements, and low-level complex system organization and operations. Middleware can help bridge the gap – supporting rapid development and deployment of applications by domain experts with minimal programming expertise. However, pervasive computing poses new challenges to middleware research. Publish/Subscribe (pub/sub) middleware has many advantages when implementing systems for spontaneous, ad-hoc, pervasive applications. This paper describes REBECA architecture and the REBECA notification service. To efficiently support mobility, it is necessary to adequately deal with the uncertainty introduced by client movement. This paper sketches how this is done in the existing pub/sub middleware with REBECA and shows how to increase the efficiency of logical mobility by adapting the implementation of physical mobility.
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Keywords-Middleware;ubiquitous interfaces;publish/ subscribe; REBECA
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11. Paper 22031129: Watermarking Social Networking Relational Data using Non-numeric Attribute (pp. 74-77)
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Rajneeshkaur Bedi #1, Dr. V. M. Wadhai #2, Rekha Sugandhi #3,Atul Mirajkar #4
#Computer Engineering Department, Pune University
MIT College of Engineering, Pune, India

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Abstract — On-line social networking has become a very popular nowadays. This paper studies the copyright issue of on-line social networks data in relational database. Techniques and concepts of mining for social network is discussed which gives rise to the need of watermarking its data. Proving ownership rights on such data is a crucial issue in social network which can be to some extent contribute to privacy preserving issue also. Watermark key is generated on vowel and consonant count and accordingly the profile image is scaled. Our algorithm is robust against common database attacks.
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Index Terms— Mining, Social Networking, Watermarking, copyright protection
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12. Paper 28031138: Internet Adoption in Indonesian Education: Are Female Teachers Able to Use and Anxious of Internet? (pp. 78-87)
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Farida 1, Sri Wulan Windu Ratih 2, Betty Yudha Sulistiowati 3, Budi Hermana 4
1,2,3 Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, 4 Faculty of Economics, Gunadarma University, Jl. Margonda Raya No.100, Depok City, West Java, Indonesia

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Abstract — This research aims to determine the patterns of internet usage behavior and perceptions of the internet among female teachers in elementary schools, in terms of Internet Anxiety and Internet Self-Efficacy. The level of adoption is measured by two groups of measurement they are the internet adopter and non-adopters, and also adopters, potential adopters, and non-adopters. The object of research was taken by sampling from 264 female teachers who teach in Jakarta and outside Jakarta. The result shows that Internet adopter groups tend to show higher perceptions of the Internet usefulness, the practical use, technical understanding, and social influence, while groups of potential adopters and non-adopters tend to exhibit a high level of anxiety about the internet. The level of adoption on Internet usage can be predicted by using the Internet anxiety and Internet self-efficacy with prediction rate of 58.8 percent for three-level scale adoption of Internet adopters, potential adopters, and non-adopters, and 71.9 percent for two-scale of the Internet adopter and non-adopters. Teachers who teach in private schools show higher level of internet adoption than those in public schools. Another result from the research is the female teachers working outside Jakarta are more anxious of internet usage than those who work in Jakarta.
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Keywords: Internet Anxiety, Internet Self-Efficacy, Digital Divide, Gender Issues
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13. Paper 22031130: Synthesis of Linear Antenna Array using Genetic Algorithm to Maximize Sidelobe Level Reduction (pp. 88-93)
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T.S. Jeyali Laseetha 1, Professor, Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering, Holycross Engineering College, Anna University Of Technology, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India
Dr. (Mrs.) R.Sukanesh 2, Professor, Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering, Thiagarajar College Of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India

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Abstract — The Genetic algorithm optimization method is used in this paper for the synthesis of antenna array radiation pattern in adaptive beamforming. The synthesis problem discussed is to find the weights of the antenna array elements that are optimum to provide the radiation pattern with maximum reduction in the sidelobe level. This technique proved its effectiveness in improving the performance of the antenna array.
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Keywords- Adaptive Beamforming, Sidelobe level, Genetic Algorithm, Linear antenna array, Pattern synthesis, convergence, Array factor.
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14. Paper 31031153: An Efficient Constrained K-Means Clustering using Self Organizing Map (pp. 94-99)
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M. Sakthi and Dr. Antony Selvadoss Thanamani
Department of Computer Science, NGM College, Pollachi, Tamilnadu

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Abstract --- The rapid worldwide increase in the data available leads to the difficulty for analyzing those data. Organizing data into interesting collection is one of the most basic forms of understanding and learning. Thus, a proper data mining approach is required to organize those data for better understanding. Clustering is one of the standard approaches in the field of data mining. The main of this approach is to organize a dataset into a set of clusters, which consists of similar data items, as calculated by some distance function. K-Means algorithm is the widely used clustering algorithm because of its ability and simple nature. When the dataset is larger, K-Means will misclassify the data points. For overcoming this problem, some constraints must be included in the algorithm. The resulting algorithm is called as Constrained K-Means Clustering. The constraints used in this paper are Must-link constraint, Cannot-link constraint, δ-constraint and ε-constraint. For generating the must-link and cannot-link constraints, Self Organizing Map (SOM) is used in this paper. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm results in better classification than the standard K-Means clustering technique.
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Keywords--- K-Means, Self Organizing Map (SOM), Constrained K-Means
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15. Paper 31031163: Applying and Analyzing Security using Images : Steganography v.s. Steganalysis (pp. 100-105)
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Nighat Mir, Computer Science Department, Effat University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Asrar Qadi & Wissal Dandachi, Computer Science Department, Effat University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Abstract - Steganography is an art of hiding a message in such a way that anyone is unaware of the message’s presence. It is an Image processing technique used for hiding information and challenges an eavesdropper to break into a message. Steganography is a Greek work which means “covered writing”. Steganalysis in opposite is a technique used to real the hidden messages. Cover images are used to embed information which results as stego images are further introduced on a communication channel for a secret conversation between parties. There are some characteristics in images that must be analyzed to lead us to the existence of a hidden message and identify where to look for the hidden information. Steganalysis is used to analyze if a secret communication is taking place through images. There are different tools for applying and analyzing security using images. In this paper Steganography and Steganalysis both techniques have been practiced and analyzed on images using xiao tool. The xiao tool also has built-in cryptographic algorithms, which adds another layer of security.
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Keywords- Steganography; Steganalysis; cryptography; security; xiao
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16. Paper 31031182: An Overview and Study of Security issues & Challenges in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (pp. 106-111)
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Umesh Kumar Singh, Institute of Computer Science, Vikram University Ujjain INDIA-456010
Shivlal Mewada, Institute of Computer Science, Vikram University Ujjain INDIA-456010
Lokesh laddhani, Institute of Computer Science, Vikram University Ujjain INDIA-456010
Kamal Bunkar, Institute of Computer Science, Vikram University Ujjain INDIA-456010

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Abstract - Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is one of the most promising fields for research and development of wireless network. As the popularity of mobile device and wireless networks significantly increased over the past years, wireless ad-hoc networks has now become one of the most vibrant and active field of communication and networks. Due to severe challenges, the special features of MANET bring this technology great opportunistic together. This paper describes the fundamental problems of ad hoc network by giving its related research background including the concept, features, status, and vulnerabilities of MANET. This paper presents an overview and the study of the routing protocols. Also include the several challenging issues, emerging application and the future trends of MANET.
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Keywords:- MANET, Wireless Networks, Ad-hoc Network, Routing Protocol
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17. Paper 31031165: An Intelligent Agent Based Text-Mining System: Presenting Concept through Design Approach (pp. 112-117)
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Kaustubh S. Raval, Ranjeetsingh S. Suryawanshi, Professor Devendra M. Thakore
Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, College of Engineering, Pune – 411043.
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Abstract – Text mining is a variation on a field called data mining and refers to the process of deriving high-quality information from unstructured text. In text-mining the goal is to discover unknown information, something that may not be known by people. Now here the aim is to design an intelligent agent based text-mining system which reads on the text (input) and based on the keyword provide the matching documents (in the form of links) or options (statements) according to the user’s query. In this paper the effort is to depict design approach for intelligent agent based text mining system.
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Keywords – Data Mining, Text Mining, Intelligent agent.
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18. Paper 31031151: Temperature Measurement Of Dynamic Object (pp. 118-122)
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Varsha Khare, Shivajirao S.Jondhle Polytechnic, Asangaon, Maharashtra India
Mrs. Rodge M.P., H.O.D.-Shivajirao S.Jondhle College of Engineering & Technology, Asangaon Maharashtra India

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Abstract - Temperature is one of the most commonly measured and controlled parameters in industry. Proper monitoring and control of process temperature improves product quality, reduces product scrap, and improves overall product yield and process speed. Every industry in today’s competitive marketplace is putting in place programs and systems to lower production costs, through automated production and quality control systems. To measure temperature of dynamic object most of the industries are using telemetry technique for temperature measurement. This technique has certain limitations like; limited range of temperature, surface of dynamic objects, battery life and safety factor. In this paper an attempt is made to overcome this limitations using infrared thermometry. This system is tested on Zamak Mould Machine & Volkswagen Welding Machine in Tata Ficosa Company, Pune. It is nondestructive measurement method so no damage to product and no breakage due to contact with moving objects.
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Keywords: Infrared Sensor, Microcontroller, Zamak Mould Machine & Volkswagen Welding Machine
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19. Paper 28031139: Dynamic Slicing of Aspect Oriented Programs using AODG (pp. 123-126)
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Sk Riazur Raheman, Dept of MCA, REC,Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India
Abhishek Ray, School of Technology, KIIT University, Orissa, India
Sasmita Pradhan, Dept of MCA, REC, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India

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Abstract - In software engineering, the programming paradigms of Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) attempt to aid programmers in the separation of concerns, specifically cross-cutting concerns. All programming methodologies including procedural programming and object-oriented programming support some separation and encapsulation of concerns into single entities. Since such crosscutting aspects are usually distributed among objects in object-oriented programming, it is difficult to maintain them consistently. In AOP they can be written in a single aspect and thus easy to maintain. This research work proposes an algorithm for calculating the Dynamic Slice of AOP, which uses Aspect Oriented Dependence Graph (AODG) and traversing algorithm.
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Keywords – AOP; Cross-cutting concern; AODG; Data dependence; Control dependence; Weaving arc; Call arc.
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20. Paper 24031134: Qualitative Analysis of Hardware Description Languages: VHDL and Verilog (pp. 127-135)
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R. Uma, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering and Technology, Pondicherry, India
R. Sharmila, Electronics and Communication Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering and Technology Puducherry, India

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Abstract — The field of electronics has, in the recent decades witnessed unprecedented, explosive and exciting progress. Several monumental changes have occurred in the design structure and execution of electronics principles. In the design process the functionality is defined through Hardware Description Language (HDL) especially Very High Speed Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and Verilog. A single chip is modeled by a large number of solid state devices and integrated circuits incorporating millions of active devices, these devices can be developed by using HDLs. VHDL on the other hand is evolved by incorporating and integrating ADA and Pascal language whereas Verilog is based on C language. These languages differ in different aspects bring a large differences between them in terms of their content, structure, reusability, portability, cost and so on. These differences also produce implementation issues. A comparison of the distinguishing characteristics in their entire ramification would help to frame future research in the field of electronics. In this direction, this paper attempts on an analysis of these languages will also help us to determine the relative superiority among these languages.
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Keywords- HDL, VHDL, Verilog, performance evaluation
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21. Paper 22031131: Data Mining: A prediction for performance improvement using classification (pp. 136-140)
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Brijesh Kumar Bhardwaj, Research Scholar, Singhaniya University, Rajasthan, India
Saurabh Pal, Dept. of Computer Applications, VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur (UP) - 224001, India

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Abstract — Now-a-days the amount of data stored in educational database increasing rapidly. These databases contain hidden information for improvement of students’ performance. The performance in higher education in India is a turning point in the academics for all students. This academic performance is influenced by many factors, therefore it is essential to develop predictive data mining model for students’ performance so as to identify the difference between high learners and slow learners student. In the present investigation, an experimental methodology was adopted to generate a database. The raw data was preprocessed in terms of filling up missing values, transforming values in one form into another and relevant attribute/ variable selection. As a result, we had 300 student records, which were used for by Byes classification prediction model construction.
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Keywords- Data Mining, Educational Data Mining, Predictive Model, Classification.
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22. Paper 22031125: ASIP Design Space Exploration: Survey and Issues (pp. 141-145)
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Deepak Gour, Assistant Professor – Dept. of CSE, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur, India
Dr. M. K. Jain, Assistant Professor – Dept. of CS, Mohan Lal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India

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Abstract — An Application Specific Instruction set Processor (ASIP) is a processor designed for a particular application or for a set of applications. An ASIP exploits special characteristics of application(s) to meet the desired performance, cost and power requirements. The main steps involved in ASIP Design Methodology include application analysis, design space exploration, instruction set generation, code synthesis and hardware synthesis. This paper is an attempt to survey the design space exploration of ASIP. Important contributions made by various researchers are also highlighted. A list of explored design space parameters is included in this paper.
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Keywords- Application Specific Instruction set Processor (ASIP), Design Space Exploration (DSE), Performance estimation, Simulator based approach.
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23. Paper 20031119: POur-NIR: Modified Node Importance Representative for Clustering of Categorical Data (pp. 146-150)
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S. Viswanadha Raju, N. Sudhakar Reddy, H. Venkateswara Reddy, G. Sreenivasulu, C. NageswaraRaju
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Abstract - The problem of evaluating node importance in clustering has been active research in present days and many methods have been developed. Most of the clustering algorithms deal with general similarity measures. However In real situation most of the cases data changes over time. But clustering this type of data not only decreases the quality of clusters but also disregards the expectation of users, when usually require recent clustering results. In this regard we proposed Our-NIR method that is better than Ming-Syan Chen proposed a method and it has proven with the help of results of node importance, which is related to calculate the node importance that is very useful in clustering of categorical data, still it has deficiency that is importance of data labeling and outlier detection. In this paper we modified Our-NIR method for evaluating of node importance by introducing the probability distribution which will be better than by comparing the results.
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Keywords- clustering, NIR,Our-NIR, Categorical data and node.
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24. Paper 21041117: Packet Forwarding Encouragement Scheme in a Wireless Sensor Network (pp. 151-156)
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Praveen Kaushik, Department of CSE, MANIT, Bhopal, India
Jyoti Singhai, Department of ECE, MANIT, Bhopal, India

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Abstract - The most common issue in wireless sensor networks is limited availability of energy within network nodes. A widely used energy-saving technique is to place nodes in sleep mode, corresponding to low-power consumption as well as to reduce operational capabilities. To conserve energy, sometime nodes may try to maximize the benefits of its own without participating in routing services (e.g. without forwarding packets of other nodes). To conquer with this problem, several schemes have been investigated in the literature. In this paper such nodes are detected and evicted from the network using rating based multipath dynamic source routing. In our approach after route discovery, multiple paths are returned by the destination node, which are stored by source node in route cache. Once source node identifies such node in its path based on its rating threshold, an alternative path is selected from the route cache. In sensor network a node may be overused due to network topology. In order to mitigate this problem, this paper uses a minimum battery cost routing (MBCR).The simulation results for rating based multipath dynamic source routing indicates significant improvement in aggregate network throughput.
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Keywords- minimum cost; multipath ; reluctant node; wireless sensor network;
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25. Paper 18031113: A Multi-criteria Decision Model For EOL Computers in Reverse Logistics (pp. 157-161)
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K.ArunVasantha Geethan , Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sathyabama University, Chennai. India
Dr.S.Jose, Loyola-ICAM College of Engineering & Technology ,Chennai. India
R.Devisree, Cognizant Technology Solutions, Chennai. India
S.Godwin Barnabas, St.Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai. India

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Abstract - With obsolescence rates on the rise the question as to what the user ultimately does with the end-of-life (EOL) product becomes an issue that has both environmental and economic implication. An important concern in EOL management for electronic products is to connect the equipment owners with potential buyers who may be interested in their EOL items, whether for reuse, component retrieval or material recovery. There is an estimate that the total obsolete computers originating from government offices, business houses, industries and household is of the order of 2.5 million numbers per year. Manufacturers and assemblers in a single calendar year are estimated to produce around 1500 tons of electronic scrap. One of the important problems faced by the top management in the computer hardware industries is the evaluation of various alternatives for EOL computers. The paper aims at linking the various issues of the reverse logistics in a single systematic framework for the selection of an alternative for the reverse logistics operations for EOL computers. The utility of the Analytic network process (ANP) in integrating both quantitative as well as the qualitative characteristics and using C++ as the platform for arriving at the best possible solution proves to be more realistic and accurate.
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Keywords: end-of-life, obsolescence, analytic network program, alternatives, reverse logistics.
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26. Paper 12031101: Implementation of Direct Processor Access in Transient Faulty Nodes (pp. 162-166)
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P. S. Balamurugan, B. E., M. E., Research Scholar , Anna university, Coimbatore
Dr. K.Thanushkodi, B. E., M. Sc (Engg),Ph. D, Director , Akshaya College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore

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Abstract - Wireless sensor networks faces a number of challenges; a wireless sensor network which includes a number of sensor nodes must provide reliability and fault tolerance against a number of odds such as scalability, hardware, environmental conditions, power and energy factors. In this paper, we address these two issues of Reliability and Fault Tolerance using mirror nodes. We demonstrate that increased reliability can be achieved by using mirror nodes and the costs could be maintained by implementing the Direct Processor Access(DPA). Experimental results on the benchmarks data set show that our proposed system based on Direct Processor Access outperforms the other well-known methods such as the Distributed Deviation Detection, Distributed anomaly detection, Intrusion detection for routing attacks, Statistical en route filtering and Abnormal Relationship Tests(ART). The improvement in performance using DPA is very high, particularly, for the graphical and network processes (6.8 percent improvement). Statistical Tests also demonstrate higher fault tolerance and improvement in performance for our method. Finally, we show that our system is robust and is able to handle faulty sensor nodes without compromising performance.
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Keywords -Wireless Sensor Networks; Faulty Sensor Nodes; Fault Tolerance; Direct Processor Access ; Mirror Nodes
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