IJCSIS EDITORIAL BOARD

BEST PAPER AWARD

Vol. 9 No. 3 MAR 2011

Vol. 9 No. 3 March 2011 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication March 2011, Volume 9 No. 3 (Download Full Journal) (Archive)

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Copyright © IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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1. Paper 28021153: Addressing Vulnerability of Mobile Computing: A Managerial Perspective (pp. 1-5)
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Arben Asllani and Amjad Ali
Center for Security Studies, University of Maryland University College, Adelphi, Maryland, USA

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Abstract — Popularity of mobile computing in organizations has risen significantly over the past few years. Notebooks and laptop computers provide the necessary computing power and mobility for executives, managers, and other professionals. Such advantages come with a price for the security of the organizational networks: increased vulnerability. The paper discusses three types of mobile computing vulnerability: physical, system, and network access vulnerability. Using a managerial approach, the paper offers a framework to deal with such vulnerabilities. The framework suggests specific courses of action for two possible scenarios. When there is no present threat, a proactive approach is suggested. When one or more threats are present, a reactive, matrix-based approach is suggested. Both approaches offer a systematic methodology to address laptop vulnerabilities. A similar framework can be extended to address security vulnerabilities of other mobile computing devices in addition to notebooks and laptop computers. A real case scenario from a network in a university college in the southeastern U.S. is used to illustrate the proposed framework.
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Keywords - mobile computing; cybersecurity; vulnerability; managerial approach
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2. Paper 28021166: Reduction of PAPR for OFDM Downlink and IFDMA Uplink Wireless Transmissions (pp. 6-13)
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Bader Hamad Alhasson , Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Denver, Denver, USA
Mohammad A. Matin, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Denver, Denver, USA

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Abstract - One of the major drawbacks of OFDM is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signals. In this paper, we propose a novel low complexity clipping scheme applicable to Interleaved-FDMA uplink and OFDM downlink systems for PAPR reduction. We show the performance of PAPR of the proposed Interleaved-FDMA scheme is better than traditional OFDMA for uplink transmission system. Our reduction of PAPR is 53% when IFDMA is used instead of OFDMA in the uplink transmission. We also examine an important trade-off relationship between clipping distortion and quantization noise when the clipping scheme is used for OFDM downlink systems. Our results show that we were able to reduce the PAP ratio by 50% and reduce the out-of-band radiation caused by clipping for OFDM downlink transmission system.
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Keywords-component-- Signal to quantization noise ratio (SQNR);Localized-frequency-division-multiple-access (LFDMA); interleaved-frequency-division-multiple-access (IFDMA); peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR); clipping ratio (CR); single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA).
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3. Paper 28021123: Evolution Prediction of the Aortic Diameter Based on the Thrombus Signal from MR Images on Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (pp. 14-19)
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A. Suhendra, C.M. Karyati, A.Muslim, A.B. Mutiara
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Gunadarma University, Jl. Margonda Raya No.100, Depok 16424, Indonesia

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Abstract — The paper is about studying the T1 and T2 from Magnetic Resonance (MR) Images examination for the existence of thrombus in patient with Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (SAAA) in order to know whether thrombus signal has correlation with the evolution of aortic diameter enlargement, which then can be used to predict the risk of rupture of aortic wall. Data were derived from 16 patients with SAAA, whereas MR images obtained from 3T imager (Trio TIM, Siemens Medical Solution, Germany), which came from: the study of anatomy, cine-MR images, pictures T1/T2, blood flow images, and images after injection of contrast agents. The surface area of the aorta and luminal are determined by tracing manually, which can be used to determine the surface area of thrombus. The maximum diameter of the aorta are automatically obtained from manual tracing on T1 images. The parameters to study the thrombus signal are the mean, median, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. Each parameter is calculated on the area of thrombus, while for normalization we implement the signal in the muscles. All parameters are compared to evolution of aortic diameter. We found 13 out of 16 patients with SAAA have thrombus. But there is no correlation between thrombus signals and maximum diameter (mean (r = 0.318), median (r = 0.318), skewness (r = 0.304)), or even with maksimum evolution diameter (mean (r=0.512)). As the conclusion is the comparation between mathematical and visual calculation of thrombus categories reached 81% similar, but thrombus signal itself cannot be used to predict the evolution of aortic diameter.
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Keywords-component; Thrombus signal; evolution of aortic diameter; T1 and T2 weighted images; Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.
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4. Paper 28021145: Empirical Evaluation of the Shaped Variable Bit Rate Algorithm for Video Transmission (pp. 20-29)
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A. Suki M. Arif, Suhaidi Hassan, Osman Ghazali, Mohammed M. Kadhum
InterNetWorks Research Group, UUM College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia

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Abstract — Due to the surge of media traffic over the existing best-effort Internet, the network congestion condition is projected to worsen. Hence, video transmission rate needs to be regulated to adjust it with the network condition or constraint. Therefore, rate control is essential in video transmission for an accepted visual quality under some certain rate constraint. One of the novel algorithms for the rate control, which is called Shaped VBR (SVBR), was created by Hamdi et al. SVBR is a novel video data rate shaping for a real-time video transmission application. It is a preventive traffic control which allows VBR coding video traffic direct into the network, while regulating unpredictable large bursty traffic by utilizing a leaky bucket algorithm. SVBR algorithm uses prediction in calculating the next Group of Picture (GoP) video data size and in determining the next appropriate quantization parameter value. This algorithm has been utilized by many researchers and implemented in many network scenarios. However, despite its novel creation for a real-time, the analytical empirical evaluation in this paper found some obvious weaknesses. The weaknesses which are revealed in this paper are the occurrence of a sudden sharp decrease in the data rate, the occurrence of a sudden bucket overflow, the existence of a low data rate with a low bucket fullness level, and the generation of a cyclical negative fluctuation.
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Keywords-component; rate control; shaped VBR; video transmission
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5. Paper 28021146: An Efficient Self-Organized Authentication and Key Management Scheme for Distributed Multihop Relay-Based IEEE 802.16 Networks (pp. 30-38)
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Adnan Shahid Khan, Norsheila Fisal, Sharifah Kamilah, Sharifah Hafizah, Mazlina Esa, Zurkarmawan Abu Bakar
UTM-MIMOS Center of Excellence in Telecommunication Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
M. Abbas, Wireless Communication Cluster, MIMOS Berhad, Technology Park Malaysia, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Abstract — Wireless internet services are rapidly expanding and improving, it is important to provide users with not only high speed and high quality wireless service but also secured. Multihop relay-based support was added, which not only help for improving coverage and throughput but also provides features such as lower backhaul deployment cost, easy setup, robustness and re-configurability, which make it one of the indispensable technologies in next generation wireless network. A WiMAX network usually operates in a highly dynamic and open environment therefore it is known to be more vulnerable to security holes. Security holes most of the time is trade off with authentication and key management overheads. In order to operate securely, communication must be scheduled either by a distributed, centralized or hybrid security control algorithms with less authentication and key management overheads. In this paper, we propose a new fully self-organized efficient authentication and key management scheme (SEAKS) for hop-by-hop distributed and localized security control for Multihop non-transparent relay based IEEE 802.16 networks which not only helps in security counter measures but also reduce the authentication and key maintenance overheads. The proposed scheme provides hybrid security controls between distributed authentication and localized re-authentication and key maintenance. The proposed scheme uses distributed nontransparent decode and forward relays for distributed authentication when any non-transparent Relays (NRS) want to join the networks and uses localized authentication when NRSs want to re-authenticate and do key maintenance. We analyze the procedures of the proposed scheme in details and examine how it works significantly to reduce overall authentication overheads and counter measures for security vulnerabilities such as Denial of Service, Replay and interleaving attacks.
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Keywords- Wimax Security, Multihop Relay based IEEE 802.16, Key Management, Self-Organized Authentication
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6. Paper 28021157: A Digital Image Encryption Algorithm Based On Chaotic Logistic Maps Using A Fuzzy Controller (pp. 39-44)
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Mouad HAMRI & Jilali Mikram, Mathematics and computer science department, Science University of Rabat-Agdal, 4 Avenue Ibn Battouta Rabat Morocco
Fouad Zinoun, Economical sciences and management department, University of Meknes Morocco

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Abstract — In this paper we will present a digital image encryption algorithm based on chaotic logistic maps and using fuzzy logic (FL-CM-EA). Many papers was published in the recent years about encryption algorithm using chaotic dynamical systems thanks to the set of very interesting properties guaranteed by these chaotic dynamical systems: high sensitivity to initial conditions, ergodicity, simplicity of implementation..., that can be used to conceive efficient cryptosystems. The main idea of this paper is the usage of a fuzzy logic set of rules to control the next iteration of our proposed iterative mechanism using a set of logistic maps. An introduction to chaotic dynamical systems and logistic map is given followed by an introduction to fuzzy logic. A complete specification of the proposed algorithm is presented with a set of security analysis tests that show the efficiency and the high security level of the algorithm.
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Keywords: cryptography, logistic map, fuzzy logic, image encryption, security analysis, dynamical systems, chaos theory.
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7. Paper 28021159: Performance Analysis of Connection Admission Control Scheme in IEEE 802.16 OFDMA Networks (pp. 45-51)
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Abdelali El Bouchti, Said El Kafhali and Abdelkrim Haqiq
Computer, Networks, Mobility And Modeling Laboratory, e- NGN Research Group, Africa And Middle East, FST, Hassan 1st University, Settat, Morocco

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Abstract — IEEE 802.16 OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) technology has emerged as a promising technology for broadband access in a Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) environment. In this paper, we address the problem of queueing theoretic performance modeling and analysis of OFDMA under broad-band wireless networks. We consider a single-cell IEEE 802.16 environment in which the base station allocates subchannels to the subscriber stations in its coverage area. The subchannels allocated to a subscriber station are shared by multiple connections at that subscriber station. To ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) performances, a Connection Admission Control (CAC) scheme is considered at a subscriber station. A queueing analytical framework for these admission control schemes is presented considering OFDMA-based transmission at the physical layer. Then, based on the queueing model, both the connection-level and the packet-level performances are studied and compared with their analogues in the case without CAC. The connection arrival is modeled by a Poisson process and the packet arrival for a connection by a two-state Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP). We determine analytically and numerically different performance parameters, such as connection blocking probability, average number of ongoing connections, average queue length, packet dropping probability, queue throughput and average packet delay.
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Keywords-component: WiMAX, OFDMA, MMPP, Queueing Theory, Performance Parameters.
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8. Paper 23021105: Enhancement and Minutiae Extraction Of Touchless Fingerprint Image Using Gabor And Pyramidal Method (pp. 52-57)
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A. John Christopher, Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil,
Dr. T. Jebarajan, Principal, V.V. College of Engineering, Tisayanvilai

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Abstract - Touch based sensing techniques generate lot of errors in fingerprint minutiae extraction. The solution for this problem is touchless fingerprint technology. They do not receive any contact between the sensor & finger. Although they reduce the problems of touch based finger prints, other difficulties explore such as a view difference problem and a limited usable area due to perspective distortion. To solve this problem, proposed method for touchless fingerprint image enhancement and minutiae extraction is introduced. Image enhancement is mostly required preprocessing system for finger based biometric system. Normally the touchless device is having a single camera and two planer mirrors which reflecting side views of a finger. From this we get three images normally frontal, left and right finger. Experimental result shows that the enhanced images increase the biometric accuracy.
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Keywords - pyramidal method, Gabor, touchless fingerprint, thinning, normalization, finger enhancement, adaptive histogram.
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9. Paper 23021108: Automatic Parsing For Arabic Sentences (pp. 58-63)
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Zainab Ali Khalaf, School of computer science, (USM), Penang, Malaysia
Dr. Tan Tien Ping, School of computer science, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia

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Abstract - The designed system is a parser for Arabic sentences using syntactic and semantic relations between deep and surface structures. The system depends on implementation of Case theory of Fillmore. The parsing algorithm starts analyzing the input sentence to check its syntax, semantic and spelling using Arabic transformation rules proposed in Al_Khouly to gain semantic strength. The proposed system depends on the effective elements represented by the verb of the sentence .This element is used to control the parsing operation. The proposed system permits as input different surface structures of Arabic sentences to produce automatic parsing forms for these input sentences.
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Keywords: Artificial intelligence; natural language processing; transformation rules; deep structure and surface structure; parsing Arabic sentences .
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10. Paper 28021129: Amelioration of Walsh-Hadamard Texture Patterns based Image Retrieval using HSV Color Space (pp. 64-69)
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Dr. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Varun K. Banura
Computer Engineering Department, MPSTME, SVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed-to-be University), Mumbai, India

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Abstract — The theme of the work presented here is amelioration of Walsh-Hadamard texture pattern based image retrieval using HSV color space. Different texture patterns namely ‘4-pattern’, ‘16-pattern’, ‘64-pattern’ are generated using Walsh-Hadamard transform matrix and then compared with the bitmap of an image in HSV color space to generate the feature vector as the matching number of ones and minus ones per texture pattern. The proposed content based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques are tested on a generic image database having 1000 images spread across 11 categories. For each proposed CBIR technique 55 queries (randomly selected 5 per category) are fired on the image database. To compare the performance of image retrieval techniques average precision and recall of all the queries per image retrieval technique are computed. The results have shown improved performance (higher precision and recall values of crossover points) with the proposed methods compared to the texture based image retrieval in RGB color space. Further the performance of proposed image retrieval methods is enhanced using even image part. The proposed CBIR methods do not give better performance with image bitmaps generated using tiling in HSV color space. In the discussed image retrieval methods, the combination of original and even image part for 16-pattern texture with image bitmaps in HSV color space gives the highest crossover point of precision and recall indicating better performance.
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Keywords- CBIR, Walsh-Hadamard transform, Texture, Pattern, Bitmap, HSV color space
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11. Paper 27021119: Analysis and Comparison of Medical Image Fusion Techniques: Wavelet based Transform and Contourlet based Transform (pp. 70-75)
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C G Ravichandran, RVS College of Engg. & Tech, Dindigul
R. Rubesh Selvakumar, Research Scholar, Anna University of Technology, Tricirappalli
S. Goutham, Surya Engineering College, Erode

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Abstract - Medical Image Fusion provides additional information for diagnosis when a registered and overlaid multiple patient images. Multiple images from the same imaging modality or multiple modalities can be used to create a fused image. The fused image is of immense help and provides more information to the doctor so as to diagnose the diseases. The CT (Computer Tomography) offers less detailed information for soft tissues and good information on bony structures. But the MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) provides a more detailed information on the soft tissues but less detailed information on bone structures and the contrast resolution of soft tissues is far better in MRI than in CT. In this paper, Wavelet based Transform like DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) and CWT (Complex Wavelet Transform) is analyzed theoretically and it is compared with Contourlet based Transform like CCT (Complex Contourlet Transform) and NSCT (No-Subsampled Contourlet Transform). The experimental results showing the evaluation measures like IE (Information Entrophy) , AG (Average Gradient) and SD (Standard Deviation).
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Keywords: CT (Computer Tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform), CWT (Complex Wavelet Transform), CCT (Complex Contourlet Transform), NSCT (No-Subsampled Contourlet Transform).
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12. Paper 28021135: Performance Comparison of Texture Pattern Based Image Retrieval Methods using Walsh, Haar and Kekre Transforms with Assorted Thresholding Methods (pp. 76-83)
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Dr. H. B. Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Varun K. Banura
Computer Engineering Department, MPSTME, SVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed-to-be University), Mumbai, India

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Abstract — Novel texture pattern based image retrieval techniques using image maps and non-sinusoidal orthogonal image transforms is the theme of the work presented in this section. Different texture patterns namely ‘4-pattern’, ‘16-pattern’, ‘64-pattern’ are generated using Haar transform matrix, Walsh transform matrix and Kekre transform matrix. The generated texture patterns are then compared with the image maps (binary image maps for Walsh patterns and Ternary image maps for Haar patterns & Kekre patterns) of an image to generate the feature vector based on structural matching (as the matching number of ones, minus ones per Walsh texture pattern and matching number of ones, zeros, minus ones per Haar/Kekre texture pattern). Further the image maps are created using four thresholding methods as global, local, intermediate with 4 tiles (intermediate-4) and intermediate with 9 tiles (intermediate-9). Here total 36 variations of proposed novel image retrieval methods using texture patterns are considered with three image transforms (Walsh, Haar & Kekre), three variations in number of texture patterns (4, 16 & 64) and four different ways to generate image maps (with global, local, intermediate-4, intermediate-9 thresholding methods). The proposed texture content based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques are tested on the image database with help of 55 queries (randomly selected 5 from each of 11 image categories) fired on image database. The performance comparison of texture pattern based CBIR methods is done with help of precision-recall crossover points.
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Keywords- CBIR; Walsh, Haar & Kekre Transforms;Texture; Patterns; Image Maps
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13. Paper 28021139: A Generic Rule-Based Agent for Monitoring Temporal Data Processing (pp. 84-89)
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S. Laban, International Data Centre (IDC), Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBT), Vienna, Austria
A.I. El-Desouky, Computer and Systems Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
A. S. ElHefnawy, Information Technology, Department, Faculty of Computer, & Information, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

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Abstract — Most of the current real-time monitoring tools are task specific, lacking alerts capabilities, inflexible, and consuming many of the organization resources in maintaining and adding newer monitored objects. This paper introduces the design and implementation of a generic rule-based agent model that minimizes the previous limitations and restrictions. The proposed intelligent agent is using dedicated rules for workflow monitoring and generating alerts as well as exception reports to the operators. A unified data model is proposed to reduce the irregularity and complexity of the monitored data and objects. The suggested rule-based monitoring agent is generic, autonomous, configurable, and platform-independent.
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Keywords- rule-based; monitoring; workflow; agent.
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14. Paper 28021141: A New Approach for Model based Gait Signature Extraction (pp. 90-94)
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Mohamed Rafi, Dept. of CS&E, HMS Institute of Tech., Tumkur, Karnataka, India
Shanawaz Ahmded J, College of Computer Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Md. Ekramul Hamid, College of Computer Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
R.S.D Wahidabanu, Dept. of E&C, Government college of Engg Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Abstract — Identifying individuals for security purposes are becoming essential now-a-day. Gait recognition aims essentially to address this problem by identifying people at a distance based on the way they walk. In this paper, a model is proposed for gait signature extraction consists of gait capture, segmentation and feature extraction steps. We use Hough transform technique that helps to read all parameters which are used to generate gait signatures that may result a better gait recognition rate. In the preprocessing steps, the picture frames taken from video sequences are given as input to Canny edge detection algorithm to detect edges of the image by extracting foreground from background also it reduces the noise using Gaussian filter. The output from edge detection is an input to the Hough transform to extract gait parameters. We have used five parameters to successfully extract gait signatures. It is observed that when the camera is placed at 90 and 270 degrees, all the parameters used in the proposed work are clearly visible. Then using Hough transform, a clear line based model is designed to extract gait signatures. The utility of the model is tested on a variety of body and stride parameters recovered in different viewing conditions on a database consisting of 15 to 20 subjects walking at both an angled and frontal-parallel view with respect to the camera, both indoors and outdoors and find the method to be highly successful.
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Keywords- Biometric, Gait signature extraction, Hough Transform, Canny Edge detection, Gaussian filter
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15. Paper 28021142: Mining Fuzzy Cyclic Patterns (pp. 95-99)
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A. Mazarbhuiya, M. A. Khaleel, P. R. Khan
Department of Computer Science, College of Computer Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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Abstract — The problem of mining temporal association rules from temporal dataset is to find association between items that hold within certain time intervals but not throughout the dataset. This involves finding frequent sets that are frequent at certain time intervals and then association rules among the items present in the frequent sets. In fuzzy temporal datasets as the time of transaction is imprecise, we may find set of items that are frequent in certain fuzzy time intervals. We call these as fuzzy locally frequent sets and the corresponding associated association rules as fuzzy local association rules. The algorithm discussed [5] finds all fuzzy locally frequent itemsets where each frequent item set is associated with a list of fuzzy time intervals where it is frequent. The list of fuzzy time intervals may exhibit some interesting properties e.g. the itemsets may be cyclic in nature. In this paper we propose a method of finding such cyclic frequent itemsets.
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Keywords- Fuzzy time-stamp, Fuzzy time interval, Fuzzy temporal datasets, Fuzzy locally frequent sets, Fuzzy distance, Variance of a fuzzy interval
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16. Paper 28021144: Robust Color Image Watermarking Using Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform (pp. 100-111)
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C. Venkata Narasimhulu , Professor ,Dept of ECE,Hasvita Institute of Engg & Tech,Hyderabad,INDIA
K. Satya Prasad, Professor, Dept of ECE, JNTU Kakinada,India

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Abstract - In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid spread spectrum watermarking scheme for authentication of color images using nonsubsampled contourlet transform and singular value decomposition. The host color image and color watermark images are decomposed into directional sub- bands using Nonsubsampled contourlet transform and then applied Singular value decomposition to mid frequency sub-band coefficients. The singular values of mid frequency sub-band coefficients of color watermark image are embedded into singular values of mid frequency sub-band coefficients of host color image in Red, Green and Blue color spaces simultaneously based on spread spectrum technique. The experimental results shows that the proposed hybrid watermarking scheme is robust against common image processing operations such as, JPEG, JPEG 2000 compression, cropping, Rotation, histogram equalization, low pass filtering ,median filtering, sharpening, shearing ,salt & Pepper noise, Gaussian noise, grayscale conversion etc. It has also been shown the variation of visual quality of watermarked image for different scaling factors. The comparative analysis reveals that the proposed watermarking scheme out performs the color image watermarking schemes reported recently.
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Keywords: Color image watermarking, Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform, Singular value decomposition, Peak signal to noise ratio, normalized Correlation coefficient.
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17. Paper 28021150: Parallel Implementation of Compressed Sensing Algorithm on CUDA- GPU (pp. 112-119)
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Kuldeep Yadav & Ankush Mittal, Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering Roorkee , Roorke-247667, India
M. A. Ansar & Avi Srivastava, Galgotia College of Engineering, Gr. Noida, India

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Abstract - In the field of biomedical imaging, compressed sensing (CS) plays an important role because compressed sensing, a joint compression and sensing process, is an emerging field of activity in which the signal is sampled and simultaneously compressed at a greatly reduced rate. Compressed sensing is a new paradigm for signal, image and function acquisition. In this paper we have worked on Basis Pursuit Algorithm for compressed sensing. We have computed time for running this algorithm on CPU with Intel® Core™2Duo T8100 @ 2.1GHz and 3.0 GB of main memory which run on Windows XP. The next step was to convert this code in GPU format i.e. to run this program on GPU NVIDIA GeForce series 8400m GS model having 256 MB of video memory of DDR2 type and bus width of 64bit. The graphic driver we used is of 197.15 series of NVIDIA. Both the CPU and GPU version of algorithm is being implemented on the Matlab R2008b. The CPU version of the algorithm is being analyzed in simple Matlab but the GPU version is being implemented with the help of intermediate software JACKET V1.3. For using Jacket, we have to make some changes in our source code so to make the CPU and GPU to work simultaneously and thus reducing the overall computational acceleration of the algorithm. Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) are emerging as powerful parallel systems at a cheap cost of a few thousand rupees. We got the speed up around 8X, for most of the Biomedical images and six of them have been included in this paper, which can be analyzed via the profiler.
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Keywords — Compressive sensing, Basis Pursuit Algorithms, Jacket v 1.3, GPU, medical image processing; high performance computing.
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18. Paper 28021151: Fuzzy HRRN CPU Scheduling Algorithm (pp. 120-124)
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Bashir Alam, M.N. Doja, Department of Computer Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India
R. Biswas, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Manav Rachna University, Faridabad, India
M. Alam, Department of computer Science, Jamia millia Islamia,New Delhi India

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Abstract — There are several scheduling algorithms like FCFS, SRTN, RR, priority etc. Scheduling decisions of these algorithms are based on parameters which are assumed to be crisp. However, in many circumstances these parameters are vague. The vagueness of these parameters suggests that scheduler should use fuzzy technique in scheduling the jobs. In this paper we have proposed a novel CPU scheduling algorithm Fuzzy HRRN that incorporates fuzziness in basic HRRN using fuzzy Technique FIS.
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Keywords: - HRRN, CPU Scheduling, FIS, Fuzzy Logic
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19. Paper 28021152: Experiences and Comparison Study of EPC & UML For Business Process & IS Modeling (pp. 125-133)
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Md. Rashedul Islam School of Business and Informatics Högskolan i Borås Borås, Sweden
Md. Rofiqul Islam School of Business and Informatics Högskolan i Borås Borås, Sweden
Md. Shariful Alam School of Business and Informatics Högskolan i Borås Borås, Sweden
Md. Shafiul Azam Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Science and Technology University, Pabna Pabna, Bangladesh

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Abstract — Business process modeling is an approach by which we can analyze and integrate the business process. Using the Business Process Modeling we can represent the current and future process of a business/organization/enterprise. The business process modeling is a prerequisite and essential implementing a business or making any automation system. In this paper, we present our experience in a Business Process Modeling for organization. This paper presents detailed description about business process modeling, details description about the main two modeling language EPC and UML. This paper presented the uses, advantages, disadvantages of EPC and UML modeling language. Here we tried to express the experience about those modeling language. This paper presents a details comparison between two modeling language from the business process modeling and information system implementation point of view.
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Keywords- Business Process Modeling, Petri net, Event-driven Process Chain (EPC), Unified Modeling Language (UML), Process-oriented modeling, Object-oriented modeling.
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20. Paper 28021155: Facial Tracking Using Radial Basis Function (pp. 134-138)
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P. Mayilvahanan, Research scholar, Dept. of MCA, Vel's University, Pallavaram, Chennai, India
Dr. S. Purushothaman, Principal, Sun College of Engineering & Technology, Kanyakumari – 629902, Tamil Nadu, India
Dr. A. Jothi, Dean, School of Computing Sciences, Vels University, Pallavaram, Chennai, India

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Abstract -- This paper implements facial tracking using Radial basis function neural network (RBF). There is no unique method that claims perfect facial tracking in video transfer. The local features of a frame are segmented. A ratio is found based on a criteria and output of RBF is used for transferring the necessary information of the frame from one system to another system. A decision approach, with a threshold, is used to detect if there is any change in the local object of the successive frames. The accuracy of the result depends upon the number of centers. The performance of the algorithm in reconstructing the tracked object is about 96.5% and similar to the performance of back propagation algorithm (BPA), in terms of reduced time and quality of reconstruction.
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Keywords- Radial basis function (RBF), Backpropagation algorithm (BPA); Watershed algorithm;Motion Estimation
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21. Paper 28021156: Performance Comparison of Speaker Identification using circular DFT and WHT Sectors (pp. 139-143)
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Dr. H B Kekre, Vaishali Kulkarni, Indraneal Balasubramanian, Abhimanyu Gehlot, Rasik Srinath
MPSTME, NMIMS University.

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Abstract — In this paper we aim to provide a unique approach to text dependent speaker identification using transform techniques such as DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) and WHT (Walsh Hadamard Transform). In the first method, the feature vectors are extracted by dividing the complex DFT spectrum into circular sectors and then taking the weighted density count of the number of points in each of these sectors. In the second method, the feature vectors are extracted by dividing the WHT spectrum into circular sectors and then again taking the weighted density count of the number of points in each of these sectors. Further, comparison of the two transforms shows that the accuracy obtained for DFT is more (80%) than that obtained for WHT (66%).
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Keywords - Speaker identification; Circular Sectors; weighted density; Euclidean distance
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22. Paper 28021158: Reliability and Security in MDRTS: A Combine Colossal Expression (pp. 144-153)
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Gyanendra Kumar Gupta, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Kanpur Institute of Technology, Kanpurr, UP, India, 208 001
A. K Sharma, Computer Sc. & Engg. Deptt, M.M.M. Engineering College, Gorakhpur, UP, India, 273010
Vishnu Swaroop, Computer Science & Engineering Department, M.M.M. Engineering College, Gorakhpur, UP, India, 273010

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Abstract — Numerous types of Information Systems are broadly used in various fields. With the fast development of computer network, Information System users care more about data sharing in networks. Sharing of information and changes made by dissimilar user at different permission level is controlled by super user, but the read/write operation is performed in a reliable manner. In conventional relational database, data reliability was controlled by consistency control mechanism when a data object is locked in a sharing mode, other transactions can only read it, but cannot update it. If the conventional consistency control method has been used yet, the system’s concurrency will be inadequately influenced. So there are many new necessities for the consistency control in the field of Information system (MDRTS). In present era not only the information grows enormously it also brings together in different nature of data like text, image, and picture, graphic and sound. The problem not limited only to type of data (e.g. databases) it has used in different environment of database like Mobile Database, Distributed, Real Time Database, and Database and Multimedia database. There are many aspects of data reliability problems in mobile distributed real time system (MDRTS), such as inconsistency between attribute and type of data; the inconsistency of topological relations after objects has been modified. In this paper, many cases of data reliability are discussed for Information System. As the mobile computing becomes well-liked and the database grows with information sharing security is a big issue for researchers. Reliability and Security of data is a big confront for researchers because whenever the data is not reliable and secure no maneuver on the data (e.g. transaction) is useful. It becomes more and more crucial when the data changes from one form to another (i.e. transactions) that are used in non-traditional environment like Mobile, Distributed, Real Time and Multimedia databases. In this paper we raise the different aspects and analyze the available solution for reliability and security of databases. Conventional Database Security has focused primarily on creating user accounts and managing user privileges level to database objects. In this paper we also talk about an impression of the present and past database security challenges.
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Keywords- System Reliability, Sharing, Data Consistency, Data Privileges, Data Loss, Data Recovery, Integrity, Concurrency Control & Recovery, Distributed Databases, Transactions, Security, Authentication, Integrity, Access Control, Encryption
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23. Paper 28021161: Implementation in Java of a Cryptosystem using a Dynamic Huffman Coding and Encryption Methods (pp. 154-159)
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Eugène C. Ezin
Institut de Mathématiques et de Sciences Physiques, Unité de Recherche en Informatique et Sciences Appliquées, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, République du Bénin

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Abstract — Data transmission through a secure channel is important in our daily experience with the objective to ensure that the receiver is the only one authorized and able to discover the message content. In this paper, and based upon the proposed model in [1], we implement a cryptosystem for data transmission. The plaintext message to transmit is first compressed using the dynamic Huffman coding algorithm. The security level is reinforced by transmitting the resulting message through an encrypted subsystem using DES or/and RSA algorithms. The full description of the whole system is given and the results analyzed.
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Keywords-component— Data compression, Huffman coding technique, DES and RSA algorithms.
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24. Paper 28021164: Towards Generating a Rulebase to Provide Feedback at Design Level for Improving Early Software Design (pp. 160-164)
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B. Bharathi, Research Scholar, Sathyabama University, Chennai-119
G. Kulanthaivel , Assistant Professor, NITTTR, Chennai

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Abstract - Performance analysis plays an important role in the software development process. The results of performance predictions have many a times resulted in a collection of performance indices, which are complex to interpret. The proper interpretation of results and generation of suitable feedback is very important for a good performance analysis process. The aim is drive decisions based on the results generated for a performance diagnosis and to generate rule bases that improve the performance at design level rather than waiting until testing phase. The method also identifies the necessary changes to be performed on the design, based on user requirements to improve results. Simple and easily applicable rules are generated to analyze the performance of the system and to impart changes at design level. The rules identified are applied to make both configuration and design changes. These changes can be carried out to apply feedback and make changes in the UML diagrams used for design.
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Keywords: Software performance, performance indices, feedback, design level, rule bases
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25. Paper 28021165: Performance Comparison of TCP Variants in Mobile Ad- Hoc Networks (pp. 165-170)
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Mandakini Tayade, School of Information Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Prodyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.) India
Sanjeev Sharma, Head of School of Information Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Prodyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.) India

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Abstract — Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs) are characterized by self organized, adaptive and multihop wireless link; frequently changing network topology due to mobility support. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is connection oriented, reliable, congestion control and end to end mechanism. In TCP due to network congestion and link failure packets are losses and TCP tries to control this loss. In this article we present the performance comparison of existing TCP variants: TCP Tahoe, Reno, Lite, and New Reno for mobile ad-hoc networks. The behavior of TCP was different depending on the type of TCP variants because of improper activation or missing of congestion control. This analysis and comparisons are necessary to be aware of which TCP implementation is better for a specific scenario.
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Keywords- Mobile ad-ho; Adaptive; TCP; Congestion control; Packet loss;
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26. Paper 28021168: Analysis on Robust Adaptive Beamformers (pp. 171-178)
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T. S. Jeyali Laseetha, Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Anna University of Technology, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India
Dr. (Mrs) R.Sukanesh, Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India

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Abstract :- MVDR (minimum variance distortionless response) beamformer is the optimal beamformer which utilizes the second order statistics of the actual data for obtaining the Covariance matrix from which the weight vector of the antenna array is determined. In adaptive beamfomer which utilizes MVDR beamformer along with SMI(sample matrix inversion), actual data is not available to calculate the covariance matrix. Instead, covariance matrix is estimated from the available data. It includes finding the Matrix inversion. It may result in bad conditioning. To avoid this, some amount of loading is introduced to the diagonal elements, which is called diagonal loading. Diagonal loading can be inserted by adding a scaled version of identity matrix. Diagonal loading imparts Robustness to the adaptive beamformer against signal mismatch due to low sample support and helps to achieve desired sidelobe level and SINR improvement. Various methods in diagonal loading are analyzed in this paper with different loading levels and a novel hybrid algorithm for MVDR-SMI beamformer with colored adaptive diagonal loading is also proposed. The performance of the proposed methods is compared with other methods such as Conventional, MVDR, MVDR-SMI, MVDR-SMI-Diagonal Loading, MVDR-SMI-Colored –DL, MVDR-SMI-Adaptive DL by conducting simulations experiment. The proposed method shows the improvement in directivity and SINR compared to other methods.
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Keywords: Smart antennas, Adaptive beamforming, Uniform Linear Array, Minimum Variance Distortionless Response Beamformer (MVDR), Sample-Matrix Inversion(SMI), Adaptive colored diagonal loading
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27. Paper 28021169: A Review On Distance Measurement And Localization In Wireless Sensor Network (pp. 179-184)
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Kavindra Kumar Ahirwar, School Of Information Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Technical University, Bhopal (MP), India
Dr. Sanjeev Sharma (Head of department), School Of Information Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Technical University, Bhopal (MP), India

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Abstract - Localization is the most crucial issue in wireless sensor network for operations and various application like tracking, positioning, monitoring, routing. This paper focuses on study of location estimation for short range low power wireless sensor network (IEEE802.15.4 standard) based on RSSI and LQI. This review paper is divided into three sections for detailed study. First section gives the overview, problem definition and taxonomy of localization. Second section studies the distance measurement and computation based on signal strength. Last section describes two localization methods ML (maximum likehood) and WCL (weighted centroaid localization) which is mostly used in ZigBee standard compatible to IEEE 802.15.4 standard.
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Keywords: Localization, ZigBee, Path loss model, ML, WCL.
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28. Paper 27021117: An Improved Visual Cryptography Scheme for Secret Hiding (pp. 185-197)
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G. Prasanna Lakshmi, Computer Science, IBSAR, Karjat, India
Dr. J.A.Chandulal, Professor and HOD, IBSAR, Computer Science, India
Dr. KTV Reddy, Professor & Principal, Electronics & Telecommunications Dept., Computer Science, India

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Abstract — Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding information. Cryptography, then, not only protects data from theft or alteration, but can also be used for user authentication. There are, in general, three types of cryptographic schemes typically used to accomplish these goals: secret key (or symmetric) cryptography, public-key (or asymmetric) cryptography, and hash functions. In all cases, the initial unencrypted data is referred to as plaintext. It is encrypted into ciphertext, which will in turn (usually) be decrypted into usable plaintext. Visual Cryptography is a type of cryptography which encodes a number of images in the way that when the images on transparencies are stacked together, the hidden message appears without a trace of original images. The decryption is done directly by the human visual system with no special cryptographic calculations. This project presents a system which takes three pictures as an input and generates two images which correspond to two of the three input pictures. The third picture is reconstructed by printing the two output images onto transparencies and stacking them together. While the previous researches basically handle only binary images, this project establishes the extended visual cryptography scheme suitable for natural images. Generally, visual cryptography suffers from the deterioration of the image quality. This project also describes the method to improve the quality of the output images. The trade-off between the image quality and the security are discussed and assessed by observing the actual results of this method. Furthermore, the optimization of the image quality is discussed.
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Keywords- Visual Cryptography, Digital Image, Matlab
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29. Paper 17021103: Adaptive MIMO-OFDM Scheme with Reduced Computational Complexity and Improved Capacity (pp. 198-205)
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L. C. Siddanna Gowd, A. R. Rajini and M. Kanthimathi,
Faculty of ECE Dept, SriSairam Engineering College, Chennai, T.N., India

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Abstract - The general multidimensional linear channel model adequately represents a plethora of communication system models which utilize multidimensional transmit-receive signals for attaining increased rates and reliability in the presence of fading. The logarithmic dependence of the spectral efficiency of the transmitted power makes it extremely expensive to increase the capacity solely by radiating more power. Also, increasing the transmitted power in a mobile terminal is not advisable due to possible violation of regulatory power masks and possible electromagnetic radiation effects. Alternately, MIMO schemes if properly exploited can exhibit a linearly increasing capacity, due to the presence of a rich scattering environment that provides independent transmission paths from each transmit to each receive antenna. An Idealized practical communication system assumes perfect channel state information (CSI) and uses a linear transmitter to maximize the reliability of the wireless multi-antenna link. However, in actual practice the CSI is incomplete. As a result of this, there is a necessity to deal with ergodic and compound capacity formulations and these factors are strongly dependent on the model utilized to characterize the channel. Practical system models include quasi-static multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO), MIMO-OFDM, ISI, amplify-andforward (AF), decode-and-forward (DF), and MIMO automatic repeat request (ARQ) models. Each of the above models introduces its own structure, its own error performance limits, and its own requirements on coding and decoding schemes. Finding general purpose transceiver structures with (provably) good performance in these scenarios, and with a reasonable computational complexity, is challenging. Existing MIMO systems are able to provide either high spectral efficiency (spatial multiplexing) or low error rate (high diversity) via exploiting multiple degrees of freedom available in the channel, but not both simultaneously as there is a fundamental tradeoff between the two. This diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is best characterized using the concepts of multiplexing and diversity gains. Fundamentally, this is a tradeoff between the outage probabilities, i.e. the probability that the fading channel is not able to support the transmission rate. In this context, this work identifies a general, explicit non-random MIMO encoder-decoder structures and also guarantee optimal diversity-multiplexing trade-off and is an effective alternative to the computationally expensive Maximum Likelihood (M-L) receiver. The results obtained lend them applicable to a plethora of pertinent communication scenarios such as quasistatic MIMO, MIMO-OFDM, ISI, cooperative relayingand MIMO-ARQ channels.
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Keywords: Multi-Input Multi-output (MIMO)-OFDM, Diversity- Multiplexing, Fading, Channel State Estimation, Cooperative relaying.
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30. Paper 24021111: An Efficient Fair Queuing Model for Data Communication Networks (pp. 206-216)
Full Text: PDF

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M. A. Mabayoje 1* , S. O. Olabiyisi 2, A.O. Ameen 1, R. Muhammed 1 , O.C. Abikoye 1.
1 Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Communication and Information Sciences, University of Ilorin, PMB1515, Ilorin, Kwara-Nigeria.
2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Oyo-Nigeria.

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Abstract ---The advent of data communication networks has been one of the greatest discoveries that can ever be witnessed by mankind. Despite the benefits derived from application of communication networks, there are several factors confronting the use of communication networks. One of them is Traffic congestion, which reduces throughput and causes delay of data items. The aim of the paper is to develop an efficient fair queuing model that is capable of reducing congestion by allocating resources on the network between contending users. The proposed model gives higher priority to real time in order to allow them to have dependable performance. Stimulation of this proposed model is carried out using queuing performance parameters like complexity, through put and delay time of the information. Our simulations and analysis demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model. It is adequately compared with previous fair queuing schemes.
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Keywords: Communication; Networks; Queuing Mode; Traffic; Congestion.
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31. Paper 24021112: Implementation of Audio Wave Steganography By Replacing 4th Bit LSB of Audio Wave File (pp. 217-219)
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Mr. Vijay B. Gadicha, Department of Computer Science & Engg, P.R.Patil College of Engg & Tech, Amravati (MH),India.
Mr. Ajay. B. Gadicha, Department of Computer Science & Engg, P.R.Pote(Patil) College of Engg & Tech, Amravati (MH),India.

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Abstract: Present paper explore a new 4th bit rate LSB audio Stegnography method that reduces embedding distortion of the host audio. Using the proposed algorithm, Message bits are embedded into 4th LSB layers, resulting in increased robustness against noise addition. In addition, listening tests showed that perceptual quality of audio is higher in the case of the proposed method than in the standard LSB method.
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Keywords: Audio stegnography, carrier file, keyfile, payload, transmission medium.
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32. Paper 24021114: Modeling of Aluminium – Flyash Particulate Metal Matrix Composites using Fuzzy Logic (pp. 220-225)
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R. Elangovan, Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, India-636 308
Dr. S. Purushothaman, Principal, Sun College of Engineering and Technology, Sun Nagar, Erachakulum, Kanyakumari District – 629902, India

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Abstract -- This paper models the tension and bend test data using fuzzy logic and radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network. The data have been collected experimentally working on Aluminium–flyash metal matrix composite. The fuzzy logic estimates change in height in tension test and change in buldge diameter in bend test better when compared to RBF.
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Keywords: Radial basis function, fuzzy logic, tension test, bend test, scanning electron microscopy

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33. Paper 27021116: Compression Techniques and Water Marking of Digital Image using Wavelet Transform and SPIHT Coding (pp. 226-258)
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G. Prasanna Lakshmi, Computer Science, IBSAR, Karjat, India
Dr. J. A. Chandulal, Professor and HOD, IBSAR, Computer Science, India
Dr. KTV Reddy, Professor & Principal, Electronics & Telecommunications Dept., Computer Science, India

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Abstract - Advances that facilitate electronic publishing and Commerce also heighten threats of intellectual property theft and unlawful tampering. One approach to address this problem involves embedding an invisible structure into a host signal to mark its ownership. These structures are called digital watermarks and the associated embedding process is called digital watermarking. One major driving force for research in this area is the need for effective copyright protection scenarios for digital imagery. In such an application a serial number or a message is embedded into the image to protect and to identify the copyright holder. So the objective of watermarking is authenticity check. In this project the discrete wavelet transform of an image is used which transforms the image into two parts: an approximation part and a detail part. So, using this transformation the details of an image can be extracted. The control of the details of an image permits to identify the invisible ones hence watermark can be inserted by changing only the less important details of an image. The watermark should survive the image processing techniques like compression etc. This project compresses the image by using two different techniques called HUFFMAN and SPIHT Coding techniques.
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Keywords:
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34. Paper 28021171: An analytical survey on Network Security Enhancement Services (pp. 259-262)
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Deshraj Ahirwar , PG Scholar, CSE, SATI, Vidisha
Manish K. Ahirwar , CSE, UIT, RGPV
Piyush K. Shukla, CSE, UIT, RGPV
Pankaj Richharia, CSE, BITS, Bhopal

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Abstract : - Internet has also become an active field of crackers and intruders. The whole development in this area can become null and void if fool-proof security of the data is not ensured without a chance of being adulterated. Dependence on the Internet as an information highway and knowledge bank is exponentially increasing so that a going back is beyond imagination. Transfer of critical information is also being carried out through the Internet. This widespread use of the Internet coupled with the tremendous growth in e-commerce and m-commerce has created a vital need for information security. The cornerstone of PLA is public key cryptography based digital signature which is added do every outgoing packet by the packet originator. Therefore, signature generation and verification schemes of PLA become infeasible in resource-constrained devices if dedicated hardware accelerator is not used. Hence studies were conducted on various types of algorithms being used in this area. Focus was given to identify the properties imparting security at this stage. By making use of a perception derived from these studies, new algorithms were designed. We present Wireless Packet Level Authentication (WPLA) that extends PLA to offer an adaptive hop-by-hop signature verification scheme. WPLA includes a lightweight signature verification approach for resource-constrained devices while retaining the public key cryptography based signature verification scheme for strong authentication. Furthermore, to ensure end-to-end data confidentiality over the unsecured channels, we integrate a symmetric encryption scheme along with secret key generation and distribution process. Finally, we implement the proposed solution and evaluate the performance of our implementation.
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Keywords: http, Datagram, administrative and management policy, Encryption, Weighted Matrix, Authentication, Authorization.
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35. Paper 28021199: An Empirical Study of Software Project Management among Some Selected Software Houses in Nigeria (pp. 263-271)
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Olalekan Akinola, Funmilayo Ajao, Opeoluwa B. Akinkunmi
Computer Science Department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

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Abstract - In recent years, the software industry has been struggling with building quality software unsuccessfully. This is witnessed by failures in major software projects. Software projects fail not because of complexity but unconscious response to software project management approach which has led to major drawback of software industry in achieving tremendous success in their services. There is need to bridge the gap between increasing diffusion of software projects in the industry and the challenge of optimizing the allocation and integration of inputs necessary to meet defined project objectives. This study evaluates how software projects are managed in the Nigeria software industry. Eight software houses in Lagos Metropolis in the South West of Nigeria were selected for the study based on their software project management experiences. Project Managers were interviewed and professionals were observed. Projects documentations were also examined. The research measured four independent variables: project planning, project estimation, project scheduling and project management methodologies. Nine independent variables were measured in the research: scope, developmental stages, requirement management, cost, effort, project duration, team members, tools, and models. Results from the study shows that 80% of the software projects were 20% ahead of deadline, 6.67% were 10% ahead of time and 13.33% met deadline but they were not of good quality. Lack of presentation of requirements in an understandable form, project scope expansion, problem of training and managing team members; and adopting the right methodologies as stated by the Project Managers are the major drawbacks in achieving project goals.
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Keywords:
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36. Paper 30011123: New Codes for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA Systems (pp. 272-279)
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Hassan Yousif Ahmed, Communication & Networking Engineering Department, Computer Science College, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Elmaleeh, M. A, Electronics Engineering Dept, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Gezira, Wad Madni, Sudan
Hilal Adnan Fadhil, School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlies, Malaysia
S.A. Aljunid, School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlies, Malaysia

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Abstract — A new code structure with zero in-phase cross correlation for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) system is proposed, and called zero vectors combinatorial (ZVC). This code is constructed in a simple algebraic way using Euclidean vectors and combinatorial theories based on the relationship between the number of users N and the weight W. One of the important properties of this code is that the maximum cross correlation (CC) is always zero, which means that multi-user interference (MUI) and phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) are reduced. Bit error rate (BER) performance is compared with previous reported codes. Therefore, theoretically, we demonstrate the performance of ZVC code with the related equations. In addition, the structure of the encoder/decoder based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and the proposed system have been analyzed theoretically by taking into consideration the effects of some noises. The results characterizing BER with respect to the total number of active users show that ZVC code offers a significantly improved performance over previous reported codes by supporting large numbers of users at BER≥ 10-9. A comprehensive simulation study has been carried out using a commercial optical system simulator “VPI™”. Moreover, it was shown that the proposed code managed to reduce the hardware complexity and eventually the cost.
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Keywords: Zero Vectors Combinatorial (ZVC), MUI, (SACOCDMA), BER, FBG.
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37. Paper 31011135: Image Retrieval with Image Tile Energy Averaging using Assorted Color Spaces (pp. 280-286)
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Dr. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Varun Lodha, Pooja Luthra, Ajoy Joseph, Chitrangada Nemani
Information Technology Department, MPSTME, SVKM‟s NMIMS (Deemed-to-be University), Mumbai, India

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Abstract — Here the feature vector for image retrieval is composed of average energy of each tile of image for diverse number of image tiles (like 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36 and 49) considered with the help of various color spaces. The paper presents exhaustive performance comparison of 70 variants of proposed image retrieval technique using ten sundry color spaces and seven image tiling methods is done with the help of generic image database having 1000 images spread across 11 categories. For each proposed CBIR technique 55 queries (randomly selected 5 per category) are fired on the generic image database. To compare the performance of image retrieval techniques, average precision and recall are computed and plotted against number of retrieved images. The results have shown that RGB and HSI color spaces give the best performance for average energy based image retrieval across all tiles. Also it has been seen in all luminance-chromaticity based color spaces ( Kekre’s LUV, YCbCr, YUV, YIQ and Kekre’s YCgCb) that as the number tiles increased the overall performance also increases.
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Keywords: CBIR, Average Energy, Color Spaces, Image Tiling.

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38. Paper 27021118: Improvement of Distributed Virtual Environment (DVE) performance (pp. 287-295)
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Olfat I. EL-Mahi, Computer Graphics department, IRI institute- MuCSAT, Borg EL-Arabe, Egypt
Hanan Ali, Computer Graphics department, IRI institute- MuCSAT, Borg EL-Arab, Egypt
Walaa M. Sheta, Computer Graphics department, IRI institute- MuCSAT, Borg EL-Arab, Egypt
Salwa Nassar, Electronic Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt

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Abstract — Distributed virtual Environment enables multiple users to interact with each other over a network. Due to the availability of high bandwidth and fast graphics cards, these systems grow in term of number of users, Scene Complexity and interactivity. However, the issue of how efficient the system scales as the number of users increase is major problem that DVE faced since their inception. In this paper, we propose a new method in order to improve DVE performance using Data-Mining. A widely used mining technique is markov chain model, which depend on predicting the future user moves based on the history of his previous visits to the DVE System. This will help decreasing information exchange between users, which should in turn enable improvement in the walk through in the distributed virtual environment system (DVE).
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Keywords-component; HLA, DVE, Markov chan model.
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