Vol. 8 No. 7 OCT 2010

Vol. 8 No. 7 October 2010 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication October 2010, Volume 8 No. 7 (Download Full Journal) (Archive

Copyright © IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Paper 29091048: Data Group Anonymity:  General Approach (pp. 1-8)

Full Text: PDF

Oleg Chertov, Applied Mathematics Department, NTUU “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Kyiv, Ukraine

Dan Tavrov, Applied Mathematics Department, NTUU “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Kyiv, Ukraine


Abstract— In the recent time, the problem of protecting privacy in statistical data before they are published has become a pressing one. Many reliable studies have been accomplished, and loads of solutions have been proposed. Though, all these researches take into consideration only the problem of protecting individual privacy, i.e., privacy of a single person, household, etc. In our previous articles, we addressed a completely new type of anonymity problems. We introduced a novel kind of anonymity to achieve in statistical data and called it group anonymity. In this paper, we aim at summarizing and generalizing our previous results, propose a complete mathematical description of how to provide group anonymity, and illustrate it with a couple of real-life examples.

 Keywords-group anonymity; microfiles; wavelet transform


2. Paper 26091026: A Role-Oriented Content-based Filtering Approach: Personalized Enterprise Architecture Management Perspective (pp. 9-18)

Full Text: PDF

 Imran GHANI, Choon Yeul LEE, Seung Ryul JEONG, Sung Hyun JUHN

(School of Business IT, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702, Korea)

Mohammad Shafie Bin Abd Latiff

(Faculty of Computer Science and Information Systems Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Malaysia)


Abstract - In the content filtering-based personalized recommender systems, most of the existing approaches concentrate on finding out similarities between users’ profiles and product items under the situations where a user usually plays a single role and his/her interests persist identical on long term basis. The existing approaches argue to resolve the issues of cold-start significantly while achieving an adequate level of personalized recommendation accuracy by measuring precision and recall. However, we investigated that the existing approaches have not been significantly applied in the context where a user may play multiple roles in a system simultaneously or may change his/her role overtime in order to navigate the resources in distinct authorized domains. The example of such systems is enterprise architecture management systems, or e-Commerce applications. In the scenario of existing approaches, the users need to create very different profiles (preferences and interests) based on their multiple /changing roles; if not, then their previous information is either lost or not utilized. Consequently, the problem of cold-start appears once again as well as the precision and recall accuracy is affected negatively. In order to resolve this issue, we propose an ontology-driven Domain-based Filtering (DBF) approach focusing on the way users’ profiles are obtained and maintained over time. We performed a number of experiments by considering enterprise architecture management aspect and observed that our approach performs better compared with existing content filtering-based techniques.

 Keywords: role-oriented content-based filtering, recommendation, user profile, ontology, enterprise architecture management


3. Paper 28091036: Minimizing the number of retry attempts in keystroke dynamics through inclusion of error correcting schemes (pp. 19-25)

Full Text: PDF

 Pavaday Narainsamy, Student member IEEE, Computer Science Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Of Mauritius

Professor K.M.S.Soyjaudah, Member IEEE, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mauritius


Abstract— One of the most challenging tasks, facing the security expert, remains the correct authentication of human beings. Throughout the evolution of time, this has remained crucial to the fabric of our society. We recognize our friends/enemies by their voice on the phones, by their signature/ writing on a paper, by their face when we encounter them. Police identify thieves by their fingerprint, dead corpse by their dental records and culprits by their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) among others. Nowadays with digital devices fully embedded into daily activities, non refutable person identification has taken large scale dimensions. It is used in diverse business sectors including health care, finance, aviation, communication among others. In this paper we investigate the application of correction schemes to the most commonly encountered form of authentication, that is, the knowledge based scheme, when the latter is enhanced with typing rhythms. The preliminary results obtained using this concept in alleviating the retry and account lock problems are detailed.

 Keywords-Passwords, Authentication, Keystroke dynamics, errors, N- gram, Minimum edit distance.


4. Paper 29091049: Development of Cinema Ontology: A Conceptual and Context Approach (pp. 26-31)

Full Text: PDF

 Dr. Sunitha Abburu, Professor, Department of Computer Applications, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur, India

Jinesh V N, Lecturer, Department of Computer Science, The Oxford College of Science,  Bangalore, India


Abstract— Stored multimedia data poses a number of challenges in the management of multimedia information, includes knowledge representation, indexing and retrieval, intelligent searching techniques, information browsing and query processing. Among the multimedia entertainment, cinema stands in the first position. Ontology is a kind of concept model that could describe system at the level of semantic knowledge as agreed by a community of people. Ontology is hierarchical and thus provides a taxonomy of concepts that allows for the semantic indexing and retrieval of information. Ontology together with a set of individual instances of classes constitutes a knowledge base. In an abstract sense, we view cinema ontology as a collection of sub ontologies. Most of the queries are based on two different aspects of the multimedia objects pertaining to cinema domain viz context information and concept based scenes. There is a need for two kinds of sub ontology pertaining to the cinema domain. Cinema Context Ontology and Cinema Scene Ontology. The former deals with the external information and while the later focus on the semantic concepts of the cinema scene and their hierarchy and the relationship among the concepts. Further practical implementation of Cinema ontology is illustrated using the protégé tool. Finally, designing and construction of context information extraction system and cinema scene search engine are proposed as future work. The proposed structure is flexible and can be easily enhance.

 Keywords- Domain ontology; Concept; Context; Cinema; Multimedia


5. Paper 13091002: S-CAN: Spatial Content Addressable Network for Networked Virtual Environments (pp. 32-38)

Full Text: PDF

 Amira Soliman, Walaa Sheta

Informatics Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, Egypt.


Abstract— Networked Virtual Environments (NVE) combines 3D graphics with networking to provide simulated environment for people across the globe. The availability of high speed networks and computer graphics hardware enables enormous number of users to connect and interact with each other. In NVE each node (user or avatar) should be aware of the existence and modification of all its neighbors. Therefore, neighborhood consistency that is defined as ratio between node’s known and actual neighbors is a fundamental problem of NVE and should be attained as high as possible. In this paper, we address the neighborhood consistency by introducing S-CAN, a spatial Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay that dynamically organizes nodes in NVE to preserve spatial locality of users in NVE. Consequently, node’s neighborhood will always maintain node’s direct neighbors and hence node will be aware of other users and events within its visibility that is called node’s Area-of-Interest.

 Keywords: Networked Virtual Environments; Peer-to-Peer Systems; Interest Management.


6. Paper 26091024: Combinatory CPU Scheduling Algorithm (pp. 39-43)

Full Text: PDF

 Saeeda Bibi , Farooque Azam ,

Department of Computer Engineering, College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Yasir Chaudhry, Department of Computer Science, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield,Iowa USA


Abstract—Central Processing Unit (CPU) plays a significant role in computer system by transferring its control among different processes. As CPU is a central component, hence it must be used efficiently. Operating system performs an essential task that is known as CPU scheduling for efficient utilization of CPU. CPU scheduling has strong effect on resource utilization as well as overall performance of the system. In this paper, a new CPU scheduling algorithm called Combinatory is proposed that combines the functions of some basic scheduling algorithms. The suggested algorithm was evaluated on some CPU scheduling objectives and it was observed that this algorithm gave good performance as compared to the other existing CPU scheduling algorithms.

 Keywords-component: Operating System, CPU scheduling, First Come First Serve Algorithm, Shortest Job First Algorithm,


7. Paper 26091046: Enterprise Crypto method for Enhanced Security over semantic web (pp. 44-48)

Full Text: PDF

 Talal Talib Jameel, Department of Medical Laboratory Science s, Al Yarmouk University College, Baghdad, Iraq


Abstract— the importance of the semantic web technology for enterprises activities and other business sectors is addressing new patters which demand a security concern among these sectors. The security standard in the semantic web enterprises is a step towards satisfying this demand. Meanwhile, the existing security techniques used for describing security properties of the semantic web that restricts security policy specification and intersection. Furthermore, it’s common for enterprises environments to have loosely-coupled components in the security. RSA used widely to in the enterprises applications to secure long keys and the use of up-to-date implementations, but this algorithm unable to provide a high level of security among the enterprise semantic web. However, different researchers unable to identify whether they can interact in a secure manner based on RSA. Hence, this study aimed to design a new encryption model for securing the enterprise semantic web with taking in account the current RSA technique as a main source of this study.

 Keywords: Agent systems, RSA, ECC, recommendation method, XML, RDF, OWL, enterprise application.


8. Paper 30091054: On the Performance of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Encryption for Real-Time Video Conferencing System (pp. 49-55)

Full Text: PDF

 Maryam Feily, Salah Noori, Sureswaran Ramadass

National Advanced IPv6 Centre of Excellence (NAv6), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia


Abstract— Providing security for video conferencing systems is in fact a challenging issue due to the unique requirements of its real-time multimedia encryption. Modern cryptographic techniques can address the security objectives of multimedia conferencing system. The efficiency of a viable encryption scheme is evaluated using two critical performance metrics: Memory usage, and CPU usage. In this paper, two types of cryptosystems for video conferencing system were tested and evaluated. The first cryptosystem is asymmetric, whereas the second is symmetric. Both cryptosystems were integrated and tested on a commercial based video and multimedia conferencing platform.

 Keywords- Encryption; Asymmetric; Symmetric; Security; Efficiency; Video Conferencing.


9. Paper 11101004: RACHSU Algorithm based Handwritten Tamil Script Recognition (pp. 56-61)

Full Text: PDF

 C. Sureshkumar, Department of Information Technology, J.K.K.Nataraja College of Engineering, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. T. Ravichandran, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Hindustan Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India


Abstract- Handwritten character recognition is a difficult problem due to the great variations of writing styles, different size and orientation angle of the characters. The scanned image is segmented into paragraphs using spatial space detection technique, paragraphs into lines using vertical histogram, lines into words using horizontal histogram, and words into character image glyphs using horizontal histogram. The extracted features considered for recognition are given to Support Vector Machine, Self Organizing Map, RCS, Fuzzy Neural Network and Radial Basis Network. Where the characters are classified using supervised learning algorithm. These classes are mapped onto Unicode for recognition. Then the text is reconstructed using Unicode fonts. This character recognition finds applications in document analysis where the handwritten document can be converted to editable printed document. Structure analysis suggested that the proposed system of RCS with back propagation network is given higher recognition rate.

 Keywords - Support Vector, Fuzzy, RCS, Self organizing map, Radial basis function, BPN


10. Paper 13081003: Trust challenges and issues of E-Government: E-Tax prospective (pp. 62-66)

Full Text: PDF

 Dinara Berdykhanova, Asia Pacific University College of Technology and Innovation Technology Park Malaysia,  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Ali Dehghantanha, Asia Pacific University College of Technology and Innovation Technology Park Malaysia, Kualalumpor- Malaysia

Andy Seddon, Asia Pacific University College of Technology and Innovation Technology Park Malaysia, Kualalumpor- Malaysia


Abstract — This paper discusses trust issues and challenges have been encountered by e-government developers during the process of adoption of online public services. Despite of the apparent benefits as online services’ immediacy and saving costs, the rate of adoption of e-government is globally below experts’ expectations. A concern about e-government adoption is extended to trust issues which are inhibiting a citizen’s acceptance of online public sector services or engagement with e-government initiates. A citizen’s decision to use online systems is influenced by their willingness to trust the environment and to the agency is involved. Trust makes citizens comfortable sharing personal information and making online government transaction. Therefore, trust is a significant notion that should be critically investigated in context of different E-Taxation models as part of E-Government initiatives. This research is proposing the implementation of Trusted Platform Module as a solution for achieving the high level of citizens’ trust in e-taxation.

 Keywords:E-Gavernment, E-Taxation, Trust, Secutiry, Trusted Platform Module


11. Paper 16081008: Machine Learning Approach for Object Detection - A Survey Approach (pp. 67-71)

Full Text: PDF

 N.V. Balaji, Department of Computer Science, Karpagam University, Coimbatore, India

Dr. M. Punithavalli, Department of Computer Science, Sri Ramakrishna Arts College for Women, Coimbatore, India


Abstract---Object detection is a computer technology related to computer vision and image processing to determine whether or not the specified object is present, and, if present, determine the locations and sizes of each object. Depending on the machine learning algorithms, we can divide all object detection methods as Generative Methods and Discriminative Methods. The concept of object detection is being an active area of research and it is rapidly emerging since it is used in many areas of computer vision, including image retrieval and video surveillance. This paper presents a general survey which reviews the various techniques for object detection and brings out the main outline of object detection. The concepts of image detection are discussed in detail along with examples and description. The most common & significant algorithms for object detection are further discussed. In this work an overview of the existing methodologies and proposed techniques for object detection with future ideas for the enhancement are discussed.

 Keywords --- Object Detection, Support Vector Machine, Neural Networks, Machine Learning.


12. Paper 18061028: Performance comparison of SONET, OBS on the basis of Network Throughput and Protection in Metropolitan Networks (pp. 72-75)

Full Text: PDF

 Mr. Bhupesh Bhatia, Assistant Professor , Northern India Engineering College, New Delhi, India

R.K.Singh, Officer on special duty, Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun (Uttrakhand), India


Abstract— In this paper we explore the performance of SONET/SDH & OBS architectures connected as mesh topology, for optical metropolitan networks. The OBS framework has been widely studied in past days because it achieves high traffic throughput & high resource utilization. A brief comparison between OBS & SONET is studied. The results are based on analysis of simulations and we present a comparison between OBS architectures (with centralized & distributed scheduling schemes), SONET & NG-SONET.

Keywords - Add Drop Multiplexers; LCAS latency; Over Provisioning; WR-OBS; JET-OBS; Network Protection.


13. Paper 23091017: A Survey on Session Hijacking (pp. 76-83)

Full Text: PDF

P. Ramesh Babu, Dept of CSE, Sri Prakash College of Engineering, Tuni-533401, INDIA

D. Lalitha Bhaskari, Dept of CS & SE, AU College of Engineering (A), Visakhapatnam-530003, INDIA

CPVNJ Mohan Rao, Dept of CSE, Avanthi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Narsipatnam-531113, INDIA


Abstract - With the emerging fields in e-commerce, financial and identity information are at a higher risk of being stolen. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a common-cumvaliant security threat to which most systems are prone to i.e. Session Hijacking. It refers to the exploitation of a valid computer session to gain unauthorized access to information or services in a computer system. Sensitive user information is constantly transported between sessions after authentication and hackers are putting their best efforts to steal them. In this paper, we will be setting the stages for the session hijacking to occur, and then discussing the techniques and mechanics of the act of session hijacking, and finally providing general strategies for its prevention.

Key words: session hijacking, packet, application level, network level, sniffing, spoofing, server, client, TCP/IP, UDP and HTTP


14. Paper 26091022: Point-to-Point IM Interworking session Between SIP and MFTS (pp. 84-87)

Full Text: PDF

Mohammed Faiz Aboalmaaly, Omar Amer Abouabdalla, Hala A. Albaroodi and Ahmed M. Manasrah

National Advanced IPv6 Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia


Abstract This study introduces a new IM interworking prototype between the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and the Multipoint File Transfer System (MFTS). The interworking system design is presented as well. The interworking system relies on adding a new network entity to enable the interworking which has the ability to work as a SIP server to the SIP-side of the network and as a MFTS server to the MFTS-side of the network. Use Cases tool is used to describe the translation server architecture. Finally, experimental-based results show that the interworking entity is able to run a successful point-to-point interoperability IM session between SIP and MFTS that involved user registration and message translations as well.

Keywords- SIP; MFTS; Instant Messaging (IM);


15. Paper 29071042: An Extensive Survey on Gene Prediction Methodologies (pp. 88-104)

Full Text: PDF

Manaswini Pradhan, Lecturer, P.G. Department of Information and Communication Technology, Fakir Mohan University, Orissa, India

Dr. Ranjit Kumar Sahu, Assistant Surgeon, Post Doctoral Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery,S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack,Orissa, India


Abstract- In recent times, Bioinformatics plays an increasingly important role in the study of modern biology. Bioinformatics deals with the management and analysis of biological information stored in databases. The field of genomics is dependant on Bioinformatics which is a significant novel tool emerging in biology for finding facts about gene sequences, interaction of genomes, and unified working of genes in the formation of final syndrome or phenotype. The rising popularity of genome sequencing has resulted in the utilization of computational methods for gene finding in DNA sequences. Recently computer assisted gene prediction has gained impetus and tremendous amount of work has been carried out on this subject. An ample range of noteworthy techniques have been proposed by the researchers for the prediction of genes. An extensive review of the prevailing literature related to gene prediction is presented along with classification by utilizing an assortment of techniques. In addition, a succinct introduction about the prediction of genes is presented to get acquainted with the vital information on the subject gene prediction.

Keywords- Genomic Signal Processing (GSP), gene, exon, intron, gene prediction, DNA sequence, RNA, protein, sensitivity, specificity, mRNA.


16. Paper 29091040: A multicast Framework for the Multimedia Conferencing System (MCS) based on IPv6 Multicast Capability (pp. 105-110)

Full Text: PDF

Hala A. Albaroodi, Omar Amer Abouabdalla,  Mohammed Faiz Aboalmaaly and  Ahmed M. Manasrah

National Advanced IPv6 Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia


Abstract- This paper introduces a new system model of enabling the Multimedia Conferencing System (MCS) to send a multicast traffic based on IPv6. Currently, the above mentioned system is using a unicast approach to distribute the multimedia elements in an IPv4-based network. Moreover, this study covers the proposed system architecture as well as the expected performance gain for transforming the current system from IPv4 to IPv6 by taking into account the advantages of IPv6 such as the multicast. Expected results shows that moving the current system to run on IPv6 will dramatically reduce the network traffic generated from IPv4- based MCS.

Keywords- IPv6 Multicast, Multimedia Conference, MCS;


17. Paper 29091042: The Evolution Of Chip Multi-Processors And Its Role In High Performance And Parallel Computing (pp. 111-117)

Full Text: PDF

A. Neela madheswari, Research Scholar, Anna University, Coimbatore, India

Dr. R.S.D. Wahida banu, Research Supervisor, Anna University, Coimbatore, India


Abstract - The importance given for today’s computing environment is the support of a number of threads and functional units so that multiple processes can be done simultaneously. At the same time, the processors must not suffer from high heat liberation due over increase in frequencies to attain high speed of the processors and also they must attain high system performance. These situations led to the emergence and the growth of Chip Multi-Processor (CMP) architecture, which forms the basis for this paper. It gives the contribution towards the role of CMPs in parallel and high performance computing environments and the needs to move towards CMP architectures in the near future.

Keywords- CMPs; High Performance computing; Grid Computing; Parallel computing; Simultaneous multithreading.


18. Paper 29091044: Towards a More Mobile KMS (pp. 118-123)

Full Text: PDF

Julius Olatunji Okesola, Dept. of Computer and Information Sciences, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria

Oluwafemi Shawn Ogunseye, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Kazeem Idowu Rufai, Dept. of Computer and Information Sciences, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria


Abstract— Present knowledge management systems (KMS) hardly leverage the advances in technology in their designs. The effect of this cannot be positive because it creates avenues for dissipation and leaks in the knowledge acquisition and dissemination cycle. In this work we propose a development model that looks at KMS from the mobility angle enhancing previous designs of mobile KMS (mKMS) and KMS. We used a SOA based Smart Client Architecture to provide a new view of KMS with capabilities to actually manage knowledge. The model was implemented and tested as a small scale prototype to show its practicability. This model will serve as a framework and a guide for future designs.

Keywords- Knowledge Management; Service Oriented Architecture; Smart Client; Mobile KMS; Architecture Introduction


19. Paper 30091055: An Efficient Decision Algorithm For Vertical Handoff Across 4G Heterogeneous Wireless Networks (pp. 124-127)

Full Text: PDF

S. Aghalya, P. Seethalakshmi,

 Anna University Tiruchirappalli, India


Abstract - As mobile wireless networks increase in popularity, we are facing the challenge of integration of diverse wireless networks. It is becoming more important to arrive at a vertical handoff solution where users can move among various types of networks efficiently and seamlessly. To address this issue, an efficient vertical handoff decision(EVHD) algorithm has been proposed in this paper to decide the best network interface and best time moment to handoff. An overall gain function has been utilized in this algorithm to make the right decision based on various factors, the network characteristics such as usage cost, bandwidth, power consumption and dynamic factors such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), velocity and position of mobile terminal (MT). The effectiveness of the EVHD algorithm has been verified by carrying out simulations. The results show that EVHD achieves 78.5% reduction in number of unnecessary handoffs compared to static parameter based algorithm. The increase in throughput is about 60%compared to static parameter based algorithm for all the types of traffic. The overall system performance has been improved by the proposed efficient VHD algorithm and outperforms the three well known VHD algorithms including static parameter based, RSS based and RSS-timer based algorithms.

Keywords - Heterogeneous network, Seamless handoff, Vertical handoff, Handoff decision, Gain function.


20. Paper 231010XX: Combining Level- 1 ,2 & 3 Classifiers For Fingerprint Recognition System (pp. 128-132)

Full Text: PDF

Dr. R. Seshadri , B.Tech, M.E,Ph.D, Director, S.V.U.Computer Center, S.V.University, Tirupati

Yaswanth Kumar.Avulapati, M.C.A,M.Tech,(Ph.D), Research Scholar, Dept of Computer Science, S.V.University, Tirupati


Abstract - Biometrics is the science of establishing the identity of an person based on their physical, chemical and behavioral characteristics of the person. Fingerprints are the most widely used biometric feature for person identification and verification in the field of biometric identification. A finger print is the representation of the epidermis of a finger. It consists of a pattern of interleaved ridges and valleys. Fingerprints are graphical flow-like ridges present on human fingers. They are fully formed at about seven months of fetus development and finger ridge configurations do not change throughout the life of an individual except due to accidents such as bruises and cuts on the fingertips. This property makes fingerprints a very attractive biometric identifier. Now a day’s fingerprints are widely used among different biometrics technologies. In this paper we proposed an approach to classifying the fingerprints into different groups. These fingerprints classifiers are combined together for recognizing the people in an effective way.

Keywords - Biometrics, Classifier,Level-1,Level-2 features,Level-3 features


21. Paper 251010XX: Preventing Attacks on Fingerprint Identification System by Using Level-3 Features (pp. 133-138)

Full Text: PDF

Dr. R. Seshadri , B.Tech, M.E,Ph.D, Director, S.V.U.Computer Center, S.V.University, Tirupati

Yaswanth Kumar.Avulapati, M.C.A,M.Tech,(Ph.D), Research Scholar, Dept of Computer Science, S.V.University, Tirupati


Abstract - Biometrics is the science of establishing the identity of an individual based on their physical, behavioral and chemicall characteristics of the person. Fingerprints are the most widely used biometric feature for person identification and verification in the field of biometric identification. A finger print is the representation of the epidermis of a finger. It consists of a pattern of interleaved ridges and valleys. Now a days Fingerprints are widely used technique among other biometric like Iris, Gait, Hand Geometry, Dental Radiographs etc. Fingerprint Ridges, Minutae and sweat pores do not change throughout the life of an human being except due to accidents such as bruises and cuts on the fingertips. This property makes fingerprints a very attractive biometric identifier. In this paper we proposed a biometrics system which Prevents from Attacks from Gummy fingerprints. We proposed Fingerprint Identification System which is immune to attacks by Using Level-3 Features

Keywords- Biometrics, Immune, Sweat pores, Level-3 features


22. Paper 13091003: Using Fuzzy Support Vector Machine in Text Categorization Base on Reduced Matrices (pp. 139-143)

Full Text: PDF

Vu Thanh Nguyen, University of Information Technology HoChiMinh City, VietNam


Abstract - In this article, the authors present result compare from using Fuzzy Support Vector Machine (FSVM) and Fuzzy Support Vector Machine which combined Latin Semantic Indexing and Random Indexing on reduced matrices (FSVM_LSI_RI). Our results show that FSVM_LSI_RI provide better results on Precision and Recall than FSVM. In this experiment a corpus comprising 3299 documents and from the Reuters-21578 corpus was used.

Keyword – SVM, FSVM, LSI, RI


23. Paper 13091001: Categories Of Unstructured Data Processing And Their Enhancement (pp. 144-150)

Full Text: PDF

Prof.(Dr). Vinodani Katiyar, Sagar Institute of Technology and Management, Barabanki U.P. India.

Hemant Kumar Singh, Azad Institute of Engineering & Technology, Lucknow, U.P. India


Abstract -Web Mining is an area of Data Mining which deals with the extraction of interesting knowledge from the World Wide Web. The central goal of the paper is to provide past, current evaluation and update in each of the three different types of web mining i.e. web content mining, web structure mining and web usages mining and also outlines key future research directions.

Keywords: Web mining; web content mining; web usage mining; web structure mining;


24. Paper 30091071: False Positive Reduction using IDS Alert Correlation Method based on the Apriori Algorithm (pp. 151-155)

Full Text: PDF

Homam El-Taj, Omar Abouabdalla, Ahmed Manasrah, Mohammed Anbar, Ahmed Al-Madi

National Advanced IPv6 Center of Excellence (NAv6) Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia


Abstract—Correlating the Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) is one challenging topic in the field of network security. There are many benefits from correlating the IDS alerts: to reduce the huge amount of alerts that IDS triggers, to reduce the false positive ratio and to figure out the relations between the alerts to get better understanding of the attacks. One of these correlation techniques based on the data mining. In this paper we developed new IDS alerts group correlation method (GCM) based on the aggregated alerts by the Threshold Aggregation Framework (TAF) we create our correlation method by adapting the Apriori algorithm for large data. This method used to reduce the amount of aggregated alerts and to reduce the ratio of false positive alerts.

KeywordsIntrusion Detection System; False Positive Alerts; Alert Correlation; Data Minig.


25. Paper 21091012: Sector Mean with Individual Cal and Sal Components in Walsh Transform Sectors as Feature Vectors for CBIR (pp. 156-164)

Full Text: PDF

Dr. H. B. Kekre, Senior Professor, Computer Engineering, MPSTME,SVKM’S NMIMS University, Mumbai, India.

Dhirendra Mishra,  Associate Professor, Computer Engineering, MPSTME, SVKM’S NMIMS University, Mumbai, India.


Abstract- We have introduced a novel idea of conceiving complex Walsh transform for sectorization of transformed components. In this paper we have proposed two different approaches for feature vector generation with consideration of all sal components and all cal components separately. Both these approaches are experimented with the extra components of zero-cal and highest-sal. Two similarity measures such as sum of absolute difference and Euclidean distance are used and results are compared. The cross over point performance of overall average of precision and recall for both approaches on different sector sizes are compared. The individual sector mean of Walsh sectors in all three color planes are considered to design the feature vector. The algorithm proposed here is worked over database of 1055 images spread over 12 different classes. Overall Average precision and recall is calculated for the performance evaluation and comparison of 4, 8, 12 & 16 Walsh sectors. The use of Absolute difference as similarity measure always gives lesser computational complexity and consideration of only all cal components with augmentation of zero-cal approach with sum of absolute difference as similarity measure of feature vector has the best retrieval performance.

Index Terms- CBIR, Walsh Transform, Euclidian Distance, Absolute Difference, Precision, Recall


26. Paper 23091015: Supervised Learning approach for Predicting the Presence of Seizure in Human Brain (pp. 165-169)

Full Text: PDF

Sivagami P, Sujitha V, M.Phil Research Scholar, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women, Coimbatore, India

Vijaya MS, Associate Professor and Head GRG School of Applied Computer Technology, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women, Coimbatore, India.


Abstract— Seizure is a synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. It is a physical change in behavior that occurs after an episode of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Normally two diagnostic tests namely Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose the presence of seizure. The sensitivity of the human eye in interpreting large numbers of images decreases with increasing number of cases. Hence, it is essential to automate the accurate prediction of seizure in patients. In this paper supervised learning approaches has been employed to model the prediction task and the experiments show about 94% high prediction accuracy.

Keywords-Seizure; Support vector machine; K-NN; Naïve Bayes; J48


27. Paper 28091038: Approximate String Search for Bangla: Phonetic and Semantic Standpoint (pp. 170-174)

Full Text: PDF

Adeeb Ahmed, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology Dhaka, Bangladesh

Abdullah Al Helal, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology Dhaka, Bangladesh


Abstract— Despite the improvement in the field of approximate string search, insignificant research was performed for Bangla string matching. Approximate string search has a great deal of interest in spellchecking, query relaxation or interactive search. In our work, we proposed a method for Bangla string search which is specially modified considering Bangla spelling rules and grammar. Rather than simple string matching, special emphasis was given to make sure that words possessing relevant meaning are not ignored due to its inflected form. Moreover, phonetic matching was also emphasized for the purpose.

Keywords- Approximate string search; Bangla search;Levenshtein distance; query relaxation; spelling suggestion; case ending


28. Paper 29091045: Multicast Routing and Wavelength Assignment for Capacity Improvement in Wavelength Division Multiplexing Networks (pp. 175-182)

Full Text: PDF

N. Kaliammal, Professor, Department of ECE, N.P.R college of Engineering and Technology, Dindugul, Tamil nadu

G. Gurusamy, Dean/Hod EEE, FIE, Bannari amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam,Tamil nadu.


Abstract—In WDM network, the route decision and wavelength assignment of light-path connections are based mainly on the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA). The multicast routing and wavelength assignment (MC-RWA) problem is for maximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or for minimizing the call blocking probability. In this paper, The design of multicast routing and wavelength assignment technique for capacity improvement in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks is proposed. In this technique, the incoming traffic is sent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate junction nodes and then, from the junction nodes to the final destinations. The traffic is distributed to the junction nodes in predetermined proportions that depend on the capacities of intermediate nodes. Then, paths from source node to each of the destination nodes and the potential paths are divided into fragments by the junction nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelength conversion capability. By using the concept of fragmentation and grouping, the proposed scheme can be generally applied for the wavelength assignment of multicast in WDM network. By simulation results, it is proved that the proposed technique achieves higher throughput and bandwidth utilization with reduced delay.



29. Paper 30091056: Blind Robust Transparent DCT-Based Digital Image Watermarking for Copyright Protection (pp. 183-188)

Full Text: PDF

Hanan Elazhary and Sawsan Morkos

Computers and Systems Department, Electronics Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract—This paper proposes a novel technique for grayscale digital image watermarking using monochrome watermarks in the DCT domain. The proposed technique combines the contradictory goals of robustness against intentional and unintentional attacks with transparency in addition to blindness. We propose the combination of three techniques: Torus Automorphism (TA) permutation, a pseudo-random number generator, and visual cryptography to achieve high degree of robustness against intentional attacks. On the other hand, robustness against unintentional attacks is achieved not only by watermarking the low frequency DCT components, but also by intelligently utilizing the more robust relative values of these low frequencies instead of their absolute values. Experimental results using two test images prove the robustness of the proposed technique against several types of unintentional attacks: median filtering, blurring, sharpening, Gaussian noise addition, salt and pepper noise addition, and JPEG compression. Blindness is achieved using only few keys and two transparencies or shares for watermark extraction. In the literature, the size of the shares is usually double the size of the host image and consequently the process of generating the shares is usually time-consuming. In the proposed technique, generating the shares is straightforward and fast. Also, their size is exactly equal to the watermark size. To achieve 100% transparency, the proposed technique does not change any pixel values of the host image.

Keywords- watermarking; image processing; security


30. Paper 25091019: An Enhanced LEACH Protocol using Fuzzy Logic for Wireless Sensor Networks (pp. 189-194)

Full Text: PDF

J. Rathi, K. S. Rangasamy college of technology, Tiruchengode, Namakkal(Dt)-637 215, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. G. Rajendran, Kongu Engg. College, Perundurai, Erode(Dt)-638 052, Tamilnadu,India


Abstract--The Wireless Sensor Networks consists of a large number of small and cheap sensor nodes that have very restricted energy, processing power and storage. They usually examine areas, collect data and report to the base station (BS). Due to the achievement in low-power digital circuit and wireless communication, many applications of the WSN are developed and already been used in habitat monitoring, military object and object tracking. The disadvantage in this monitoring leads to clustering the networks. The hierarchal network structures which are created by clustering technique are called clusters. Clusterhead is elected by its nearest networks. Clusterhead selection becomes a significant problem because of its dynamic environment. In this paper, the problem of suitable clusterhead selection in wireless sensor networks is analyzed. Appropriate cluster-head node election can significantly reduce the energy consumption and enhance the lifetime of the network. The fuzzy logic technique for clusterhead selection is proposed in this paper based on three descriptors, namely, Energy, Concentration and Density. The experimental results shows the substantial increase in the network lifetime depends on network configuration as compared to probabilistically selecting the nodes as cluster-heads using only local information.

Keywords— Wireless Sensor Networks, Fuzzy Logic, sensor networks, Cluster head


31. Paper 29091050: A Novel Approach for Hiding Text Using Image Steganography (pp. 195-200)

Full Text: PDF

Sukhpreet Kaur, Department of Computer Science and Engineering , Baba Farid College of Engineering and Technology, Bathinda-151001, Punjab, India

Sumeet Kaur, Department of Computer Engineering, Yadavindra College of Engineering Punjabi University Guru Kashi Campus, Talwandi Sabo, Punjab, India


Abstract— With the increasing use of internet for communication, the major concern of these days is, the security of data being communicated over it. Steganography is the art and science of invisible communication. It hides secret information in other information, thus hiding the existence of the communicated information. In this paper we have discussed a technique of hiding text messages in the images using image steganography. The technique uses matching of secret data with pixel values of cover image as base concept. The LSBs of matched pixels are changed to mark presence of data inside that pixel. For making selection of channels for marking presence of data, a pseudo random number generator is used, which adds another layer of security to the technique and makes the extraction of secret data very difficult for the intruders. The results show that technique provides more security against visual and statistical attacks and attempts to provide more data hiding capacity by using more bits per pixel.

Keywords- Steganography; image steganography; attacks; PSNR; security


32. Paper 30091058: An approach to a pseudo real-time image processing engine for hyperspectral imaging (pp. 201-207)

Full Text: PDF

Sahar Sabbaghi Mahmouei, Smart Technology and Robotics Programme, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia

Prof. Dr. Shattri Mansor, Remote Sensing and GIS Programme, Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia

Abed Abedniya, MBA Programme, Faculty of Management (FOM), Multimedia University, Malaysia


Abstract - Hyperspectral imaging provides an alternative way of increasing the accuracy by adding another dimension: the wavelength. Recently, hyperspectral imaging is also finding its way into many more applications, ranging from medical imaging in endoscopy for cancer detection to quality control in the sorting of fruit and vegetables. But effective use of hyperspectral imaging requires an understanding of the nature and limitations of the data and of various strategies for processing and interpreting it. Also, the breakthrough of this technology is limited by its cost, speed and complicated image interpretation. We have therefore initiated work on designing real-time hyperspectral image processing to tackle these problems by using a combination of smart system design, and pseudo-real time image processing software. The main focus of this paper is the development of a camera-based hyperspectral imaging system for stationary remote sensing applications. The system consists of a high performance digital CCD camera, an intelligent processing unit, an imaging spectrograph, an optional focal plane scanner and a laptop computer equipped with a frame grabbing card. In addition, special software has been developed to synchronize between the frame grabber (video capture card), and the digital camera with different image processing techniques for both digital and hyperspectral data.

Keywords: Remote sensing, image processing, Real-Time, frame grabber, hyperspectral, Hardware/Software Design


33. Paper 23091016: Improved Computer Networks resilience Using Social Behavior (pp. 208-214)

Full Text: PDF

Yehia H. Khalil 1,2, Walaa M. Sheta 2 and Adel S. Elmaghraby 1

1Department of Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

2Informatics Research Institute, MUCST, Burg El Arab, Egypt


Abstract— Current information systems face many challenges in terms of malicious activities, hacking threats and natural disasters. A key challenge is to design a resilient communication networks that can provide high performance level with minimum disconnected points and delay. This paper presents a novel approach to discover the most critical network’s nodes based on social network analysis (SNA) which have been used for social studies and recently have been widely used in many domains. The main focus of social network analysis is to study the “relations” between network nodes. In principle, critical network’s nodes will be identified based on their magnitude for the network in terms of centrality: Degree, Betweens and Closeness. The results show that using social network analysis enhances computer network resilience by identifying the critical elements of communication network.

Keywords- Network Resilience; Social Network Analysis; Redundancy; Critical Cyber Infrastructure.


34. Paper 27091034: Mobile Embedded Real Time System (RTTCS) for Monitoring and Controlling in Telemedicine (pp. 215-223)

Full Text: PDF

Dr. Dhuha Basheer Abdullah, Asst. Prof. / computer sciences Dept. College of Computers and Mathmetics / Mosul University Mosul / Iraq

Dr. Muddather Abdul-Alaziz, Lecturer / Emergency Medicine Dept, Mosul College of Medicine, Mosul University Mosul / Iraq

Basim Mohammed,  Asst. lecturer / computer center, Mosul University Mosul / Iraq


Abstract:-  A real time system embedded in mobile phone was designed In this work, called (Real Time Telemonitoring and Controlling System RTTCS) to telemonitor and control a patient's case in level two of telemedicine. The signals (ECG, Arterial Oxygen Saturation and Blood Pressure) were transferred out of the patient's monitoring equipments to NOKIA12 unit. Then they were send wirelessly through GPRS to be received by the mobile phone interpreted by the specialist physician who is far a way from the patient. By which the physician can evaluate the patient's case through parameters displaced on the mobile phone screen, so he can provide the necessary medical orders. The suggested system consists of three units. The first is the NOKIA12 unit (T-Box N12 R) which contains an embedded real time program works as its operating system. That depends upon two principles multithreading and preemptive and uses a proposed dynamic scheduling algorithm called (RTT) with real time constraints to schedule the signals and to send them according to identified priorities to meet the deadline of signals. The second unit represents a web site which is the middle storage for the patient's data. The third unit is a mobile unit (mobile phone) which receives the coming signals from the patient monitor accordingly through the previously mentioned first and second units, then the physician can evaluate and diagnose the patient’s case and order the necessary interventions. The system was applied on many cases of abnormal cardiac rhythm cases, where it had been send successfully to a mobile phone in it's real time, and had been read by the physician where it was clear and reliable for the medical diagnosis.

Keywords: Real Time, Operating System, Embedded, Telemedicine, Telemonitoring, GPRS, GSM, T-Box N12R, Multithreading.


35. Paper 01111001: Automating the fault tolerance process in Grid Environment (pp. 224-230)

Full Text: PDF

Inderpreet Chopra, Research Scholar, Thapar University Computer Science Department, Patiala, India

Maninder Singh, Associate Professor, Thapar University Computer Science Department, Patiala, India


Abstract- As Grid encourages the dynamic addition of resources that are not likely to be benefited from the manual management techniques as these are time-consuming, unsecure and more prone to errors. A new paradigm for self-management is pervading over the old manual system to begin the next generation of computing. In this paper we have discussed the different approaches for self-healing the current grid middleware use, and after analyzing these we have proposed the new approach, Selfhealing Management Unit, SMU that will provide the automated way of dealing with failures.

Keywords: SMU, heartbeat


36. Paper 01111002: A Computational Model for Bharata Natyam Choreography (pp. 231-233)

Full Text: PDF

Sangeeta Jadhav, S.S Dempo College of Commerce and Economics, Panaji, Goa India.

Sasikumar, CDAC, Mumbai, India.


Abstract- Indian Classical dance has been the slowest to adopt technology and although choreography is mainly a domain of creativity, computers can help a lot to ease this especially for rhythmically oriented intricate footwork, Nritta and the complementary movements of other limbs of the body. The main objective of this paper is to identify and classify the various angalakshanas of Bharata Natyam. An angalakshanas in Bharata Natyam refers to classification of elementary body movements like head, eye, neck, hands and leg movements. The research aims at a well organised classification of the angalakshanas along with identification of various constraints on their co- occurrences and sequencing. The constraints may be physical, aesthetic or preferential and would be identified through literature study and machine learning from databases of existing dance repositories and training videos. The work will be useful to enhance the learning/teaching of Bharata Natyam (and other dance forms) and also for animated choreography.


37. Paper 01111003: Haploid vs Diploid Genome in Genetic Algorithms for TSP (pp. 234-238)

Full Text: PDF

Rakesh Kumar, Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science & Application, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

Jyotishree,  Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science & Application, Guru Nanak Girls College, Yamuna Nagar


Abstract- There exist all types of organisms in nature – haploid, diploid and multiploid. Maximum research works in Genetic Algorithms are carried out using haploids. Diploidy and dominance have not been given due weightage although in maximum complex systems nature uses them. The paper illustrates the previous research work in diploidy and dominance. In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm is proposed to solve Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) using haploid and diploid genome and to compare their performance in terms of cost and time.

KeywordsGenetic algorithms, Diploidy, Dominance


38. Paper 01111004: Context Based Personalized Search Engine For Online Learning (pp. 239-244)

Full Text: PDF

Dr. Ritu Soni , Prof. & Head, DCSA, GNG College, Santpura, Haryana, India

Mrs. Preeti Bakshi, Lect. Compuret Science, GNG College, Santpura, Haryana, India


Abstract- The WWW serves as a huge widely distributed, global information service centre for acquiring on line knowledge. But there are lots of challenges in finding up the effective, relevant information. During the past few years, it has become apparent that there is an urgent need for tools that guide Web users in their information finding and navigational activities. One of the failings of traditional information retrieval models is attributed to the isolation of queries from the context in which they occur. Mounting a system that can understand the user’s seeking needs beforehand and then presents a list of ranked links to the web pages most probably having the relevant information according to user’s context to lift up information retrieval process that meets the user’s requirement in a effective manner. With this objective, Context Based Personalized Search Engine for online Learning supports the hypothesis that the relevance of search results can be improved through the inclusion of contextual information. This contextual information can be obtained by an automated analysis of the local information space surrounding a given candidate page with the local space defined by the navigational structure inherent the Web.

Keywords: WWW, web personalization, Context Management, Conceptual Architecture, CFL, IR


39. Paper 01111005: Self-Healing In Wireless Routing Using Backbone Nodes (pp. 245-252)

Full Text: PDF

Urvi Sagar 1 , Ashwani Kush 2


1 Comp Sci Dept, University College, Kurukshetra University India

Abstract - Wireless networking is a new emerging era. It has potential applications in extremely unpredictable and dynamic environments. Individuals and industries choose wireless because it allows flexibility of location, whether that means mobility, portability, or just ease of installation at a fixed point. A flat mobile ad hoc network has an inherent scalability limitation in terms of achievable network capacity. It is seen that when the network size increases, per node throughput of an ad hoc network rapidly decreases. This is due to the fact that in large scale networks, flat structure of networks results in long hop paths which are prone to breaks. The challenge of wireless communication is that, the environment that wireless communications travel through is unpredictable. Wireless networks that fix their own broken communication links may speed up their widespread acceptance. The changes made to the network architectures are resulting in new methods of application design for this medium. The long hop paths can be avoided by using backbone nodes concept. In this paper, a self healing scheme for large scale networks with mobile backbone nodes has been proposed.

Keywords: MANET, routing, ADOV, Self healing network


40. Paper 01111006: Vectorization Algorithm for Line Drawing and Gap filling of Maps (pp. 253-258)

Full Text: PDF

Ms. Neeti Daryal, Lecturer,Department of Computer Science, M L N College, Yamuna Nagar

Dr Vinod Kumar, Reader, Department of Mathematics, J.V.Jain College,Saharanpur


Abstract - Vectorization, i.e. raster-to-vector conversion is heart of graphics recognition problems, as it deals with converting the scanned image to a vector form suitable for further analysis. Many vectorization methods have been designed. This paper deals with the method of raster-to-vector conversion which proposed for capturing line drawing images. .In the earliest works on vectorization, only one kind of method was introduced. The proposed algorithm combines the features of thinning method and medial line extraction method so as to produce best line fitting algorithm. There are several steps in this process. The first step is Pre-processing, in which find the line into original raster image. Second is developing an algorithm for gap filling between the adjacent lines to produce vectorization for scanned map. Result and Literature about the above mentioned methods is also included in this paper.

Key Words: Vectorization, Gap filling, Line drawing, Thinning algorithm, Medial algorithm


41. Paper 01111007: Simulation Modeling of Reactive Protocols for Adhoc Wireless Network (pp. 259-265)

Full Text: PDF

Sunil Taneja, Department of Computer Science, Government Post Graduate College, Kalka, India

Ashwani Kush, Department of Computer Science, University College,  Kurukshetra University,  Kurukshetra, India

Amandeep Makkar, Department of Computer Science, Arya Girls College, Ambala Cantt, India


Abstract - Ad hoc wireless networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, infrastructureless environment and frequently changing topology. As the wireless links are highly error prone and can go down frequently due to mobility of nodes, therefore, stable routing is a very critical task due to highly dynamic environment in adhoc wireless networks. In this research paper, simulation modelling of prominent on-demand routing protocols has been done by presenting their functionality using NS2. An effort has been made to evaluate the performance of DSR and AODV on a self created scene using TCL for varying number of mobile nodes. The performance differential parameters analyzed are; packet delivery ratio and sent & received packets with varying speed and pause time. Subsequently, using results obtained after simulation, the recommendations have been made about the significance of either protocol in various situations. It has been observed that both DSR and AODV are good in performance in their own categories but the emphasis for stable and reliable routing is still on AODV as it performs better in denser environments.

Keywords: Adhoc Wireless Networks, DSR, AODV, Routing, Simulation


42. Paper 01111008: Media changing the Youth Culture: An Indian Perspective (pp. 266-271)

Full Text: PDF

Prof. Dr. Ritu Soni, Head, Department of Computer Science, Guru Nanak Girls’ College, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, Iidia-135003

Prof. Ms. Bharati Kamboj, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Girls’ College, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, Iidia-135003


Abstract- A study of the effect of electronic media on the Indian youth has been carried out. The internet has revolutionized the entire world. The Indian youth is being exposed to all that is being offered by it. As a result, the Indian traditions are getting diffused to western culture. The way youth is doing purchases or helping others or raising their voices against corruption or any political matters, information access rights are changing with times. Along with the benefits of internet, the youth is also being influenced by its negative aspects. With the technology embedded society emerging, India is undergoing contradicting cultural changes.


43. Paper: Reliable and Energy Aware QoS Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (pp. 272-278)

Full Text: PDF

 V.Thilagavathe, Lecturer, Department of Master of Computer Applications, Institute of Road & Transport Technology

K.Duraiswamy, Dean, K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode


Abstract— In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), always there is a tradeoff between reliability and energy consumption because in order to achieve maximum reliability, the maximum energy has to be consumed. But most of the existing works either concentrate on energy consumption or reliability, but very rarely both are taken into consideration. In this paper, we propose to develop a reliable and energy aware Quality of Service (QoS) Routing Protocol for MANETs to provide a combined solution for both energy consumption and reliability. In this protocol, multiple disjoint paths are determined for a source and destination and the routes are selected based on Route availability (RA) which is estimated from link availability (LA) and total energy consumed (TE) during the transmission of packets. By simulation results we show that the proposed protocol achieves better packet delivery ratio with reduced energy consumption and delay.

 Keywords-Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs); Quality of Service (QoS); Link availability (LA); ROUTE ERROR (RERR); ROUTE REQUEST (RREQ).


44. Paper: A Dynamic Approach To Defend Against Anonymous DDoS Flooding Attacks (pp. 279-284)

Full Text: PDF

 Mrs. R. Anurekha, Lecturer, Dept. of IT, Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamilnadu, India.

Dr. K. Duraiswamy, Dean, Department of CSE, K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India.

A.Viswanathan, Lecturer, Department of CSE, K.S.R.College of Engineering, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. V. P. Arunachalam, Principal, SNS College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

A. Rajiv Kannan, Asst.Prof, Department of CSE, K.S.R.College of Engineering, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India

K. Ganesh Kumar, Lecturer, Department of IT, K.S.R.College of Engineering, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India


Abstract: Several IP traceback schemes have been proposed to trace DoS/DDoS attacks that abuse the internet. A mechanism for IP traceback based on the geographic information rather than the traditional IP address information was proposed in [1], for 8 directions is a planar environment. Extension of this two dimensional directed geographical traceback to 2n [n≥ 4] directions is also available [2]. In this paper, the DGT scheme has been generalized to three dimensions, with all routers in a spherical environment in tune with reality. A traceback algorithm, called Direction Ratio Algorithm (DRA) enables IP traceback with robustness and fast convergence.

Keywords: IP traceback, spherical environment, DRS (Direction Ratio Set), DRA (Direction Ratio Algorithm).