IJCSIS EDITORIAL BOARD

BEST PAPER AWARD

Vol. 9 No. 11 NOV 2011

Vol. 9 No. 11 November 2011 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication November 2011, Volume 9 No. 11 (Download Full Journal) (Archive) (Download 2)

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Copyright © IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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1. Paper 31101131: A Study of Elliptic Curves’s Implementations Suitable for Embedded Systems (pp. 1-7)
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Moncef Amara and Amar Siad,
LAGA Laboratory, University of Paris 8 (Vincennes Saint-Denis), Saint-Denis / FRANCE

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Abstract — The Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) covers all relevant asymmetric cryptographic primitives like digital signatures and key agreement algorithms. ECC is considered as the best candidate for Public-Key Cryptosystems. Recently, Elliptic Curve Cryptography based on Binary Edwards Curves (BEC) has been proposed and it shows several interesting properties, e.g., completeness and security against certain exceptional-points attacks. In this paper, we present a study of the different methods to implement ECC in hardware, we study the implementation of the BEC to make it suitable for programmable devices, and we given as application a hardware design of elliptic curve operations over binary Fields GF(2m). The function used for this purpose is the scalar multiplication kP which is the core operation of ECCs. Where k is an integer and P is a point on an elliptic curve.
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Index Terms—Cryptography, Elliptic curves, Binary Edwards curve, Scalar multiplication, Binary arithmetic, Cryptosystems, Programmable devices, FPGA.
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2. Paper 20101102: Transformation Invariance and Luster Variability in the Real-Life Acquisition of Biometric Patterns (pp. 8-15)
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R. Bremananth
Information Technology department, Sur University College, Affiliated to Bond University, Australia
P.O. 440, Postal code 411, Sur, Oman
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Abstract — In the real-life scenario, obtaining transformation invariant feature extraction is a challenging task in Computer Vision. Biometric recognitions are suffered due to diverse luster variations and transform patterns especially for face and biometric features. These patterns are main contingence on the distance of acquisition from the sensor to subjects’ location and the external luster of the environments that make diverse revolutionizes in the biometric features. Another invariant aspect is the translation and rotation. Explicitly face and biometric features should be a positional independent whenever an Active-Region-of-Pattern (AROP) can occur anyplace in the acquired image. In this research paper, we propose Jacobin based transformation invariance scheme. The method is effectively incorporated in order to attain essential features which are required for the transformation invariant recognition. The results show that the proposed method can robust in the real-life Computer vision applications.
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Keywords- Biometric; Luster variations; Jacobian transformation; Transformation invariant patterns;
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3. Paper 31101152: Improving the Quality of Applying eXtreme Programming (XP) Approach (pp. 16-22)
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Nagy Ramadan Darwish,
Assistant Professor, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Institute of Statistical Studies and Research, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

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Abstract — This paper is focused on improving the quality of applying eXtreme Programming (XP) approach on software development process. It clarifies the fundamentals of agile methods of software development. It presents the basic concepts and features of XP approach. XP approach can be viewed as life cycle phases that include six phases: exploration, planning, iterations to release, production, maintenance, and death. Each XP phase can be achieved through performing a set of steps. In this paper, the researcher develops a set of elaborated steps for achieving each XP phase. In addition, the researcher proposes a quality assurance approach for applying XP approach. The proposed quality assurance approach can be used for assuring the quality of achieving XP phases. Then, the deviation between the actual quality and the acceptable quality level can be identified and analyzed. The weaknesses of the software development practices can be discovered, treated to improve the quality of each phase, and avoided in further phases. The strengths of the practices can be discovered, utilized, and encouraged.
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Keywords- eXtreme Programming; XP Approach; Agile Methods; Software Development; Quality Evaluation; Improvements
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4. Paper 31101130: Software Complexity Methodologies & Software Security (pp. 23-27)
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Masoud Rafighi, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Nasser Modiri, Faculty Memeber, Zanjan Azad University, Tehran, Iran

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Abstract — It is broadly clear that complexity is one of the software natural features. Software natural complexity and software requirement functionality are two inseparable part and they have special range. measurement complexity have explained with using the MacCabe and Halsted models and with an example discuss about software complexity in this paper Flow metric information Henry and Kafura, complexity metric system Agresti-card-glass, design metric in item’s level have compared and peruse then categorized object oriented and present a model with 4 level of software complexity, we can create a decent understanding of software security best practices that can be practically applied and make a big impact on the software security problem.
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Keywords— McCabe model, Halstead model, measurement software complexity, security software.

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5. Paper 31101137: An Improved Energy Aware Hierarchical Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks (pp. 28-32)
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Behzad Homayounfar, Department of Technical and Engineering, Islamic Azad University - Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran
Sayyed Majid Mazinani, Department of Electrical Engineering , Imam Reza University, Mashhad, Iran

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Abstract — Reducing energy consumption and prolonging network lifetime is an important issue in wireless sensor networks. So this problem has to solve for sensor node energy while meeting the requirements of applications/users. Hierarchical network structures have the advantage of providing scalable and resource efficient solutions. In this paper to find an efficient way for saving energy consumption, we propose an Improved Energy Aware Hierarchical Routing Protocol (IERP) that prolong the sensor network lifetime. IERP introduces a new clustering parameter for cluster head election, routing tree construction on cluster heads for sending aggregated data to the base station. We use two parameters to select cluster heads and construct routing tree on cluster heads that includes distance from each node (others or base station) and residual energy of the nodes. We use a simple but efficient approach, namely, intra-cluster coverage to cope with the area coverage problem. Simulation results in the NS-2 platform demonstrate the longer network lifetime of the IERP than the better-known clustering protocols, ERA and EAP.
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Keywords- Hierachical; Clustring; Routing Tree; Lifetime Network; Residual Energy
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6. Paper 31101159: Java-Based Intrusion Detection System in a Wired Network (pp. 33-40)
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Eugène C. Ezin, Hervé Akakpo Djihountry,
Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques, Unitéde Recherche en Informatique et Sciences Appliquees, University of Abomey-Calavi, BP 613 Porto-Novo, Republic of Benin

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Abstract — Intrusion Detection has become an integral part of the information security process. The cost involved in protecting network resources is often neglected when compared with the actual cost of a successful intrusion, which strengthens the need to develop more powerful intrusion detection systems. Many existing systems for intrusion detection are developed in C, Objective-C, Tcl, C++ programming languages. In this paper, we design and develop a network intrusion detection system using Java programming language. We simulate the land attack, the flooding attack and the death’s ping attack to show the effectiveness of the proposed system in which packets in the network are captured online as they come on the network interface.
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Keywords-component—Intrusion Detection System (IDS), JpCap library, Network Security.

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7. Paper 31101169: Using Biometric Techniques To Secure Online Student Assessment: Comparative Study (pp. 41-43)
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Jamaludin Ibrahim, Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Muna A. Ali & Rasheed Nassr, Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Abstract — Currently E-learning systems do not provide a tool to authenticate student continuously during online assessment, this raises the probability of cheating. Many proposed solutions use different biometric techniques to identify and authenticate student continuously, they use different techniques with different measures. This paper proposes certain criteria that should be available in any proposed biometric technique to be fitted with e-learning architecture and continues authentication of student during online assessment. This paper investigates some proposed solutions to see compatibility of those solutions with the proposed criteria.
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Keywords-component; Biometric, E-learning, online assessment
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8. Paper 31101173: Training of Feed-Forward Neural Networks for Pattern-Classification Applications Using Music Inspired Algorithm (pp. 44-57)
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Ali Kattan, School of Computer Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
Rosni Abdullah, School of Computer Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia

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Abstract — There have been numerous biologically inspired algorithms used to train feed-forward artificial neural networks such as generic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization. The Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is a stochastic meta-heuristic that is inspired from the improvisation process of musicians. HS is used as an optimization method and reported to be a competitive alternative. This paper proposes two novel HS-based supervised training methods for feed-forward neural networks. Using a set of pattern-classification problems, the proposed methods are verified against other common methods. Results indicate that the proposed methods are on par or better in terms of overall recognition accuracy and convergence time.
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Keywords- harmony search; evolutionary methods; feed-forward neural networks; supervised training; pattern-classification.
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9. Paper 20101107: QoS for Virtual Reality Software Based on RTCP over the Protocols of IP/UDP/RTP (pp. 58-62)
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Albelaihy Abdullah Abdulaziz, Alateeby Saad Mohmad, Abdul Nasir Bin Zulkifli
Information Technology Department, UUM College of Arts and Sciences,
Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Kedah, Sintok, Malaysia

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Abstract — Current virtual reality environments are mainly visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special displays. Providing efficient and reliable network communication solution of virtual reality software has become an increase challenge for the industry experts and researchers, especially regards the aspects of the communication quality over the network. Thus, this paper intends to explore the possibility of using RTCP protocol with existing Panoweaver virtual reality software that uses IP/UDP/RTP communication protocol, in order to provide reliability, using RTCP could improve the existing software and Quality of Service (QoS) in terms of packet loss on increasing bandwidth. Therefore the amount of packet loss during the data transmission will be reduced respectively. Then, network simulation is used in this paper to compare the performance of the Panoweaver software with the Panoweaver-RTCP. This paper has the potentials to be much similar in the real time and is highly scalable and reliable for existing virtual reality software.
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Keywords: Virtual Reality, Panoweaver, RTP, IP, UDP, RTCP, QoS, NS2.
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10. Paper 25101114: A New Approach on K-Means Clustering (pp. 63-66)
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Trilochan Rout (1), Srikanta Kumar mohapatra (2), Jayashree Mohanty (3), Sushant Ku. Kamillla (4), Susant K. Mohapatra (5)
(1,2,3) - Computer Science and Engineerinmg Dept.,NMIET, Bhubaneswar,Oissa,India
(4)- Dept of Physics,ITER,Bhubaneswar,orissa,India
(5)- Chemical and Materials Engineering/MS 388, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA

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Abstract - To explore the application of feature extraction technique to extract necessary features using k-mean clustering. The main goal of research on feature extraction using k-mean is to find out best features from the cluster analysis. All the implementation can be performed by using Genetic algorithm(GA) also. The same problem is done by using Mat lab. The k-mean clustering process for feature extraction gives accuracy almost equal with that Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).Although this is a unsupervised learning method, before classification of dataset into different class this method can be used to partition the group to obtain the better efficiency with respect to the number of object and attributes this can be developed with same logic and can give better accuracy in Genetic algorithm (GA).
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Keywords-: Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Genetic algorithm (GA).
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11. Paper 31101133: A Taxonomy of Malicious Programs For An End User (pp. 67-72)
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Muhammad Azhar Mushtaq, Departemnt of Computer Science and IT, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.
Madiha Sarwar, Department of Computer science and IT, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan

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Abstract - Computer and network attacks have become highly sophisticated and complex with different names and multiple characteristics. In order to understand and find solutions against new and old attacks, different types of computer and network taxonomies are utilized. However, such taxonomies are being actively developed for expert users; research efforts towards making attack taxonomy for basic end users are still isolated. In this work we present taxonomy for the end users that will help in identifying attacks, the precaution measures they need to adapt and how to categorize new attacks. Moreover, through an empirical survey of the taxonomy, it is concluded that end users will be more protected than before and validity of the taxonomy was also checked.
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Keywords- Computer and network attack; taxonomy; end users
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12. Paper 31101134: Visualization of MUSTAS Model using ECHAID (pp. 73-78)
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G. Paul Suthan, Head, Department of Computer Science, CSI Bishop Appasamy College, Race Course, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641018, India
Lt. Dr. Santosh Baboo, Reader, PG and Research Department of Computer Application, DG Vishnav College, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600106,Tamil Nadu, India
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Abstract — Educational assessment is an important insight to know about the student. In recent years there is an increasing interest of Educational Data Mining (EDM), which helps to explore the student data in different perspective. As the case, we introduced a new model called MUSTAS to assess the student’s attitude in three dimensions known as self assessment, institutional assessment and external assessment. Thus, this model exhibits the student performance in three grades as poor, fair, and good. The final part of visualization is generated through ECHAID algorithm. In this paper, we present the model and its performance on our private student dataset collected by us. Our model shows interesting insights about the student and can be used to identify their performance grade.
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Keywords-component; Educational Data Mining, MUSTAS, CHAID prediction, Latent Class Analysis, Hybrid CHAID, ECHAID
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13. Paper 31101138: Optimized Energy and QOS Aware Multi-path Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks (pp. 79-84)
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Mohammad Reza Mazaheri, Department of Technical and Engineering, Mashhad Branch - Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Sayyed Majid Mazinani, Department of Electrical Engineering, Imam Reza University, Mashhad, Iran

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Abstract — Satisfying Quality of Service (QoS) requirements (e.g. bandwidth h and delay constraints) for the different QoS based applications of WSNs raises significant challenges. Each algorithm that is used for packet routing in such applications should be able to establish tradeoffs between end to end delay parameter and energy consumption. Therefore, enabling QoS applications in sensor networks requires energy and QoS awareness in different layers of the protocol stack. In this paper, we propose an Optimized Energy and QoS Aware Multipath routing protocol in wireless sensor networks namely OEQM. This protocol maximizes the network lifetime via data transmission across multiple paths as load balancing that causes energy consume uniformly throughout the network. OEQM uses the residual energy, available buffer size, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and distance to sink to predict the best next hop through the paths construction phase also our protocol employs a queuing model to handle both real-time and non-real-time traffic. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol is more efficient than previous algorithms in providing QoS requirements and minimizing energy consumption.
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Keywords- multi-path; network lifetime; energy consumption; Qos requirements; cost metric
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14. Paper 31101142: A Hybrid Approach for DICOM Image Feature Extraction, Feature Selection Using Fuzzy Rough set and Genetic Algorithm (pp. 85-89)
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J. Umamaheswari, Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science, Dr. G.R.D College of Science, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
Dr. G. Radhamani, Director, Department of Computer Science, Dr. G.R.D College of Science, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.

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Abstract — The proposed hybrid approach for feature extraction, feature reduction and feature selection of Medical images based on Rough set and Genetic Algorithm (GA). A Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Histogram based texture feature set is derived. The optimal texture features are extracted from normal and infected Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images by using GLCM and histogram based features. The inputs of these features are taken for the feature selection process. The selected features is solved by using Fuzzy Rough set and GA. These optimal features are used to classify the DICOM images into normal and infected. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated on a series of DICOM datasets collected from medical laboratories.
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Keywords- Fuzzy roughest; GLCM; Texture features;Histogram Features and region features.
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15. Paper 31101145: Studying the Performance of Transmitting Video Streaming over Computer Networks in Real Time (pp. 90-100)
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Hassan H. Soliman, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt
Hazem M. El-Bakry, Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Computer Science & Information Systems, Mansoura University, Egypt
Mona Reda, Senior multimedia designer, E-learning unit, Mansoura University, Egypt
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Abstract — The growth of Internet applications has become widely used in many different fields. Such growth has motivated video communication over best-effort packet networks. Multimedia communications have emerged as a major research and development area. In particular, computers in multimedia open a wide range of possibilities by combining different types of digital media such as text, graphics, audio, and video. This paper concentrates on the transmission of video streaming over computer networks. This study is preformed on two different codecs H.264 and MPEG-2. Video streaming files are transmitted by using two different protocols HTTP and UDP. After making the real time implementation, the performance of transmission parameters over the computer network is measured. Practical results show that jitter time of MPEG-2 is less than H.264. So MPEG-2 protocol is better than H.264 over the UDP protocols. In contrast, jitter time of H.264 is less than MPEG-2 over HTTP protocol. So H.264 is better than MPEG-2 over the HTTP protocol. This is from the network performance view. However, from video quality view, MPEG-2 achieves the guidelines of QoS of video streaming.
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Keywords- Multimedia communication, Video streaming, Network performance

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16. Paper 31101149: Fast Detection of H1N1 and H1N5 Viruses in DNA Sequence by using High Speed Time Delay Neural Networks (pp. 101-108)
Full Text: PDF (updated version)

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Hazem M. El-Bakry, Faculty of Computer Science & Information Systems, Mansoura University, Egypt
Nikos Mastorakis, Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria

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Abstract — Fast detection of biological viruses in DNA sequence is very important for investigation of patients and overcome diseases. First, an intelligent algorithm to completely retrieve DNA sequence is presented. DNA codes that may be missed during the splitting process are retrieved by using Hopfield neural networks. Then, a new approach for fast detection of biological viruses like H1N1 and H1N5 in DNA sequence is presented. Such algorithm uses high speed time delay neural networks (HSTDNNs). The operation of these networks relies on performing cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input DNA sequence and the input weights of neural networks. It is proved mathematically and practically that the number of computation steps required for the presented HSTDNNs is less than that needed by conventional time delay neural networks (CTDNNs). Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.
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Keywords- High Speed Neural Networks; Cross Correlation; Frequency Domain; H1N1 and H1N5 Detection

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17. Paper 31101150: Enhancement Technique for Leaf Images (pp. 109-112)
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N. Valliammal, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore-641 043. India
Dr. S. N. Geethalakshmi, Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore-641 043. India

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Abstract — Computer aided identification of plants is an area of research that has gained more attention in recent years and is proving to be a very important tool in many areas including agriculture, forestry and pharmacological science. In addition, with the deterioration of environments, many of the rare plants have died out, and so, the investigation of plant recognition can contribute to environmental protection. A general process of a Computer Aided Plant Classification through Leaf Recognition (CAP-LR) contains four steps, namely, building the leaf database, preprocessing, feature extraction and classification. This paper focuses on the preprocessing step of CAP-LR. In this paper, an approach that simultaneously removes noise, adjusts contrast and enhances boundaries is presented. Experimental results prove that the proposed method is an improved version to the traditional enhancement algorithms.
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Keywords: Contrast Adjustment; Discrete Wavelet Transform; Boundary Enhancement; Median filter.

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18. Paper 31101153: Secret Sharing Scheme based on Chinese reminder theorem and polynomials interpolation (pp. 113-118)
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Qassim AL Mahmoud, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, The University of Bucharest, Romania
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Abstract - The concept for a secret sharing is necessary to build a security system that saves and retrieves information to avoid its loss or theft, and increase the security infrastructure. Secret sharing schemes can be used for any way in which the access to an important resource has to be restricted. Consideration to the concept of secret must be taken into account the group of people selected to be the group authorized to build the concept of secret sharing, dividing this group into subsets where each subset can retrieve private confidence. This paper build scheme combine from Chinese reminder theorem and interpolation polynomials which depend on the tow famous thresholds secret sharing scheme, Mignotte' Scheme, and Shamir scheme respectively in order to produce flexible and extensible frame work for secret sharing.
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Keywords: secret sharing scheme, threshold secret sharing scheme, Shamir secret sharing, Mignotte secret sharing.
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19. Paper 31101154: Enhancing Community Policing Using a Virtual Community Model (pp. 119-124)
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Rufai M. M. and Adigun J. O
Dept. of Computer Technology, Yaba College of Technology, Lagos, Nigeria
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Abstract - Globalisation and Information Communication Technology have both exposed people to perverted foreign cultures with associated criminal tendencies. Consequently, there has been an increase in the perpetration of crimes in most communities especially in the developing nation like Nigeria. The Nigerian Police has made cogent effort in checking the upsurge of crimes, without significant success. Perhaps, one of the factors responsible for the failure is that the police have not integrated members of the community in their war against crimes or an effective tool has not been employed in reaching members of the community. People have reservations for the Nigerian police on account of three reasons, namely: a) perceived rise in crime/inability of the police to cope with the demand for protection by the citizens, (b) poor perceptions about the ability of the criminal justice system to respond to the needs of the victims of crime and (c) inadequacies of the formal police service. This paper discusses how community policing can be enhanced using virtual community. It describes the modus operandi of existing community policing approach in Nigeria, the associated problems and the changes information technology can make. As part of this research we will review relevant literature on existing virtual communities and we will develop a virtual community model for effective community policing. The paper concludes that community policing can better be enhanced using a virtual community model (VCM).
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Keywords: Community Policing, Virtual Community
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20. Paper 31101155: Iterative Selective & Progressive Switching Median Filter for removal of salt and pepper noise in images (pp. 125-131)
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Abdullah Al Mamun, Computer Science & Engineering, Mawlana Bhashani science & Technology University, Santosh, Tangail, Bangladesh
Md. Motiur Rahman, Computer Science & Engineering, Mawlana Bhashani science & Technology University, Santosh, Tangail, Bangladesh
Khaleda Sultana, Computer Science & Engineering, Mawlana Bhashani science & Technology University, Santosh, Tangail, Bangladesh
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Abstract — In this paper, we propose a new median-based switching filter, called Iterative Selective & Progressive Switching Median Filter (ISPSM), where both the noise density and threshold value are calculated dynamically from noisy input image by the noise detector, also noise detection window size is iteratively detected by noise detector. Simulation result shows that our method is significantly better than a number of existing techniques including Progressive Switching Median Filter (PSMF) in terms of image restoration and noise detection.

Keywords- salt & pepper noise; selective & progressive switching median filter; noise detector; mean square error; peak signal to noise ratio
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21. Paper 31101158: Considering Statistical Reports of Populations Penetration in Attack to Networks (pp. 132-137)
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Afshin Rezakhani Roozbahani, Department of Computer Engineering, Ayatollah Boroujerdi University, Boroujerd, Iran
Nasser Modiri, Department of Computer Engineering, Zanjan Azad University, Zanjan, Iran
Nasibe Mohammadi, Department of Computer Engineering, Ayatollah Boroujerdi University, Boroujerd, Iran
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Abstract — Because the internet traffic is increasing continuously, analyzing internet events and the penetration of countries is more important from previous years. In this article, we study the population of countries with most network traffics and consider the attacks rate that occur in them. Also we study countries subject to attack and the rate of their attacks. These results can be used in future research to place coordinators in gorge locations of world to manage information that are passed between countries. Also these results can be used in collaborative intrusion detection systems (IDSs) for inform new attack methods to all IDSs in other location of worlds.
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Keywords - internet traffic; attacks rate; IDSs;
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22. Paper 31101161: Security Implications of Ad-hoc Routing Protocols against Wormhole Attack using Random Waypoint Mobility Model in Wireless Sensor Network (pp. 138-146)
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Varsha Sahni (1), Vivek Thapar (2), Bindiya Jain (3)
(1)-(2) Computer Science and Engineering, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana, India
(3) Electronics & Communication Engineering, DAV Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jalandhar.
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Abstract -- A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations.WSN is highly vulnerable to attacks because it consists of various resource-constrained devices with their low battery power, less memory, and associated low energy. Sensor nodes communicate among themselves via wireless links. However, there are still a lot of unresolved issues in wireless sensor networks of which security is one of the hottest research issues. The focus, however, has been given to the routing protocols which might differ depending on the application and network architecture. In this paper we have evaluated the affects of wormhole attack on performance of AODV and DSR routing protocols on varying node mobility. WSN’s protocol has different security flaws and using these flaws many kind of attack possible on wireless sensor -network. Wormhole is one of these attacks. Wormhole attack causes serious affect on performance of the WSN protocol and preventing the attack has proven to be very difficult. In wormhole attack attacker place some malicious node in the network. A malicious node captures data packets from one location in the network and tunnels them to another malicious node at distinct location, which replays them locally. These tunnels works like shorter link in the network and so act as benefit to unsuspecting network nodes which by default seek shorter routes. This paper illustrates how wormhole attack affects performance of routing protocol in wireless sensor network using random waypoint mobility model with varying node mobility. We also analyze the effectiveness of WEP and CCMP security protocol against wormhole using DSR and AODV protocol.
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Keywords: WEP, CCMP, WSN, AODV, DSR, IMPORTANT, CBR, Random Waypoint Mobility Model
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23. Paper 31101164: An Empirical Comparison of Boosting and Bagging Algorithms (pp. 147-152)
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R. Kalaichelvi Chandrahasan, College of Computer Studies, AMA International University, Kingdom of Bahrain
Angeline Christobel Y, College of Computer Studies, AMA International University, Kingdom of Bahrain
Usha Rani Sridhar, College of Computer Studies, AMA International University, Kingdom of Bahrain
Arockiam L, Dept.of Computer Science, St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli, TN, India
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Abstract - Classification is one of the data mining techniques that analyses a given data set and induces a model for each class based on their features present in the data. Bagging and boosting are heuristic approaches to develop classification models. These techniques generate a diverse ensemble of classifiers by manipulating the training data given to a base learning algorithm. They are very successful in improving the accuracy of some algorithms in artificial and real world datasets. We review the algorithms such as AdaBoost, Bagging, ADTree, and Random Forest in conjunction with the Meta classifier and the Decision Tree classifier. Also we describe a large empirical study by comparing several variants. The algorithms are analyzed on Accuracy, Precision, Error Rate and Execution Time.
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Keywords - Data Mining, Classification, Meta classifier, Decision Tree.
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24. Paper 31101177: Developing an e-Learning Multiple Choice Questions Test using Mobile SMS (pp. 153-157)
Full Text: PDF
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Ali Hussein Ali Alnooh, Computer Science Department, College of Computer Science and Mathematics, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq
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Abstract — This paper presents a new system for Multiple Choice Questions Paper Test using Mobile SMS (MCQPSMS) to develop the traditional way of MCQ used in Paper Based Tests PBT through the use of mobile Short Message Service (SMS). This MCQPSMS system consists of two main parts: The first one permits the teacher to enter questions and their answers, order them in a random way, then print and give them to students. While the second part receives the answers from the students' mobile phones by SMS, grading them automatically and save them in the database, then sending the marks to the students by SMS. The system has been tested in Mosul university/computer science department with 40 students as a testing sample and the results matched the paper.
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Keywords- MCQ test, E-learning, mobile SMS, AT commands
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25. Paper 31101178: DCMC: Decentralized and Cellular Mechanism for improving fault management in Clustered wireless sensor networks (pp. 158-162)
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Shahram Babaie & Tahereh Rasi,
Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran

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Abstract — Due to the shared wireless communication medium and harsh environments in which sensor nodes are deployed, Wireless Sensor networks (WSN) are inherently fault-prone. Energy is one of the most constraining factors and node failures due to crash and energy exhaustion are commonplace. In order to avoid degradation of service due to faults, it is necessary for the WSN to be able to detect faults early and initiate recovery actions. In this paper we propose a cellular and decentralized cluster based method for any fault detection and recovery which is energy efficient namely DCMC. Simulation Results show that the performance of proposed algorithm is more efficient than previous ones.
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Keywords- wireless sensor network; fault management; cellular mechanism; cluster-based; energy efficiency

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26. Paper 29091115: Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Ad Hoc, Checklist- and Perspective-based Software Inspection Reading Techniques (pp. 163-172)
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(1) Olalekan S. Akinola & (2) Ipeayeda Funmilola Wumi
(1) Department of Computer Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
(2) Department of Physical Sciences, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo Town, Nigeria

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Abstract - Software inspection is said to be inevitable in order to ensure software quality assurance. Nevertheless, there have been controversies on which defect detection techniques should be applied in software document inspection. This work comparatively study the effectiveness of three software inspection techniques: Ad Hoc, Perspective-based and Checklist-based defect detection techniques. Paper-based inspections of software artifact were carried out on an industrial code artifact seeded with forty bugs. An experimental 3 x 3 x 4 factorial design with three defect detection techniques (checklist-based, Adhoc and perspective-based) as independent variables, three dependent variables (inspection effectiveness, effort and false positives) and four teams for each defect detection methods was used for the experiment. The data obtained were subjected to tests of hypotheses using One-way ANOVA, Post-Hoc tests and Mean coefficients. Results from the study indicate that there were significant differences in the defect detection effectiveness and effort in terms of time taken in minutes reported by the reviewers using perspective-based, ad hoc and checklist-based based reading techniques in the industrial settings.
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Keywords: Software inspection, Ad Hoc reading technique, Checklist reading technique, Perspective reading technique
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