IJCSIS EDITORIAL BOARD

BEST PAPER AWARD

Vol. 9 No. 12 DEC 2011

Vol. 9 No. 12 December 2011 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication December 2011, Volume 9 No. 12 (Download Full Journal) (Archive) (Download 2)

.
Copyright © IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Paper 30111138: Address Resolution using Direct Dynamic Neighbor Mechanism for Packet Transmission in IPv6 (pp. 1-6)
Full Text: PDF

.
Abdulaleem Ali ALmazroi (1), Rahmat Budiarto (2), Merza Abbas (3)
1,3 Center of Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
2 InterNetWorks Research Groups, UUM College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia

.
Abstract — Packet transmission by means of address resolution has been the main backbone of Internet communication through transmission of packets among computer networks. Packet transmission was either implemented in both IPv4 and IPv6 with the focus gradually moving to IPv6 because IPv6 has more address spaces of 128bits and supports billions of IP addresses as compared to IPv4. Packet transmission functions through the mapping of various addresses among computer on the networks before packets are transmitted to final destination. And this is where address resolution comes into play. IPv6 packets are resolved in two different ways namely, Direct Mapping and Dynamic binding which is most commonly used. However, the research will focus its attention on Direct mapping approach with new methodology known direct dynamic neighbor which is a combination of Dynamic Binding and Direct mapping methods to send packets in the same network. With the new approach, packet transmission will be enhanced significantly as packet can be sent directly to destination. The research will also briefly compare the methodologies of each approach in order to ascertain the efficiency of each technique. Other areas to be compared are packet transmission for each technique, the number of steps of each method takes to deliver packet from source to final destination.
.
Keywords: Direct mapping, Dynamic binding, Neighbor Discovery Protocol, Packets Transmission, Direct Dynamic Neighbor
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Paper 28111124: Recognizing P2P Botnets Characteristic Through TCP Destinctive Behaviour (pp. 7-11)
Full Text: PDF

.
Raihana Syahirah Abdullah, Mohd Zaki Mas’ud, Mohd Faizal Abdollah, Shahrin Sahib, Robiah Yusof
Faculty of Information and Communication Technology Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka

.
Abstract — Botnet has been identified as one of the most emerging threats to the Internet users. It has been attracted much attention and gives a big threat in network security. Through the year a number of Botnet variants have been introduced and the most lethal variants are known as peer-to-peer (P2P) botnets which able to camouflaging itself as the benign P2P application. This evolution of Botnet variants has made it harder to detect and shut down. Alike any network connection, p2p similarly using TCP to initialize the communication between two parties. Based on this reason, this paper investigates the network traffic characteristics of normal P2P connection and P2P botnets through the TCP connection initialize or received between the bot to the bot master. The proposed mechanism detects and classifies the P2P botnet TCP connection behaviour from the normal P2P network traffic. This can be used for early warning of P2P botnet activities in the network and prevention mechanism.
.
Keywords- P2P, Botnets, P2P Botnets, TCP
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Paper 31101069: Wireless Sensor Networks Support Educators (pp. 12-16)
Full Text: PDF

.
Homa Edalatifard, Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Merza Abbas, Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Zaidatun Tasir, Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia

.
Abstract — The use of WSNs has a great progress in different fields as well as providing new possibilities for education. Sensor nodes can be applied to recognize learners’ emotional states while understanding the students’ emotion enhances learning. So, this study tries to design and implement a WSN to collect physiological data via 3 sensors: GSR, PPG, and ECG. A management system after analyzing data collected will report the learners’ emotion to the educator. Then it will be considered to what extent the proposed system can support educators in emotion recognition.
.
Keywords-component; Wireless sensor network, emotion recognition, improved teaching method
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Paper 24111112: Design, Optimization & Evaluation of Tapered Waveguide With Cylindrical Waveguide (pp. 17-19)
Full Text: PDF

.
Harshukumar Khare, Prof R. D. Patane
Terna engineering college, Nerul, Navi-mumbai

.
Abstract - Tapered Waveguide is a waveguide in which a physical or electrical characteristic changes continuously with distance along the axis of the waveguide. Tapered waveguide offer an excellent means of converting microwave mode sizes to connect Microwave devices of different cross-sectional dimensions. This paper discusses the waveguide component for interconnecting rectangular and circular waveguide using elliptical tapering. Model is designed for the frequency range from 2 to 4 GHz. Dominant Mode conversions ie from TE10 to TM11 is considered for tapering techniques. All simulations are done with CST Microwave studio. Simulation result shows that wave is properly propagated with no power reflection and low power loss. The resonant frequency is mainly varied with the diameter of cylindrical waveguide.
.
Keywords: Elliptical Tapering, Cylindrical waveguide, CST,S parameter

.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Paper 27111116: Shape Content Based Image Retrieval using LBG Vector Quantization (pp. 20-25)
Full Text: PDF

.
Dr. H.B. Kekre (1) , Dr. Sudeep D. Thepade (2) , Shrikant P. Sanas (3) , Sowmya Iyer (4) , Jhuma Garg (5)
(1,2) MPSTME, SVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed to be University), Mumbai.
(3,4,5) RAIT, Nerul, Navi Mumbai

.
Abstract - The paper presents improved image retrieval techniques based on shape features extracted using seven proposed gradient masks like Robert, Sobel, Prewitt, Canny, Laplace, Frei-Chen and Kirsch along with LBG Vector Quantization Technique. Here first the edge images are obtained using the gradient mask and slope magnitude method. Then shape feature are extracted by applying LBG codebook generation algorithm on the edge images. Seven gradient mask and seven codebook sizes (from 8 to 512) results into 49 variations of the proposed image retrieval method. These proposed image retrieval techniques are applied on augmented Wang image database with 1000 images. The database comprises of 11 categories of images from which 55 images (5 images from each category) are taken as query images to find precision and recall values. The crossover point of precision and recall is considered as performance comparison criteria for proposed image retrieval techniques. Best performance is observed in LBG Codebook sizes 16 and 32 when used with Robert Gradient mask for feature extraction.
.
Keywords: CBIR, Robert, Sobel, Prewitt, Canny, Laplace, Frei-Chen, Kirsch, VQ, LBG.
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Paper 27111120: Energy Issues In Mobile Telecom Network: A Detailed Analysis (pp. 26-28)
Full Text: PDF

.
P. Balagangadhar Rao, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, Sreekavitha Engineering College, Karepalli 507 122, India
.
Abstract - Diesel and Conventional energy costs are increasing at twice the growth rate of revenues of Mobile Telecom Network infrastructure industry. There is an urgent need to reduce the Operating Expenditure (OPEX) in this front. While bridging the rural and urban divide, Telecom Operators should adopt stronger regulations for climate control by reducing the Green house gases like CO2.This strengthens the business case for renewable energy technology usage. Solutions like Solar, Fuel Cells, Wind, Biomass, and Geothermal can be explored and implemented in the arena of energy starving Telecom sector. Such sources provide clean and green energy. They are free and infinitely available. These technologies which use the natural resources are not only suitable for stand alone applications but also have long life span. Their maintenance cost is quite minimal. Most important advantage of the use of these natural resources is to have a low Carbon foot print. These are silent energy sources. Out of these, Solar-based solutions are available as Ground (or) Tower mounted variants. Hybrid Technology solutions like Solar-Solar, Solar-DCDG (Direct Current Diesel Generators) or Solar-battery bank are to be put into use in order to cut down the OPEX (Operating Expenditure). Further, a single Multi Fuel Cell can also be used, which can run on Ethanol/Bio Fuel/Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)/Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)/Pyrolysis oil. Also, storage solutions like Lithium ion batteries reduce the Diesel Generator run hours, offering about fifty percent of savings in operating expenditure front. A detailed analysis is made in this paper in respect of the Energy requirements of Mobile Telecom Network; Minimising the Operating Costs by the usage of the technologies that harvest Natural resources; Sharing the Infrastructure by different Operators and bringing Energy efficiency by adopting latest Storage back up technologies.
.
Keywords: Fuel Cells, B.T.S (Base Tran-Receivers) Towers, BioFuel, L.P.G (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), Hybrid Technologies, Renewable Energy.
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Paper 28111121: Performance Comparison Of Neural Networks For Identification Of Diabetic Retinopathy (pp. 29-35)
Full Text: PDF

.
Mr. R. Vijayamadheswaran (1), Dr.M.Arthanari (2), Mr.M.Sivakumar (3)
(1) Doctoral Research Scholar, Anna University, Coimbatore, India
(2) Director,Bharathidhasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, India
(3) Doctoral Research Scholar, Anna University, Coimbatore, India

.
Abstract — This paper implements radial basis function (RBF) and Echo state neural networks (ESNN) for identification of hard exudates in diabetic retinopathy from fundus images. Features of 3 X 3 windows are extracted using contextual clustering algorithm. The features are further used to train the RBF network and ESNN network. The quality of the features extracted using contextual clustering is based on the size of the moving window (apportion of the image) used to consider pixels in the original image. The performances of the networks are compared.
.
Keywords- Diabetic retinopathy, fundus image, exudates detection, radial basis function, contextual clustering, echo state neural network

.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Paper 28111122: ZCEA&ZERA: Two-Step Cross Layer Congestion Control Routing Protocol (pp. 36-44)
Full Text: PDF

.
Prof. K. Srinivas, Dept. of Computer Science, Kottam College of Engineering, Kurnool, Andhrapradesh, India
Prof. A. A. Chari, Director (Research studies), Rayalaseema University, Kurnool, Andhrapradesh, India

.
Abstract - in this paper, we propose a new cross layer methodology to handle the congestion in proactive, reactive or hybrid routing models for mobile ad hoc networks, The proposed model controls the congestion in two steps with minimum resource utilization. Packet loss in network routing is mainly caused by link failure and congestion. Most of the existing congestion control solutions are not differentiating between packet loss due to link failure and packet loss due to congestion. Hence these solutions would be in action against to packet drop due to link failure, which is useless effort and leads to unnecessary utilization of the resources. The other limitation that can be observable in most of the existing solutions is energy and resource utilization to alert the source node about congestion in routing path. This is a limit in existing solutions, which are always regularizing the egress load at source node level. Here in this paper we propose a Zone level Congestion Evaluation Algorithm [ZCEA] and Zone level Egress Regularization Algorithm [ZERA], a two step cross layer based congestion control model. The experiment results emerged as an evident for better resource utilization in congestion controlling by our proposed protocol.
.
Keywords:
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. Paper 28111126: An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System based on Vorticity and Divergence for Rainfall forecasting (pp. 45-53)
Full Text: PDF

.
Kavita Pabreja,
Research Scholar, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan, India
Assistant Professor, Maharaja Surajmal Institute (an affiliate of GGSIP University), New Delhi, India

.
Abstract — A new rainfall forecasting model based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System is proposed in this paper. A neuro-fuzzy model inherits the interpretability of fuzzy models and learning capability of neural networks in a single system. It has got wide acceptance for modelling many real world problems because it provides a systematic and directed approach for model building and gives the best possible design parameters in minimum time. The datasets used in this paper for the training of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) are the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) model output products and the gridded rainfall datasets, provided by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). To determine the characteristics of ANFIS that best suited the target rainfall forecasting system, several ANFIS models were trained, tested and compared. Different training and checking data, type and number of membership functions and techniques to generate the initial Fuzzy Inference Systems were analyzed. Comparisons of the different models were performed and the results showed that the model generated by grid partitioning using gbellmf membership functions provided the smallest errors for rainfall forecasting.
.
Keywords - NWP model forecast, ECMWF model, rainfall, vorticity, divergence, ANFIS
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10. Paper 30091163: Highly Dynamic Nature of Mobile AD-HOC Networks (MANETs): Requirement of Stringent Security Measures (pp. 54-56)
Full Text: PDF

.
Prof P. Balagangadhar Rao, Electronics and Telecommunications, Sreekavitha Engineering College, Karepalli, India
.
Abstract — Wireless mobile AD-HOC networks (MANETs) can be established on demand and disappear when there is no need. Each mobile node in the network acts both as a terminal and also as a router. Thus, each mobile node is having a capability of forwarding packets of information to other peer nodes. The nodes are, basically, self-organized wireless interconnecting communication devices which can either extend or operate in concert with the wired networking infrastructure. Lot of research is going on, in this field, regarding the unique characteristics of AD-HOC networks such as open peer-to-peer network architecture, highly dynamic topology, shared wireless medium, stringent resource control etc. These limitations make a strong case for a desirable network performance with reasonably good security measures for the information interchange. Unlike networks that have dedicated routers, the nodes in the MANETs are highly dynamic in nature, there by liable for easy security breaches. Security Strength and network performance (Q.O.S) are the two sides of a coin. If one of these is enhanced, the other will suffer. Achieving a good trade-off between these two extremes is a fundamental challenging task in security design for mobile AD-HOC networks since these networks are characterized by an open and distributed communication environment where there is no central authorization facility that ensures more stringent security. An attempt is made in this paper to discuss certain topologies and security problems like (i) Denial-of-service attacks, (ii) Secured authentication, (iii) Protecting routing and forwarding of packets, (iv) End-to-end Communication through data encryption, (v) Preventing viruses, worms and application abuses at different layers.
.
Keywords-: Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, Q.O.S. (quality of service), Security Solutions, Net- Work Layers, Link-layer, Viruses, Worms, Nodes.
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11. Paper 30111141: A Novel Preprocessing Directed Acyclic Graph Technique for Session Construction (pp. 57-61)
Full Text: PDF

.
S. Chitra, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Coimbatore - 641 018
Dr. B. Kalpana, Department of Computer Science, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore - 641 043

.
Abstract - Log file data can provide precious insight into web usage mining. Web access log analysis is to analyze the patterns of web site usage and the features of user‟s behavior. It is the fact that the normal Log data is very noisy and unclear and it is vital to preprocess the log data for efficient web usage mining process. Preprocessing comprises of three phases which includes data cleaning, user identification and session construction. Session construction is very vital and numerous real world problems can be modeled as traversals on graph and mining from these traversals would provide the requirement for preprocessing phase. On the other hand, the traversals on unweighted graph have been taken into consideration in existing works. This paper oversimplifies this to the case where vertices of graph are given weights to reflect their significance. Patterns are closed frequent Directed Acyclic Graphs with page browsing time. The proposed method constructs sessions as a Directed Acyclic Graph which contains pages with calculated weights. This will help site administrators to find the interesting pages for users and to redesign their web pages. After weighting each page according to browsing time a DAG structure is constructed for each user session.
.
Keywords - Web Usage Mining, Session Construction, Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), Preprocessing, Robots Cleaning
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12. Paper 30111160: Performance Evaluation of Likert Weight Measure (pp. 62-67)
Full Text: PDF

.
N. Sudha, Asst. Professor, Department of computer science, Bishop Appasamy College of Arts & Science , Coimbatore -18, Tamil Nadu, India.
Lt. Dr. Santhosh Baboo, Reader PG & Research Department of computer applications, DG Vaishnav college, Chennai -600 106, Tamil Nadu India

.
Abstract - Association rule is a widely used data mining technique that searches through an entire data set for rules revealing the nature and frequency of relationships or associations between data entities. Supplier selection is a significant work in supply chain management. The main objective of supplier selection process is to reduce purchase risk and maximize overall value to the purchaser. In this paper, the supplier selection can be viewed as the problem of mining best supplier for a product. The proposed method Likert Weight Measure (LWM) incorporates a light weight association rule mining to compute supplier weight. This research outperforms well compared to traditional AHP algorithm and helps us to select the best supplier for a product.
.
Keywords: Data Mining, Likert Weight Measure (LWM), WARM, AHP.

.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13. Paper 30111162: Classifying Wine Quality Using K-Nearest Neighbor Based Associations (pp. 68-72)
Full Text: PDF

.
Lailil Muflikhah, Computer Science Department, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
Made Putra Adnyana, Computer Science Department, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

.
Abstract —
Assessment of wine quality is conducted through chemical and sensory analysis. However, the sensory analysis which includes taste, color and smell requires time consuming and high cost. Therefore, we propose to apply k-Nearest Neighbor Based Associations (KNNBA) of their attributes by embedded weight for calculating the dissimilarity between records which is used Euclidean distance. The association of the attribute weights can be determined by the value of group support and confidence in each attribute. The advantage of the method is applicable for data reduction based on irrelevant attribute.
.
Keywords- wine; k-nearest neighbor; associations; irrelevant attribute; Euclidean
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
14. Paper 30111163: Scene Change Detection Algorithms & Techniques: A Survey (pp. 73-77)
Full Text: PDF

.
Dolley Shukla, Dept. of information Technology, Shri Shankaracharya College of Engg., Tech. Bhilai, India
Manisha Sharma, dept. of Electronics & Telecommunacation, Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg Durg, India
.
Abstract — A video scene change detection method is necessary for managing the growing amount of video information efficiently. For recognizing the video content, many advanced video applications such as video on demand (VOD), digital library and digital watermarking, requires the scene change detection. Different techniques on scene change detection are used for compressed & uncompressed videos. Scene change detection has been studied and researched over the last three decades. As a result, many scene change detection techniques have been proposed and published in the literature. This paper gives a brief description of different algorithms and comparative analysis of different scene change detection techniques. The classification of algorithms into a relatively small number of categories will provide useful guidance to the algorithm designer.
.
Keywords - Scene change detection; compressed & uncompressed video; histogram; pixel difference ; abrupt scene change
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
15. Paper 30111166: Fingerprint Classification using KFCG Algorithm (pp. 78-81)
Full Text: PDF

.
Dr. H.B.Kekre, Dr. Sudeep D. Thepade, Dimple Parekh,
MPSTME, SVKM‘s NMIMS Deemed to be University, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400056, India

.
Abstract — Fingerprints are the most widely used form of biometric identification. Fingerprint Classification is done to associate a given fingerprint to one of the existing classes. Classifying fingerprint images is a very difficult pattern recognition problem, due to the small interclass variability. In this paper a novel technique based on vector quantization for fingerprint classification using Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation (KFCG) is proposed. Vector Quantization is a lossy data compression technique and is used in various applications. For vector quantization to be effective a good codebook is needed. Classification is done on fingerprint images using KFCG codebooks of sizes 4, 8 and 16. The proposed approach takes smaller computations as compared to conventional fingerprint classification techniques. It is observed that the method effectively improves the computation speed and provides accuracy of 80.66% using KFCG codebook of size 8.
.
Keywords- Vector Quantization, Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation (KFCG), Fingerprint Classes
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
16. Paper 30111168: On the Use of Stochastic Activity Networks and Game Theory for Quantitative Security Evaluation (pp. 82-92)
Full Text: PDF

.
Abdolsattar Vakili, Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Aq Qala Center, Aq Qala, Iran
Akbar Jangi Aghdam, School of Computer Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Taymaz Esmaeili, Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Aq Qala Center, Aq Qala, Iran

.
Abstract — Modeling and evaluation of the security of computer systems and networks is an important issue. Several methods have been examined for assessing the security of these systems. However, introducing a comprehensive method for modeling and quantitative evaluation of security is still an open problem. On the other hand, stochastic modeling techniques and tools have been used for performance and dependability evaluation for many years. Since the nature of stochastic models is to model accidental events rather than intentional events corresponding to the malicious actions of attackers, they fail to model security. In a previous work, game theory has been used in combination of CTMCs for modeling attacker behavior and to obtain attacker's decision probabilities. Our aim has been to extend this work to use stochastic activity networks (SANs) as a high-level formalism for modeling the system. In this paper, we present an approach for quantitative security evaluation based on SANs and stochastic game theory. The advantages of the proposed approach are twofold: (1) the proposed approach is based on a high-level modeling formalism supported by a powerful modeling tool, and (2) it is possible to use any general probability distributions to model the effort or the time required for attack processes.
.
Keywords-Security modeling; security evaluation; quantitative evaluation; stochastic activity networks (SANs); game theory
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
17. Paper 30111169: Rule Based Decision Mining With JDL Data Fusion Model For Computer Forensics: A Hypothetical Case Analysis (pp. 93-100)
Full Text: PDF

.
Suneeta Satpathy, P.G Department of Computer Application, CEB, BPUT, Bhubaneswar
Sateesh K. Pradhan & B. B. Ray, P.G Department of Computer Application, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India

.
Abstract - Law enforcement and the legal establishment are facing a new challenge as criminal acts are being committed and the evidence of these activities is recorded in electronic form. An epistemic uncertainty is an unavoidable attribute which is present in such type of investigations and could affect negatively the investigation process. Desktops and laptops serve as the principal means by which internet is misused and illegal works are done. So law enforcement is in a perpetual race with criminals and requires the development of tools to systematically search digital devices for pertinent evidence. Another part of this race, and perhaps more crucial, is the development of a methodology in computer forensics that encompasses the forensic analysis of digital crime scene investigations. In this paper we have presented a hypothetical case (misuse of internet) analyzed by adopting data fusion methodology along with the decision tree rules; by which conflicting information due to the unavoidable uncertainty can be captured at different levels of fusion and processed and intelligence analysis can be correlated with various crime types. Thus it holds the promise of alleviating such problems. The decision rules are formed by studying the normal user behavior and hence the investigation model can be trained automatically and efficiently so that it will have a low error rate.
.
Keywords - Computer Forensic, Digital Investigation, Digital evidence, Data Fusion, Decision tree
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
18. Paper 31081165: Harnessing High Speed Transmissions For Computer Communications With WiMax Technology (pp. 101-103)
Full Text: PDF

.
Prof P. Balagangadhar Rao, Electronics and Telecommunications, Sreekavitha Engineering College, Karepalli, India
.
Abstract — In the recent past, there is a Every school and college in the world is going to have a P.C and also an Internet connection. Those kids and students who never knew P.Cs will now be used to using them at these schools or colleges. They in turn will make way for their family members owning a P.C and therefore an internet connection. What will further fuel the penetration of computers is the content (voice, data, text, multi-media) which is more relevant to the user. More applications suitable to the respective social context will come up in the next few years which will in turn force to harness high speed transmission for computer communication. WiMAX (World Wide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is the next generation wireless technology which delivers data, video, voice and multi-media at a very low cost .It is designed to enable pervasive, high speed internet access to the widest array of devices including notebook PCs, handsets, smart phones and consumer electronic devices such as gaming devices, cameras, camcorders, music players etc. Being the first all IP (Internet Protocol) network, it is going to be the best choice for mobile Internet solutions. WiMAX is the natural choice at places where it is not feasible to use DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) or Cable Internet. A typical example is a remote location where it is not economically feasible to have DSL or Cable Internet. Compared to other technologies, WiMAX is more reliable due to its wireless nature of communication between the user and the base station. This particular feature is very useful in developing countries like INDIA where the reliability and quality of land-line infrastructure is often poor. An attempt is made in this paper to analyze various strengths of WiMAX technology which could be harnessed for the benefit of deriving high speed communications among computers as well as for the enrichment of the computer comfort of the users.
.
Keywords: WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), DSL(Digital Subscriber Line), I.P (Internet Protocol), Cable Internet, GSM (Global System for Mobile).
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
19. Paper 31101179: Design an Algorithm To Discover The Misdirection Attack For Increasing The Life Time in Computer Network (pp. 104-108)
Full Text: PDF

.
Omar Tariq Saleh Al-Khalidy, Computer Science Department, College of Computer Science and Mathematics, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq
.
Abstract - The wireless computer networks face many types of attacks, one of this type is a misdirection attack. Therefore; it is necessary to make the wireless network gives a good performance by discovering and dropping this attack. So the life time and the energy of the wireless networks almost be save. New method has been invented in this paper for discovering the misdirection attack. The obtained results show that the misdirection attack has a significant negative effect that causes consumption of network resources. The major benefit of this work is to show the importance of reducing energy and time consumption. As these two factors are very significant in data transmission and reducing them make transmission process more efficient and reliable.
.
Index Terms – misdirection, attack, time, energy.
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Comments