Vol. 8 No. 6 SEP 2010

Vol. 8 No. 6 September 2010 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication September 2010, Volume 8 No. 6 (Download Full Journal) (Archive

Copyright © IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

 1. Paper 23081018: Improvement Dynamic Source Routing Protocol by Localization for Ad hoc Networks (pp. 1-6)

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Mehdi Khazaei

Kermanshah University of Technology, Information Technology Engineering Group, Kermanshah, Iran


Abstract-Ad hoc networks are temporary networks with a dynamic topology which don t have any established infrastructure or centralized administration. Consequently, in recent years many researchers have focused on these networks. These networks need efficient routing protocols in terms of Quality of Services (QOS) metrics. Ad hoc networks suffer from frequent and rapid topology changes that cause many challenges in their routing. Most of the routing protocols like this proposed protocol try to find a route between source and destination nodes and when any route is expired, a new route would be formed. Rapid route reconstruction may cause the network inefficiency. Therefore, we have to decrease this processes. The proposed protocol as DSR routing protocol build one routes between source and destination but create backup routes during the route reply process, route maintenance process and use local recovery process in order to improve the data transfer and attended to QOS. The protocol performance is demonstrated by using the simulation results obtain from the global mobile simulation software (Glomosim). The experimental results show that this protocol can decrease the packet loss ratio and increase data transfer rather than DSR that, it is useful for the applications that need a high level of reliability.


Keywords; Protocol, Routing, Local Recovery, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks


2. Paper 31081053: Steganalysis of Reversible Vertical Horizontal Data Hiding Technique (pp. 7-12)

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Thom Ho Thi Huong, Faculty of Information Technology, Haiphong Private University, Haiphong, Vietnam

Canh Ho Van, Dept. of Professional Technique, Ministry of Public Security,  Hanoi, Vietnam

Tien Trinh Nhat, College of Technology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam


Abstract—This paper proposes a steganalysis scheme for detecting the reversible vertical horizontal (RVH) data hiding [1]. The RVH scheme was introduced in the IJCSIS International Journal Vol. 7, No. 3, March 2010. In the RVH data hiding, the message bits are embedded into cover-image by two embedding phases: the horizontal embedding procedure HEm and the vertical embedding procedure VEm. The pixel pairs belonging to the horizontally embeddable and vertically embeddable pixel pair domain are transformed to mark message bits. Through analysis, we detect out that, the two histograms of LSB scanning horizontally and vertically vary from a stego-image to the cover image. Based on this observation, we design a specific steganlytic method for attacking the RVH steganography. Experimental results show the detection accuracies of the steganography with various embedding rates are acceptable. The proposed technique can be applied in detecting the misuse of steganographic technology in malicious activities.


Keywords- Steganography, steganalysis, watermarking, cover image, stego image, payload, reversible data hiding.


3. Paper 21081012: Off-line Handwritten Signature Recognition Using Wavelet Neural Network (pp. 13-21)

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Mayada Tarek, Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computers and Information Sciences, Mansoura, Egypt

Taher Hamza, Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computers and Information Sciences, Mansoura, Egypt

Elsayed Radwan, Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computers and Information Sciences, Mansoura, Egypt


Abstract - Automatic signature verification is a well-established and an active area for research with numerous applications such as bank check verification, ATM access, etc. Most off-Line signature verification systems depend on pixels intensity in feature extraction process which is sensitive to noise and any scale or rotation process on signature image. This paper proposes an off-line handwritten signature recognition system using Discrete Wavelet Transform as feature extraction technique to extract wavelet energy values from signature image without any dependency of image pixels intensity. Since Discrete Wavelet Transform suffers from down-sample process, Wavelet Neural Network is used as a classifier to solve this problem. A comparative study will be illustrated between the proposed combination system and pervious off-line handwritten signature recognition systems. Conclusions will be appeared and future work is proposed.


Keywords-Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT); Wavelet Energy; Wavelet Neural Network (WNN); Off-line Handwritten Signature.


4. Paper 21081013: A Black-Box Test Case Generation Method (pp. 22-31)

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Nicha Kosindrdecha ,  Autonomous System Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand

Jirapun Daengdej, Autonomous System Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, Assumption University Bangkok, Thailand


Abstract—Test case generation techniques have been researched over a long period of time. Unfortunately, while many researchers have found methods of minimizing test cases, there are still a number of important related issues that need to be researched. The primarily outstanding research issue is a large single test suite containing a huge number of test cases. Our study shows that this can lead to other two problems: unable to identify suitable test cases for execution and those test cases are lack of ability to cover domain specific requirement. Therefore, we proposed an additional requirement prioritization process during a test case generation process and an automated method to generate multiple test suites while minimizing a number of test cases from UML Use Case diagram 2.0. Our evaluation result shows that the proposed method is the most recommendation method to minimize size of test cases while maximizing ability to cover critical domain specific requirements.


Keywords-component; Test generation, testing and quality, test case generation, test generation technique and generate tests


5. Paper 21081014: White-Box Test Reduction Using Case-Based Maintenance (pp. 32-40)

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Siripong Roongruangsuwan, Autonomous System Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand

Jirapun Daengdej, Autonomous System Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand


Abstract— Software testing has been proven that it takes around 50-70% of the costs associated with the large development of commercial software systems. Many reduction techniques have been proposed to reduce costs. Unfortunately, the cost is usually over budget and those techniques are failed to reasonably control costs. The primarily outstanding research issues, motivated this study, are a large number of redundancy test cases and a decrease of ability to detect faults. To resolve these issues, this paper proposes new deletion algorithms to minimize a number of white-box test cases, while maximizing an ability to reveal faults, by using a concept of case-based maintenance. Our evaluations have shown that the proposed techniques can significantly reduce a number of unnecessary test cases while preserving the capability of fault detection.


Keywords-component; Test reduction, test case reduction, deletion method, case based maintenance and test case deletion


6. Paper 23081021: Nat Traversal for Video Streaming Applications (pp. 41-46)

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Omar A. Ibraheem #1, Omer Amer Abouabdalla *2, Sureswaran Ramadass #3

# National Advanced IPv6 center of Excellence (NAV6), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Pulau penang, Malaysia


AbstractThis paper presents a novel method that exploits the strength features of two streaming protocols (Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)) to overcome the Network Address Translation (NAT) and firewall traversal problem. The proposed solution is able to bypass the RTP over all kinds of NATs (including symmetric NATs) by adding extra fields to the RTP/UDP packet at transport layer in the sender side. The NAT and firewall will detect these packets as TCP packets on the channel that initialized the connection. The receiver side will then remove the extra fields and recover the packets to their original content. The proposed work involves adding two modules, one at the client and the other at the video streaming server. The proposed work also avoids any modification to the NAT or the RTP protocol itself.


Keywords- NAT Traversal; Video Streaming; RTP; TCP; UDP; Windows OS.


7. Paper 25081026: The Integration of GPS Navigator Device with Vehicles Tracking System for Rental Cars Firms (pp. 47-51)

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Omarah O. Alharaki, KICT, International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Fahad S. Alaieri, KICT, International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Akram M. Zeki, KICT, International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Abstract — the aim of this research is to integrate the GPS tracking system (tracking device and web-based application) with GPS navigator for rental cars, allowing the company to use various applications to monitor and manage the cars. This is enable the firms and customers to communicate with each other via the GPS navigator. The system should be developed by applying new features in GPS tracking application devices in vehicles. This paper also proposes new features that can be applied to the GPS Navigator. It also shows the benefits that the customers and staff will get from this system.

Keywords; GPS tracking system, GPS devices, GPRS, Garmin.


8. Paper 29081036: Process Framework in Global eXtreme Programming (pp. 52-59)

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Ridi Ferdiana, Lukito Edi Nugroho, Paulus Insap Santoso

Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Gadjah Mada University (UGM)

Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Ahmad Ashari, Department of Computer Science and Electronics, Gadjah Mada University (UGM), Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Abstract — Software development life cycle works as a process framework that underlying of the software engineering framework. In multi-site software development, the impact of not having a process framework is often quite disastrous. The multisite team can work anonymous and have no guidance to work and collaborate with others. Therefore, several researches have begun to introduce the important of the process framework through a legitimate software development life cycle. The most common process framework that introduced in multi-site software development is called as a Global Software Development process framework (GSD). However, many GSD implementations are reported as an enterprise process framework that highly iterative and model driven oriented. This paper will show an alternative way to modify the existing GSD SDLC into the simplified process framework by integrating the process framework with an agile method like eXtreme Programming. By simplifying the process framework, it will provide an opportunity for small and medium enterprise to adopt the proposed SDLC in multi-site development.


Keywords-process framework; software development lifecycle ;agile; eXtreme Programming


9. Paper 29081038: A Hybrid PSO-SVM Approach for Haplotype Tagging SNP Selection Problem (pp. 60-65)

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Min-Hui Lin, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Dahan Institute of Technology, Sincheng, Hualien County 971, Taiwan, Republic of China

Chun-Liang Leu, Department of Information Technology, Ching Kuo Institute of Management and Health,

Keelung 336, Taiwan, Republic of China


Abstract—Due to the large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), it is essential to use only a subset of all SNPs called haplotype tagging SNPs (htSNPs) for finding the relationship between complex diseases and SNPs in biomedical research. In this paper, a PSO-SVM model that hybridizes the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and support vector machine (SVM) with feature selection and parameter optimization is proposed to appropriately select the htSNPs. Several public datasets of different sizes are considered to compare the proposed approach with other previously published methods. The computational results validate the effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach and the high prediction accuracy with the fewer htSNPs can be obtained.


Keywords Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), Haplotype Tagging SNPs (htSNPs), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Support Vector Machine (SVM).


10. Paper 07110912: PAPR Reduction Technique for LTE SC-FDMA Systems Using Root-Raised Cosine Filter (pp. 66-71)

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Md. Masud Rana, Jinsang Kim and Won-Kyung Cho

Deptartment of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University

1 Seocheon, Kihung, Yongin, Gyeonggi, 449-701, Republic of Korea


Abstract— Recently, mobile radio communications have developed rapidly due to the endless demand for broadband multimedia access and wireless connection anywhere, and any time. With the emergence of diverse fourth generation (4G) enabling technologies, signal processing has become ever increasingly important for small power, small chip resources, and efficient physical implementations of potential multimedia wireless communication systems. In this paper, we analytically derive the time and frequency domain single carrier-frequency division multiplexing (SC-FDMA) signals. Simulation results show that the SC-FDMA sub-carrier mapping scheme has a significantly lower peak-to average power ratio (PAPR) compared to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDMA). In addition, the interleave FDMA (IFDMA) sub-carrier mapping scheme with root raised cosine filter reduced PAPR significantly than localized FDMA (LFDMA) and distributed (DFDMA) subcarrier mapping scheme. As a results, improves the mean power output from a battery driven terminal equipment and power amplifier efficiency.


Index Terms—CCDF, IFDMA, OFDMA, PAPR, root-raised cosine, SC-FDMA.


11. Paper 22081017: Survey of Routing Protocols and Channel Assignment protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks (pp. 72-77)

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Vivek M Rathod, Suhas J Manangi, Satish E, Saumya Hegde

National Institute of Technology Karnataka – Surathkal


Abstract: This paper is a survey on wireless mesh networks. Here we mention the basics of wireless mesh network, their purpose, channel assignment techniques and routing protocols. This survey is prepared towards helping those working on the relationship between channel assignment and routing protocols.


Keywords: Wireless Mesh Networks, Routing protocols, Channel Assignment, Multi Hop, Multi Radio.


12. Paper 29071044: An Approach For Designing Distributed Real Time Database (pp. 78-87)

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Dr. Dhuha Basheer Abdullah, Computer Sciences Dept./Computers Sciences and Mathematics College /Mosul University, Mosul- Iraq

Ammar Thaher Yaseen, Computer Sciences Dept./Computers Sciences and Mathematics College /Mosul University, Mosul- Iraq


Abstract- A distributed Real Time database system is a transaction processing system that is designed to handle workloads where transactions have service deadlines. The emphasis here is on satisfying the timing constraint of transactions (meet these deadlines, that is to process transactions before their deadlines expire) and investigating the distributed databases. This paper produces a proposed system named ADRTDBS. In this work a prototype of client/server module and server/server module for distributed real time database has been designed. Server gets the data from direct user or a group of clients connected with it, analyze the request; and broad updating to all servers using 2PC (Two Phase Commit) and executing the demand by using 2PL (Two Phase Locking). The proposed model does not concern with data only, but provide a synchronize replication, so the updating on any server is not saved unless broadening the updating on all servers by using 2PC, and 2PL protocols. The database on this proposed system is homogenous and depend on full replication to satisfy real time requirements. The transactions have been scheduled on the server by using a proposed algorithm named EDTDF (Earliest Data or Transaction Deadline First). This algorithm works to execute transactions that have smallest deadline at the beginning, either this deadline specific to the data or to the transaction itself. Implementing this algorithm helps to execute greater rate of transactions before their deadlines. In this work two measures of performance for this system (proposed model) were been conducted; first, computing the Miss Ratio (rate of no. of executing transactions that miss their deadline); second, computing the CPU utilization (CPU utilization rate), by executing a set of transactions in many sessions.


Keywords: real time, databases, distributed, replication, Scheduling


13. Paper 31081051: Person Identification System using Static-dynamic signatures fusion (pp. 88-92)

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Dr. S.A Daramola 1 and Prof.T.S Ibiyemi 2

1Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Covenant University Ota Ogun State, Nigeria.

2Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara-State, Nigeria


Abstract — Off-line signature verification systems rely on static image of signature for person identification. Imposter can easily imitate the static image of signature of the genuine user due to lack of dynamic features. This paper proposes person identity verification system using fused static-dynamic signature features. Computational efficient technique is developed to extract and fuse static and dynamic features extracted from offline and online signatures of the same person. The training stage used the fused features to generate couple reference data and classification stage compared the couple test signatures with the reference data based on the set threshold values. The system performance is encouraging against imposter attacker in comparison with previous single sensor offline signature identification systems.


Keywords- fused static-dynamic signature; feature extraction; forgeries


14. Paper 31081061: Short term flood forecasting using RBF static neural network modeling a comparative study (pp. 93-98)

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Rahul P. Deshmukh,  Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay,  Powai, Mumbai, India

A. A. Ghatol, Former Vice-Chancellor,  Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere, Raigad, India


Abstract—The artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied to various hydrologic problems recently. This research demonstrates static neural approach by applying Radial basis function neural network to rainfall-runoff modeling for the upper area of Wardha River in India. The model is developed by processing online data over time using static modeling. Methodologies and techniques by applying different learning rule and activation function are presented in this paper and a comparison for the short term runoff prediction results between them is also conducted. The prediction results of the Radial basis function neural network with Levenberg Marquardt learning rule and Tanh activation function indicate a satisfactory performance in the three hours ahead of time prediction. The conclusions also indicate that Radial basis function neural network with Levenberg Marquardt learning rule and Tanh activation function is more versatile than other combinations for RBF neural network and can be considered as an alternate and practical tool for predicting short term flood flow.


Keywords-component; Artificial neural network; Forecasting; Rainfall; Runoff;


15. Paper 31031083: Analysis of impact of Symmetric Encryption Algorithms in Data Security Model of Grid Networks (pp. 99-106)

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N. Thenmozhi, Department of Computer Science, N.K.R. Govt. Arts College for Women, Namakkal-637 001, India.

M. Madheswaran, Department of Electronics and Communication Engg., Muthayammal Engineering College, Rasipuram-637 408, India.


Abstract─The symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms are commonly used in grid software to provide necessary security. The use of symmetric encryption algorithm will significantly affect the network communication performance. In this paper, the impact of using different popular and commonly used symmetric key cryptography algorithms for encrypting data in a typical grid commuting environment is analyzed. It is obvious that the use of encryption and decryption at application layer will certainly have an impact in the application layer performance in terms of speed. In this work, we have studied its impact at network layer performance in a typical grid computing environment in the algorithms such as DES, Triple DES, AES, Blow Fish, RC2 and RC6. The performances are measured through simulation studies on ns2 by simulating these algorithms in GARUDA Grid Network Topology.


Keywords─ Grid Security; Encryption; ECGIN; ERNET; GARUDA; PPlive; GridFTP;


16. Paper 09071005: Low Power and Area Consumption Custom Networks-On-Chip Architectures Using RST Algorithms (pp. 107-115)

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 Archive New PDF

1 P.Ezhumali 2 Dr.A.Chilambuchelvann

1 , Dept of Computer Science Engineering, Ralalakshmi Engineering College, Thandalam-602 105, Chennai, India

2. Professor, Dept Of Computer Science Engineering, R.M.K Engineering College,Chennai.


Abstract: Network-on-Chip (NoC) architectures with optimized topologies have been shown to be superior to regular architectures (such as mesh) for application specific multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) devices. The application specific NoC design problem takes, as input the system-level floorplan of the computation architecture .The objective is to generate an area and power optimized NoC topology. In this work, we consider the problem of synthesizing custom networks-on-chip (NoC) architectures that are optimized. Both the physical links and routers determine the power consumption of the NoC architecture. Our problem formulation is based on the decomposition of the problem into the inter-related steps of finding good flow partitions, and providing an optimized network implementation for the derived topologies. We used Rectilinear–Steiner-Tree (RST)-based algorithms for generating efficient and optimized network topologies. Experimental results on a variety of NoC benchmarks showed that our synthesis results were achieve reduction in power consumption and average hop count over different mesh implementations. We analyze the quality of the results and solution times of the proposed techniques by extensive experimentation with realistic benchmarks and comparisons with regular mesh-based NoC architectures.


Index Terms—Multicast routing, network-onchip (NoC), synthesis, system-on-chip (SoC), topology.


17. Paper 16081005: Prediction of Epileptic form Activity in Brain Electroencephalogram Waves using Support vector machine (pp. 116-121)

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Pavithra Devi S T ,  M.Phil Research Scholar, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women , Coimbatore Tamilnadu, India               

Vijaya M S, Assistant Professor and Head, GRG School of Applied Computer Technology, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women , Coimbatore Tamilnadu, India


Abstract - Human brain is a highly complex structure composed of millions of nerve cells. Their activity is usually well organized with mechanisms for self-regulation. The neurons are responsible for a range of functions, including consciousness and bodily functions and postures. A sudden temporary interruption in some or all of these functions is called a seizure. Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important diagnostic test for diagnosing epilepsy because it records the electrical activity of the brain. This paper investigates the modeling of epilepsy prediction using Support Vector Machine, a supervised learning algorithm. The prediction model has been employed by training support vector machine with evocative features derived from EEG data of 324 patients and from the experimental results it is observed that the SVM model with RBF kernel produces 86% of accuracy in predicting epilepsy in human brain.


Keywords- Support Vector Machine, Epilepsy, Prediction, Supervised Learning.


18. Paper 16081006: Deployment of Intelligent Agents in Cognitive networks (pp. 122-127)

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Huda Fatima, Dept. of CS, Jazan University, Jazan, K.S.A

Dr. Sateesh Kumar Pradhan, Dept. of Comp.Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha, K.S.A

Mohiuddin Ali Khan, Dept. of Comp. Networks, Jazan University, Jazan, K.S.A

Dr. G.N.Dash, Dept. of Comp. Science, Sambalpur University, Orissa, India


Abstract — Every organization faces challenging task in the designing of the communication network in order to make its efficiency smoother by the increasing complexities. Therefore, we have to proposed a concept of cognitive network and how the intelligent agents are deployed to overcome the challenges. With the tremendous expansion of networks across the globe, the deployment of intelligent agents in cognitive networks contributes as an efficient, reliable and challenging task for the researchers. In this paper, we survey the existing research work on cognitive networks and later we provide the artificial intelligent techniques that are potentially suitable for the development of cognitive networks.


Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive network, Intelligent agents.


19.  Paper 21081011: A Performance Study on AES Algorithms (pp. 128-133)

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B.D.C.N.Prasad 1, P.E.S.N.krishna Prasad 2, P Sita Rama Murty 3 and K Madhavi 4

1. Dept. of Computer Applications, P V P Siddardha Institute of Technology, Vijayawada,

2.  Dept. of CSIT, Sri Prakash College of Engineering, Tuni,

3. Dept. of CSIT, Sri Prakash College of Engineering, Tuni,

4. Dept. of CSE, Dadi Institute of Technology, Anakapalli,


Abstract— The Aim of this project is to find the performance comparative analysis of AES algorithms such as MARS, RC6, Rijndael, Serpent, Twofish algorithms in terms of speed, memory, time, encryption and decryption, key setup time, number of rounds, key sizes and also hardware considerations. Most of the AES algorithms, especially symmetric block ciphers, are based on the principle of substitution and transposition to encrypt a plain-text message and to produce a cipher-message. Those transformations are based on well-understood Mathematical problems using non-linear functions and linear modular algebra. Implementation of cryptographic algorithms mainly uses bitlevel operations and table look-ups. Bit-wise operators (XORs, AND/OR, etc.), substitutions, logical shifts and permutations are quite common operations. Such operations are well suited for their fast execution in hardware platforms. Furthermore, currently abundant memory resources in hardware platforms enhance encryption speed for the operations like substitution. These operators play an important role in analysis and comparison of the performance of the above mentioned AES algorithms, to evaluate simple, effective and efficient outcomes and also the information might be more secure.


Keywords-AES algorithms; Mars; RC6; Rijndeal; Sarpent; Two fish;


20. Paper 24091018: Hybrid Fingerprint Image compression and Decompression Technique (pp. 134-138)

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Dr.R.Seshadri, ,B.Tech,,M.E,Ph.D, Director, S.V.U.Computer Center S.V.University, Tirupati

Yaswanth Kumar.Avulapti , M.C.A, M.Tech, (PhD), Research Scholar, Dept of Computer Science, S. V. University, Tirupati

Dr.M.Usha Rani M.C.A, PhD, Associate Professor, Dept. of Computer Science,, SPMVV, Tirupati


Abstract- In this paper a biometric authentication system based on Fingerprint. A fingerprint is the representation of the epidermis of a finger. It consists of a pattern of interleaved ridges and valleys. Like everything in the body fingerprint ridges form through a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Finger prints are fully formed at about seven months of fetus development. Fingerprint ridges don’t change throughout the life of an individual except in case of accidents such as cuts on the fingertip (or) burns on the fingertip. In this paper we proposed a hybrid model to compress the fingerprints.


Keywords: Biometrics, Enrollment Authentication, compression, Decompression.


21. Paper 25081025: Punctured Self-Concatenated Trellis Codes with Iterative Decoding (pp. 139-144)

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Labib Francis Gergis, Misr Academy, Mansoura City, Egypt


Abstract - A special concatenated code structure called self-concatenated trellis code (SCTC) is presented. This scheme based on only one recursive convolutional code(RSC), followed by a mapping modulator. The union bounds of SCTC are derived for communications over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading channels. Asymptotic results for large interleavers are extended to M-ary bandwidth efficient modulation schemes by puncturing process. The combination of self-concatenated codes with powerful bandwidth-efficient component codes leads to a straightforward encoder structure, and allows iterative decoding. The scheme has been investigated for 4-PSK, 8-PSK, 16-PSK, and 16-QAM modulation schemes with varying overall bandwidth efficiencies. The choice based on the rate of RSC and puncturer encoder component.


keywords; Self-Concatenated codes, trellis-coded modulation, uniform interleaved coding, convolutional coding, iterative decoding


22. Paper 26081028: Application of Fuzzy Composition Relation For DNA Sequence Classification (pp. 145-148)

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Amrita Priyam, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, India.

B. M. Karan+, G. Sahoo++

+Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, ++Dept. of Information Technology

Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, India


Abstract This paper presents a probabilistic approach for DNA sequence analysis. A DNA sequence consists of an arrangement of the four nucleotides A, C, T and G. There are various representation schemes for a DNA sequence. This paper uses a representation scheme in which the probability of a symbol depends only on the occurrence of the previous symbol. This type of model is defined by two parameters, a set of states Q, which emit symbols and a set of transitions between the states. Each transition has an associated transition probability, aij, which represents the conditional probability of going to state j in the next step, given that the current state is i. Further, the paper combines the different types of classification classes using a Fuzzy composition relation. Finally a log-odd ratio is used for deciding to which class the given sequence belongs to.


Keywords-component; Transition Probability, Fuzzy Composition Relation, Log-Odd ratio


23. Paper 26081029: Data Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Genetic Based Biometrics (pp. 149-153)

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B. Shanthini, Research Scholar , CSE Department , Anna University , Chennai, India

S. Swamynathan, Assistant Professor, CSE Department , Anna University , Chennai, India


Abstract— A  mobile  ad  hoc  network  (MANET)  is  a  self-configuring, dynamic, multi hop radio network without any fixed infrastructure.  MANETs  are  collections  of  wireless  mobile devices  with  restricted  broadcast  range  and  resources  and communication  is  achieved  by  relaying  data  along  appropriate routes that are dynamically discovered and maintained  through collaboration  between  the  nodes.  The  main  challenge  in  the design  of  such  networks  is  how  to  prevent  the  attacks  against data such as unauthorized data modification, impersonation etc. Biometrics provides  possible  solutions  for this  security  problem in MANET since  it  has the  direct  connection with  user  identity and  needs  little  user  interruption. So,  researchers  have  been investigating  ways  to  use  biometric  features  of  the  user  rather than  memorable  password  or  passphrase,  in  an  attempt  to produce tough and repeatable cryptographic keys. In this paper such  a  security  system  based  on  Biometrics  and  Genetic algorithm  which  is  providing  data  security  in  MANET  is presented.


Keywords-– Mobile  Ad  hoc  Networks,  Data  Security, Biometrics, Genetic Algorithm.


24. Paper 28081031: Effective Multi-Stage Clustering for Inter- and Intra-Cluster Homogeneity (pp. 154-160)

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Sunita M. Karad , Assistant Professor of Computer Engineering, MIT, Pune, India         

V.M.Wadhai†† , Professor and Dean of Research, MITSOT, MAE, Pune, India

M.U.Kharat†††, Principle of Pankaj Laddhad IT, Yelgaon, Buldhana, India     

Prasad S.Halgaonkar††††, Faculty of Computer Engineering, MITCOE, Pune, India

Dipti D. Patil††††† , Assistant Professor of Computer Engineering,  MITCOE, Pune, India

Abstract - A new algorithm for clustering high-dimensional categorical data is proposed and implemented by us. This algorithm is based on a two-phase iterative procedure and is parameter-free and fully-automatic. Cluster assignments are given in the first phase, and a new cluster is added to the partition by identifying and splitting a low-quality cluster. Optimization of clusters is carried out in the second phase. This algorithm is based on quality of cluster in terms of homogeneity. Suitable notion of cluster homogeneity can be defined in the context of high-dimensional categorical data, from which an effective instance of the proposed clustering scheme immediately follows. Experiment is carried out on real data; this innovative approach leads to better inter- and intra-homogeneity of the clusters obtained.


Index Terms - Clustering, high-dimensional categorical data, information search and retrieval.


 25. Paper 28081033: A Pilot Based RLS Channel Estimation for LTE SC-FDMA in High Doppler Spread (pp. 161-166)

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M. M. Rana

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khunla, Bangladesh


Abstract — Main challenges for a terminal implementation are efficient realization of the inner receiver, especially for channel estimation (CE) and equalization. In this paper, pilot based recursive least square (RLS) channel estimator technique is investigate for a long term evolution (LTE) single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system in high Doppler spread environment. This CE scheme uses adaptive RLS estimator which is able to update parameters of the estimator continuously, so that knowledge of channel and noise statistics are not required. Simulation results show that the RLS CE scheme with 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB better performances compared with 1.5 kHz Doppler frequency.


Keywords— Channel estimation, LTE, RLS, SC-FDMA.


26. Paper 28081034: Priority Based Congestion Control for Multimedia Traffic In 3G Networks (pp. 167-173)

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Prof V.S Rathore 1, Neetu Sharma 2, Amit Sharma 3, Durgesh Kumar Mishra 4

123 Department of Computer Engineering, Rajasthan, India

12 Rajasthan College of Engineering for women, Rajasthan, India

3 Shri Balagi College of Engineering & Technology, Rajasthan, India

4 Acropolis Institute of Technology and Research, Indore, MP, India


Abstract- There is a growing demand for efficient multimedia streaming applications over the Internet and next generation mobile networks. Multimedia streaming services are receiving considerable interest in the mobile network business. As communication technology is being developed, the user demand for multimedia services raises. The third generation (3G) mobile systems are designed to further enhance the communication by providing high data rates of the order of 2 Mbps. High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is an enhancement to 3G networks that supports data rates of several Mbit/s, making it suitable for applications like multimedia, in addition to traditional services like voice call. Services like person-to-person two way video calls or one way video calls, aim to improve person-to-person communication. Entertainment services like gaming, video streaming of a movie, movie trailers or video clips are also supported in 3G. Many more of such services are possible due to the augmented data rates supported by the 3G networks and because of the support for Quality of Service (QoS) differentiation in order to efficiently deliver required quality for different types of services. This paper present congestion control schemes that are suitable for multimedia flows. The problem is that packet losses, during bad radio conditions in 3G, not only degrade the multimedia quality, but render the current congestion control algorithms as inefficient. This paper proposed a solution that integrated the congestion control schemes with a priority based multimedia packets to increase the speed of multimedia data and reduce the packet loss that is developed due to congestion in networks




27. Paper 31081050: Adaptive Sub-block ARQ techniques for wireless networks (pp. 174-178)

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A. N. Kemkar, Member, ISTE and Dr. T. R. Sontakke, Member,ISTE


AbstractWireless channels are highly affected by unpredictable factors such as co channel interference, adjacent channel interference, propagation path loss, and shadowing and multipath fading. An adaptive ARQ scheme, we mean an ARQ scheme with two or more different transmission modes meant for different channel conditions, which uses some channel sensing mechanism to decide which transmission mode is used. In this paper, we propose an adaptive transmission of sub-blocks scheme, for wireless networks. As the channel becomes increasingly noisy, the data block is divided into smaller subblocks for transmission. Each sub-block is encoded for error control by a CRC code. The received block is checked for errors sub-block by sub-block. The propose sub-block retransmission scheme provides improved throughput over conventional ARQ schemes by retransmitting only the same number of sub-blocks in the occurrence of errors.


Index TermsRetransmission protocol; Hybrid ARQ,CRC


28. Paper 30071074: Trigon-based Authentication Service Creation with Globus Middleware (pp. 179-185)

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Ruckmani V  , Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore,India

Anitha Kumari K  , PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore,India

Sudha Sadasivam G  , PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore,India

Dhaarini M P , PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore,India


Abstract— A Grid is built from multi-purpose protocols and interfaces that address fundamental issues as authentication, authorization, resource discovery, and resource access. Security is of utmost importance in grid computing applications as grid resources are heterogeneous, dynamic, and multi-domain. Authentication remains as the significant security challenge in grid environment. The proposed approach uses a dual authentication protocol in order to improve the authentication service in grid environment. The protocol utilizes the fundamental concepts of trigon and based on the parameters of the trigon the user authentication will be performed. In the proposed protocol, the password is interpreted and alienated into more than one unit and these units are stored in two different servers, namely, Authentication Server and Backend Server. Only when the combined authentication scheme from both the servers authenticates the user, the privilege of accessing the requested resources is obtained by the user. The main advantage of utilizing the dual authentication protocol in grid computing is that an adversary user cannot attain the access privilege by compromising a single consolidated server because of the fact that the split password is stored in different servers. Grid service is stateful and transient web service, which can be invoked by clients, and is considered to be the mainstream of future internet. The creation of Web Services standards is an industry-led initiative, with some of the emerging standards in various states of progress through the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). To achieve reuse of behaviors of this authentication concept, operations are often grouped together to form a trigon based authentication service.


Keywords— Trigon based authentication, web services, globus.


29. Paper 30081040: Performance Evaluation of Speaker Identification for Partial Coefficients of Transformed Full, Block and Row Mean of Speech Spectrogram using DCT, WALSH and HAAR (pp. 186-198)

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Dr. H. B. Kekre, Senior Professor, MPSTME, SVKM’s NMIMS University, Mumbai, 400-056, India

Dr. Tanuja K. Sarode, Assistant Professor, Thadomal Shahani Engg. College, Bandra (W), Mumbai, 400-050, India

Shachi J. Natu, Lecturer, Thadomal Shahani Engg. College, Bandra (W), Mumbai, 400-050, India

Prachi J. Natu, Assistant Professor, GVAIET, Shelu, Karjat 410201, India


Abstract - In this paper an attempt has been made to provide simple techniques for speaker identification using transforms such as DCT, WALSH and HAAR along with the use of spectrograms instead of raw speech waves. Spectrograms form a image database here. This image database is then subjected to different transformation techniques applied in different ways such as on full image, on image blocks and on Row Mean of an image and image blocks. In each method, results have been observed for partial feature vectors of image. From the results it has been observed that, transform on image block is better than transform on full image in terms of identification rate and computational complexity. Further, increase in identification rate and decrease in computations has been observed when transforms are applied on Row Mean of an image and image blocks. Use of partial feature vector further reduces the number of comparisons needed for finding the most appropriate match.


Keywords- Speaker Identification, DCT, WALSH, HAAR, Image blocks, Row Mean, Partial feature vector.


30. Paper 30081041: A Research Proposal for Mitigating DoS Attacks in IP-based Networks (pp. 199-201)

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Sakharam Lokhande, Assistant Professor, School of Computational Science, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, MS, India, 431606.

Parag Bhalchandra **, Assistant Professor, School of Computational Science, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, MS, India, 431606.

Nilesh Deshmukh, Assistant Professor , School of Computational Science, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded,     MS, India, 431606.

Dr. Santosh Khamitkar, Assistant Professor , School of Computational Science, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded,  MS, India, 431606.

Santosh Phulari, Assistant Professor, School of Computational Science, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded,  MS, India, 431606.

Ravindra Rathod,  Assistant Professor, School of Computational Science, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, MS, India, 431606


Abstract: This paper studies denial of service (DoS) attacks in computer networks. These attacks are known for preventing availability of network services from their legitimate users. After careful review of literature, we wish to presents a structured view on possible attack and defense mechanisms. An outline to describe some new defense mechanisms is also presented in terms of a research proposal.


Keywords- Denial of Service Attacks, Intrusion, Security


31. Paper 30081042: An Efficient and Minimum Cost Topology Construction for Rural Wireless Mesh Networks (pp. 202-209)

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Prof. V. Anuratha, H.O.D – PG. Comp. Science, Sree Saraswathi Thyagaraja college, Pollachi,   Tamil Nadu, India

Dr. P. Sivaprakasam , Associate Professor, Sri  Vasavi college of Arts & Science, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India


Abstract - Many research efforts as well as deployments have chosen IEEE802.11 as a low-cost, long-distance access technology to bridge the digital divide. IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi equipment based wireless mesh networks have recently been proposed as an inexpensive approach to connect far-flung rural areas. To establish such network high-gain directional antennas are used to achieve long-distance wireless point-to-point links. Some nodes in the network are called gateway nodes and are directly connected to the wired internet, and the remaining nodes connect to the gateway(s) using one or more hops. In this paper the cost of constructing the antenna towers required is investigated. The problem is NP hard is shown and that abetter than O(log n) approximation cannot be expected, where n is the number of vertices in the graph. To minimize the construction cost a new algorithm is proposed called constant time approximation algorithm. The results of proposed approximation algorithm are compared with both the optimal solution, and a naive heuristic.


32. Paper 31071081: Reinforcement Learning by Comparing Immediate Reward (pp. 210-214)

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Punit Pandey, Department Of Computer Science and Engineering, Jaypee University Of Engineering And Technology

Dr. Shishir Kumar, Department Of Computer Science and Engineering, Jaypee University Of Engineering And Technology

Deepshikha Pandey, Department Of Computer Science and Engineering, Jaypee University Of Engineering And Technology


Abstract— This paper introduces an approach to Reinforcement Learning Algorithm by comparing their immediate rewards using a variation of Q-Learning algorithm. Unlike the conventional Q-Learning, the proposed algorithm compares current reward with immediate reward of past move and work accordingly. Relative reward based Q-learning is an approach towards interactive learning. Q-Learning is a model free reinforcement learning method that used to learn the agents. It is observed that under normal circumstances algorithm take more episodes to reach optimal Q-value due to its normal reward or sometime negative reward. In this new form of algorithm agents select only those actions which have a higher immediate reward signal in comparison to previous one. The contribution of this article is the presentation of new Q-Learning Algorithm in order to maximize the performance of algorithm and reduce the number of episode required to reach optimal Q-value. Effectiveness of proposed algorithm is simulated in a 20 x20 Grid world deterministic environment and the result for the two forms of Q-Learning Algorithms is given.


Keywords-component; Reinforcement Learning, Q-Learning Method, Relative Reward, Relative Q-Learning Method.


33. Paper 31081043: Information realization with statistical predictive inferences and coding form (pp. 215-220)

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D. Mukherjee, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur-313601,Rajasthan,India

P.Chakrabarti* , A.Khanna , V.Gupta

Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur-313601,Rajasthan,India


Abstract — The paper deals with information realization in case of grid topology. Nodal communication strategies with clusters has also been cited. Information prediction has been pointed out with relevant statistical method, forward sensing, backward sensing and cumulative frequency form. Binary tree classifier theory has been applied for information grouping. The paper also deals with comparison analysis of information coding.


Keywords- grid topology ,forward sensing , backward sensing, binary tree classifier, information coding


34. Paper 31081045: Scaling Apriori for Association Rule Mining using Mutual Information Based Entropy (pp. 221-227)

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S. Prakash, Research Scholar, Sasurie College of Engineering, Vijayamangalam,Erode(DT), Tamilnadu, India.

Dr. R. M. S. Parvathi M.E.(CSE),Ph.D., Principal, Sengunthar College of Engg.for Women, Tiruchengode. Tamilnadu, India.


Abstract - Extracting information from large datasets is a well-studied research problem. As larger and larger data sets become available (e.g., from customer behavior data from organizations such as Wal-Mart) it is getting essential to find better ways to extract relations (inferences) from them. This thesis proposes an improved Apriori algorithm to minimize the number of candidate sets while generating association rules by evaluating quantitative information associated with each item that occurs in a transaction, which was usually, discarded as traditional association rules focus just on qualitative correlations. The proposed approach reduces not only the number of item sets generated but also the overall execution time of the algorithm. Any valued attribute will be treated as quantitative and will be used to derive the quantitative association rules which usually increases the rules' information content. Transaction reduction is achieved by discarding the transactions that does not contain any frequent item set in subsequent scans which in turn reduces overall execution time. Dynamic item set counting is done by adding new candidate item sets only when all of their subsets are estimated to be frequent. The frequent item ranges are the basis for generating higher order item ranges using Apriori algorithm. During each iteration of the algorithm, use the frequent sets from the previous iteration to generate the candidate sets and check whether their support is above the threshold. The set of candidate sets found is pruned by a strategy that discards sets which contain infrequent subsets. The thesis evaluate the scalability of the algorithm by considering transaction time, number of item sets used in the transaction and memory utilization. Quantitative association rules can be used in several domains where the traditional approach is employed. The unique requirement for such use is to have a semantic connection between the components of the item-value pairs. The proposal used mutual information based on entropy to generate association rules from nonbiological datasets.


Keywords- Apriori, Quantitative attribute, Entropy


35. Paper 31081046: Clustering of High-Volume Data Streams In Network Traffic (pp. 229-233)

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M. Vijayakumar, Research Scholar, Sasurie College of Engineering, Vijayamangalam, Erode(Dt) , Tamilnadu, India.

Dr. R.M.S. Parvathi M.E.(CSE),Ph.D., Principal, Sengunthar College of Engg.for Women, Tiruchengode. Tamilnadu, India.


Abstract— The thesis concerned with the problem of mining network traffic data discovering useful associations, relationships, and groupings in large collections of data. Mathematical transformation algorithms have proven effective at reducing the content of multilingual, unstructured data into a vector that describes the content. Such methods are particularly desirable in fields undergoing information explosions, such as network traffic analysis, bio-informatics, and the intelligence community. In response, traffic mining methodology is being extended to improve performance and sufficiently scalable.The usage of data flow collected from site routers for various analysis i.e., network performance characterization, investigating computer security incidents and their prevention, network traffic statistics, and others. Currently, the data flow analysis is built as a distributed system to collect data from multiple routers, both at the edge of the site network as well as from local routers and multilayer switches. Average per day volume is about 2GBytes of raw data. Despite a high volume of collected information, some analysis is conducted in near real time to satisfy demands of users communities for quick results.The proposed work present an efficient clustering means to analyze experimental results for traffic data streams nature (symmetric and asymmetric). As summary, this paper describe a system designed to satisfy three primary goals i.e., real-time concept mining of high-volume data streams, dynamic data flow into a relational hierarchy; and adaptive reorganization of the traffic data hierarchy in response to evolving circumstances and network traffic time to time. The proposed clustering network traffic data flow collection and analysis system describe traffic characterization and network performance estimation for the data flow centre. The system checks the traffic consistency for End To End circuits and Policy Based Routing and finally, profiling of host's traffic to keep track of their typical behavior to prevent accidental blocking by site IDS system.


KeywordsTraffic analysis, network management , clustering, frequent Item set , hierarchical clustering.


36. Paper 31081049: A.R.Q. techniques using Sub-block retransmission for wireless networks (pp. 234-237)

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A. N. Kemkar, Member, ISTE and Dr. T. R. Sontakke, Member,ISTE


Abstract—In this paper we mainly focus our investigation on the throughput performance in conjugation with sub-block transmission scheme. The throughput of a wireless data communications system depends on a number of variables, one of it is length of the message blocks. Over a noisy communication medium like wireless medium used for mobile ad-hoc network, our propose scheme performs effectively. In propose scheme random length of the message is divided in to fixed length blocks and applying ARQ techniques if the error occurs. A threshold model is used for fading channel, estimation and CRC detection codes are used. Comparison of transmission efficiency of proposed scheme with varying channel condition is shown.


Index Terms— FEC, Hybrid ARQ, BER.


37. Paper 22081015: Performance Analysis of Delay in Optical Packet Switching Using Various Traffic Patterns (pp. 238-244)

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A.Kavitha , IT dept, Chettinad College of Engineering & Technology, Karur, Tamilnadu, India

V.Rajamni, Indra Ganesan College of Engineering, Trichy, Tamilnadu, India

P. Anandhakumar, IT Dept, Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India


Abstract— Quality of Service parameters are improved for development of optical packet switching technology. Delay is an important parameter in optical packet switching networks and it affects the performance of the network. In this paper, a mathematical model is presented to evaluate the delay rate. Delay rates are analyzed for fixed packet length and variable length packet for various traffic patterns viz. Non-uniform, Poisson and ON-OFF traffic models for various service classes using Reservation Bit technique. The results are compared with the existing port based First-Fit wavelength assignment algorithm. Here delay rates are reduced by 29% in our class based model than the port based model.


Keywords-component; Optical Packet Switching (OPS), RB (Reservation Bit algorithm), FF (First-Fit Wavelength assignment algorithm), Quality of Service (QoS), Packet Loss Rate (PLR), BER (Bit Error Rate), WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing).


38. Paper 29081039: A Feedback Design for Rotation Invariant Feature Extraction in Implementation with Iris Credentials (pp. 245-254)

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M. Sankari, Department of Computer Applications, Nehru Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India.

R Bremananth, School of EEE, Information Engg. (Div.), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore - 639798.


Abstract — Rotation invariant feature extraction is an essential objective task in computer vision and pattern credentials problems, that is, recognizing an object must be invariant in scale, translation and orientation of its patterns. In the iris recognition, the system should represent the iris patterns, which is invariant to the size of the iris in the image. This depends upon the distance from the sensors to subjects’ eye positions and the external illumination of the environments, which in turn make the changes in the pupil diameter. Another invariant factor is the translation, the explicit iris features should be a positional independent even though eye present anywhere in the acquired image. These two invariants are perfectly achieved by the weight based localization approaches. However, the iris orientation estimation is an important problem to avoid in preserving selective orientation parameters. Multiple source points are used to estimate the segmented objects orientations. After estimating the deviation in angle of segmented object that can be rotated to its principal origin and then the feature extraction process is applied. A multi resolution approach such as wavelet transform is employed for feature extraction process that provides efficient frequency and spatial texture feature deviations present in the irises. In this paper, we work on a feedback design with Radon transform with wavelet statistical analysis of iris recognition in two different ways. In order to check the viability of the proposed approaches invariant features are directly compared with weighted distance (WD) measures, in the first phase and second phase is to train the Hamming neural network to recognize the known patterns.


Keywords- Iris credentials; Invariant Features; Rotation estimation; Multiresolution anlysis;


39. Paper 31081047: Empirical Mode Decomposition Analysis of Heart Rate Variability (pp. 255-258)

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C. Santhi, M.E., Assistant Professor, Electronics and Communication Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore-641 013

N. Kumaravel, Ph.D, Professor, Head of the Department, Electronics and Communication Engineering, Anna University, Chennai-600 025.


Abstract - The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) demands specific capabilities not provided by either parametric or nonparametric spectral estimation methods. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has the possibility of dealing with nonstationary and nonlinear embedded phenomena, for a proper assessment of dynamic and transient changes in amplitude and time scales of HRV signal. In this work EMD and a non-linear curve fitting technique are used to study half an hour HRV signal and its intrinsic mode function obtained from 20 healthy young control subjects, 20 healthy old control subjects and 20 subjects with long term ST. The intrinsic oscillations are measured by means of its meanperiod and variance. Significant meanperiod reduction is observed in the intrinsic time scales of healthy old control subjects and subjects with long term ST, which is used to classify the three groups of HRV signal with high sensitivity and specificity. The estimated slope using the non-linear curve fitting technique represents the flexibility of the cardiovascular system. The main advantage of this method is it does not make any prior assumption about the HRV signal being analyzed and no artificial information is introduced into the filtering method.


Index Terms- Empirical Mode Decomposition, Heart Rate Variability, Intrinsic Mode Functions, RR intervals, nonlinear curve fitting.


40. Paper: (pp.)

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