Vol. 6 No. 2 NOV 2009

Vol. 6 No. 2 November 2009 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication November 2009, Volume 6 No. 2 (
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Copyright © 2009-2010 IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Paper 31100970: Making Palm Print Matching Mobile (pp. 001-009)
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Li Fang, School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 
Maylor K.H. Leung, School of computer engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 
Cheng Shao Chian, School of computer engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 

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Abstract— With the growing importance of personal identification and authentication in today’s highly advanced world where most business and personal tasks are being replaced by electronic means, the need for a technology that is able to uniquely identify an individual and has high fraud resistance see the rise of biometric technologies. Making biometric-based solution mobile is a promising trend. A new RST invariant square-based palm print ROI extraction method was successfully implemented and integrated into the current application suite. A new set of palm print image database captured using embedded cameras in mobile phone was created to test its robustness. Comparing to those extraction methods that are based on boundary tracking of the overall hand shape that has limitation of being unable to process palm print images that has one or more fingers closed, the system can now effectively handle the segmentation of palm print images with varying finger positioning. The high flexibility makes palm print matching mobile possible. 

Keywords- Palm print; segmentation; mobility;

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Paper 17100916: A Multidatabase System as 4-Tiered Client-Server Distributed Heterogeneous Database System (pp. 010-014)
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Mohammad Ghulam Ali,
Academic Post Graduate Studies and Research, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India
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Abstract- In this paper, we describe a multidatabase system as 4-tiered Client-Server DBMS architectures. We discuss their functional components and provide an overview of their performance characteristics. The first component of this proposed system is a web-based interface or Graphical User Interface, which resides on top of the Client Application Program, the second component of the system is a client Application program running in an application server, which resides on top of the Global Database Management System, the third component of the system is a Global Database Management System and global schema of the multidatabase system server, which resides on top of the distributed heterogeneous local component database system servers, and the fourth component is remote heterogeneous local component database system servers. Transaction submitted from client interface to a multidatabase system server through an application server will be decomposed into a set of sub queries and will be executed at various remote heterogeneous local component database servers and also in case of information retrieval all sub queries will be composed and will get back results to the end users.

Keywords- Distributed Databases; Multidatabase; 3-tiered Client-Server system; Schema Transformation, Schema Integration;
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Paper 21100927: A New Efficient Key Management Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (pp. 015-022)
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Yunho Lee ,and Soojin Lee, 
Department of Computer & Information Science, Korea National Defense University, Seoul, South Korea

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Abstract—Research on sensor networks has become much more active and is currently being applied to many different fields. However since sensor networks are limited to only collecting and reporting information regarding a certain event, and requires human intervention with that given information, it is often difficult to react to an event or situation immediately and proactively. To overcome this kind of limitation, Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) with immediate-response actor nodes have been proposed which adds greater mobility and activity to the existing sensor networks. Although WSANs share many common grounds with sensor networks, it is difficult to apply existing security technologies due to the fact that WSANs contain actor nodes that are resource-independent and mobile. Therefore, this research seeks to demonstrate ways to provide security, integrity, and authentication services for WSAN's secure operation, by separating networks into hierarchical structure by each node's abilities and provides different encryption key-based secure protocols for each level of hierarchy: Pair-wise key, node key, and region key for sensor levels, and public key for actor

Keywords; Wireless Sensor and Actor Network (WSAN); Key management Protocol;
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Paper 30100957: Scalability and Load Balancing for Multiplatform Communication System Architecture based on Intelligent Agents (pp. 023-028)
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Sally M. El-Ghamrawy, Computers & Systems Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Ali I. El-Desouky, Computers & Systems Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

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Abstract-. Distributed Multi-Agent Intelligent Systems technology has generated lots of excitement in recent years because of its promise as a new paradigm for conceptualizing, designing, and implementing software systems. Communication is the most important feature for meaningful interaction among agents in multi-agent systems. Communication enables agents to interact and share information to perform tasks to achieve their goals. Agent communication languages provide a standard in the protocol and language used in the agent communication, but can’t provide a standard in ontology, because ontology depends on the subject and concept of the communication. This lack of standardization, which impedes communication between agents, is known as the interoperability problem. In order to obtain semantic interoperability in distributed multi-agent Systems, agents need to agree on the basis of different ontologies. In this paper we propose a communication layers to outline the communication between agents. In addition a Multiplatform Communication System (MPCS) architecture is proposed to provide a highly flexible and scalable system. In MPCS architecture, a Dynamic Ontology Mapping System for Agent Communication (DOMAC) is proposed based on different mapping approaches in order to provide help in the conversation among different agents. 

Keywords: Agent Communication Language (ACL); Ontology Mapping; Interoperability; KQML; Multi-Agent System (MAS); scalability; load balancing.
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Paper 08100905: Conceptual Model for Communication (pp. 029-041)
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Sabah Al-Fedaghi, Computer Engineering Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969 Safat 13060 Kuwait
Ala'a Alsaqa, Computer Engineering Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969 Safat 13060 Kuwait
Zahra'a Fadel, Computer Engineering Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969 Safat 13060 Kuwait

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Abstract—A variety of idealized models of communication systems exist, and all may have something in common. Starting with Shannon’s communication model and ending with the OSI model, this paper presents progressively more advanced forms of modeling of communication systems by tying communication models together based on the notion of flow. The basic communication process is divided into different spheres (sources, channels, and destinations), each with its own five interior stages: receiving, processing, creating, releasing, and transferring of information. The flow of information is ontologically distinguished from the flow of physical signals; accordingly, Shannon’s model, network-based OSI models, and TCP/IP are redesigned.

Keywords- conceptual model; information communication; communication systems;

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Paper 31100972: Sequential Clustering-based Facial Feature Extraction Method for Automatic Creation of Facial Models from Orthogonal Views (pp. 042-047)
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Alireza Ghahari, Reza Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, IRAN
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Abstract - Multiview 3D face modeling has attracted increasing attention recently and has become one of the potential avenues in future video systems. We aim to make more reliable and robust automatic feature extraction and natural 3D feature construction from 2D features detected on a pair of frontal and profile view face images. We propose several heuristic algorithms to minimize possible errors introduced by prevalent non-perfect orthogonal condition and non-coherent luminance. In our approach, we first extract the 2D features that are visible to both cameras in both views. Then, we estimate the coordinates of the features in the hidden profile view based on the visible features extracted in the two orthogonal views. Finally, based on the coordinates of the extracted features, we deform a 3D generic model to perform the desired 3D clone modeling. Present study proves the scope of resulted facial models for practical applications like face recognition and facial animation. 

Keywords- Multiview 3D face modeling; Feature extraction; 3D feature construction; 3D clone modeling

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Paper 24100938: A Reliable and Fault-Tolerant Routing for Optical WDM Networks (pp. 048-054)
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G. Ramesh, Department of Information Technology, KLN College of Engineering, Madurai, India
S. SundaraVadivelu, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Chennai, India.

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Abstract— In optical WDM networks, since each lightpath can carry a huge mount of traffic, failures may seriously damage the end-user applications. Hence fault-tolerance becomes an important issue on these networks. The light path which carries traffic during normal operation is called as primary path. The traffic is rerouted on a backup path in case of a failure. In this paper we propose to design a reliable and fault-tolerant routing algorithm for establishing primary and backup paths. In order to establish the primary path, this algorithm uses load balancing in which link cost metrics are estimated based on the current load of the links. In backup path setup, the source calculates the blocking probability through the received feedback from the destination by sending a small fraction of probe packets along the existing paths. It then selects the optimal light path with the lowest blocking probability. Based on the simulation results, we show that the reliable and fault tolerant routing algorithm reduces the blocking probability and latency while increasing the throughput and channel utilization.

Keywords- Reliable; fault-tolerance; blocking probability; load balancing; feedback.
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Paper 27100944: Object-Oriented Approach for Integration of Heterogeneous Databases in a Multidatabase System and Local Schemas Modifications Propagation (pp. 055-060)
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Mohammad Ghulam Ali, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Academic Post Graduate Studies and Research, Kharagpur, India
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Abstract - One of the challenging problems in the multidatabase systems is to find the most viable solution to the problem of interoperability of distributed heterogeneous autonomous local component databases. This has resulted in the creation of a global schema over set of these local component database schemas to provide a uniform representation of local schemas. The aim of this paper is to use object-oriented approach to integrate schemas of distributed heterogeneous autonomous local component database schemas into a global schema. The resulting global schema provides a uniform interface and high level of location transparency for retrieval of data from the local component databases. A set of integration operators are defined to integrate local schemas based on the semantic relevance of their classes and to provide a model independent representation of virtual classes of the global schema. The schematic representation and heterogeneity is also taken into account in the integration process. Justifications about Object-Oriented Modal are also discussed. Bottom up local schema modifications propagation in Global schema is also considered to maintain Global schema as local schemas are autonomous and evolve over time. An example illustrates the applicability of the integration operator defined.

Keywords- Multidatabase; Object-Oriented Database; Heterogeneous Databases; Distributed Databases; Schema Integration; Schema Evolution; Schema Transformation;Correspondence Assertions; Schema Mapping.
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Paper 23100931: A New Scheduling Algorithms For Real Time Tasks (pp. 061-066)
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C. Yaashuwanth, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, India.
Dr. R. Ramesh, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, India.

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Abstract - The main objective of this paper is to develop the two different ways in which round robin architecture is modified and made suitable to be implemented in real time and embedded systems. The scheduling algorithm plays a significant role in the design of real time embedded systems. Simple round robin architecture is not efficient to be implemented in embedded systems because of higher context switch rate, larger waiting time and larger response time. Missing of deadlines will degrade the system performance in soft real time systems. The main objective of this paper is to develop the scheduling algorithm which removes the drawbacks in simple round robin architecture. A comparison with round robin architecture to the proposed architectures has been made. It is observed that the proposed architectures solves the problems encountered in round robin architecture in soft real time by decreasing the number of context switches waiting time and response time thereby increasing the system throughput.

Key words - Round robin architecture; time slice; deadlines; soft real time;
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Paper 30100960: Reversible Image Authentication with Tamper Localization Based on Integer Wavelet Transform (pp. 067-074)
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P.Meenakshi Devi, Professor, Dept. of Information technology, K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India
M.Venkatesan, Professor, Dept. of Master of Computer Applications, K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India
K.Duraiswamy, Dean, K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India

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Abstract— In this paper, a new reversible image authentication technique with tamper localization based on watermarking in integer wavelet transform is proposed. If the image authenticity is verified, then the distortion due to embedding the watermark can be completely removed from the watermarked image. If the image is tampered, then the tampering positions can also be localized. Two layers of watermarking are used. The first layer embedded in spatial domain verifies authenticity and the second layer embedded in transform domain provides reversibility. This technique utilizes selective LSB embedding and histogram characteristics of the difference images of the wavelet coefficients and modifies pixel values slightly to embed the watermark. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can detect any modifications of the watermarked image. 

Keywords: Reversible Watermarking; Authentication; Tamper Localization; Histogram modification;
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Paper 31100976: Modified Opportunistic Deficit Round Robin Scheduling for improved QOS in IEEE 802.16 WBA networks (pp. 075-081)
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C. Kalyana Chakravarthy, Dept. of CSE, M.V.G.R.College of Engineering, Vizianagaram, India
Prof. P.V.G.D. Prasad Reddy, Dept. of CS&SE, Andhra University College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam, India

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Abstract— Packet and flow scheduling algorithms for WiMAX has been a topic of interest for a long time since the very inception of WiMAX networks. WiMAX offers advantages particularly in terms of Quality of service it offers over a longer range at the MAC level. In our work, we propose two credit based scheduling schemes one in which completed flows distributes the left over credits equally to all higher priority uncompleted flows(ODRREDC) and another in which completed flows give away all the excess credits to the highest priority uncompleted flow(ODRRSDC). Both the schemes are compatible with 802.16 MAC protocol and can efficiently serve real time bursty traffic with reduced latency and hence improved QOS for real time flows. We compare the two proposed schemes for their latency, bandwidth utilization and throughput for real time burst flows with the opportunity based Deficit Round Robin scheduling scheme. While the ODRR scheduler focuses on reducing the credits for the flows with errors, our approach also distributes these remaining credits together with the credits from completed flows equally among the higher priority uncompleted flows or totally to the highest priority uncompleted flow. 

Keywords- component; scheduling; quality of service; latency;

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Paper 01110979: A Digital Guitar Tuner (pp. 082-088)
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Mary Lourde R., Anjali Kuppayil Saji, Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, BITS-Pilani, Dubai, UAE
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Abstract - The objective of this paper is to understand the critical parameters that need to be addressed while designing a guitar tuner. The focus of the design lies in developing a suitable algorithm to accurately detect the fundamental frequency of a plucked guitar string from its frequency spectrum. A user-friendly graphical interface is developed using Matlab to allow any user to easily tune his guitar using the developed program. 

Key words: FIR Filter; Hamming window; Pitch detection; Harmonic product spectrum;
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Paper 15100913: Educational Objectives Of Different Laboratory Types: A Comparative Study (pp. 089-096)
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Yasser .H. Elawady, Faculty of Computers and Information Systems, Taif University, Taif, KSA.
A.S. Tolba, Faculty of Computer Studies, Arab Open University, HQ, Kuwait.
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Abstract—Laboratory-based courses play a critical role in scientific education. Automation is changing the nature of the laboratories, and there is a long-running debate about the value of hands-on versus simulated and remote laboratories. The remote lab technology has brought a significant improvement in communication within the Academic community and has improved students' learning experiences. There are different educational objectives as criteria for judging the laboratories: Hands-on advocates emphasize design skills, while remote lab advocates focus on conceptual understanding. Remote laboratories offer all the advantages of the new technology, but are often a poor replacement for real laboratory work. Remote laboratories are similar to simulation techniques in that they require minimal space and time, because the experiments can be rapidly configured and run over the Internet [Web]. But unlike simulations, they provide real data. This paper presents a comparative analysis for the educational objectives of the three laboratory techniques; hands-on, simulated, and remote laboratories. In addition, it proposes enhancements for the remote lab activities leading to improving its performance. 

Keywords- Hands-on laboratory; Remote laboratory; Virtual laboratory; distance learning; E-learning;
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Paper 25080925: SVM-Based Effective Land Use Classification System For Multispectral Remote Sensing Images (pp. 097-105)
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K Perumal, Department of Computer Science, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625021, Tamilnadu, India
R Bhaskaran, School of Mathematics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu, India

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Abstract— Remote sensing image classification is one amongst the most significant application worlds for remote sensing. A few number of image classification algorithms have proved good precision in classifying remote sensing data. But, of late, due to the increasing spatiotemporal dimensions of the remote sensing data, traditional classification algorithms have exposed weaknesses necessitating further research in the field of remote sensing image classification. This paper presents an efficient land use image classification system for remote sensing images with the aid of image processing techniques and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The proposed classification system makes use of multispectral image data that corresponds to land cover regions, obtained from remote sensing. As for any classification system, the proposed system comprises of: 1) SVM Training, followed by 2) SVM Testing. In the training phase, the multispectral image data is first subjected to unsharp filtering, and then, the image regions are segmented by means of nonlinear isotropic diffusion segmentation. The segmented image pixels corresponding to land use areas are then provided as training input to the SVM, under human supervision. Similarly, during testing, the input multispectral image is first subjected to unsharp filtering and then nonlinear isotropic diffusion segmentation. Subsequently, to automate the process of testing, the regions segmented by nonlinear isotropic diffusion segmentation are extracted using the active contour model. Finally, the trained SVM accurately classifies the land cover regions based on the pixel values of the extracted regions. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed classification system in classifying land cover regions.

Keywords-Remote Sensing; Multispectral; Land Cover; Image Classification; Unsharp Filter; Nonlinear Diffusion Segmentation;Support Vector Machines (SVM); Kernel Function.
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Paper 29100955: Comparison of Performance Metrics for QPSK and OQPSK Transmission Using Root Raised Cosine & Raised Cosine Pulse-shaping Filters for Applications in Mobile Communication (pp. 106-112)
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Sudipta Chattopadhyay, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engg., Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India
Salil Kumar Sanyal, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engg., Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India

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Abstract—Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OQPSK) are two well accepted modulation techniques used in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. The Pulse-Shaping Filters play an important role in digital transmission. The type of Pulse-Shaping Filter used, and its behavior would influence the performance of the communication system. This in turn, would have an effect on the performance of the Mobile Communication system, in which the digital communication technique has been employed. In this paper we have presented comparative study of some performance parameters or performance metrics of a digital communication system like, Error Vector Magnitude (EVM), Magnitude Error, Phase Error and Bandwidth Efficiency for a QPSK transmission system. Root Raised Cosine (RRC) and Raised Cosine (RC) Pulse-shaping filters have been used for comparison. The measurement results serve as a guideline to the system designer to select the proper pulse-shaping filter with the appropriate value of filter roll-off factor (a) in a QPSK modulated mobile communication system for optimal values of its different performance metrics.

Keywords- QPSK;, OQPSK; Raised Cosine Filter;, Root Raised Cosine Filter;
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Paper 30100961: Search for overlapped communities by parallel genetic algorithms (pp. 113-118)
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Vincenza CARCHIOLO, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Universita' degli Studi di Catania, Catania, I95125 ITALY
Alessandro LONGHEU, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Universita' degli Studi di Catania, Catania, I95125 ITALY
Michele MALGERI, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Universita' degli Studi di Catania, Catania, I95125 ITALY
Giuseppe MANGIONI, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Universita' degli Studi di Catania, Catania, I95125 ITALY

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Abstract— In the last decade the broad scope of complex networks has led to a rapid progress. In this area a particular interest has the study of community structures. The analysis of this type of structure requires the formalization of the intuitive concept of community and the definition of indices of goodness for the obtained results. A lot of algorithms has been presented to reach this goal. In particular, an interesting problem is the search of overlapped communities and it is field seems very interesting a solution based on the use of genetic algorithms. The approach discusses in this paper is based on a parallel implementation of a genetic algorithm and shows the performance benefits of this solution. 

Keywords-component;  

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Paper 25100941: A Survey on Recognition-Based Graphical User Authentication Algorithms (pp. 119-127)
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Farnaz Towhidi, Centre for Advanced Software Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Maslin Masrom, College of Science and Technology, University Technology Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Abstract—Nowadays, user authentication is one of the important topics in information security. Strong text-based password schemes could provide with certain degree of security. However, the fact that strong passwords are difficult to memorize often leads their owners to write them down on papers or even save them in a computer file. Graphical authentication has been proposed as a possible alternative solution to text-based authentication, motivated particularly by the fact that humans can remember images better than text. In recent years, many networks, computer systems and Internet based environments try used graphical authentication technique for their user’s authentication. All of graphical passwords have two different aspects which are usability and security. Unfortunately none of these algorithms were being able to cover both of these aspects at the same time. In this paper, we described eight recognition-based authentication algorithms in terms of their drawbacks and attacks. In the next section, the usability standards from ISO and the related attributes for graphical user authentication usability are discussed. The related attack patterns for graphical user authentication security part are also discussed. Finally, a comparison table of all recognition-based algorithms is presented based on ISO and attack patterns standards. 

Keyword- Recognition-Based Graphical User Authentication; Graphical Password; Usability; Security; ISO usability; Attack Pattern.
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Paper 17100917: Comparative Study of Different Guard Time Intervals to Improve the BER Performance of Wimax Systems to Minimize the Effects of ISI and ICI under Adaptive Modulation Techniques over SUI-1 and AWGN Communication Channels (pp. 128-132)
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Md. Zahid Hasan, Dept. of Information & Communication Engineering, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Mohammad Reaz Hossain, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Information & Communication Engineering, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Md. Ashraful Islam, Dept. of Information & Communication Engineering, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Riaz Hossain, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Information & Communication Engineering, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

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Abstract— The WIMAX technology based on air interface standard 802-16 wireless MAN is configured in the same way as a traditional cellular network with base stations using point to multipoint architecture to drive a service over a radius up to several kilometers. The range and the Non Line of Sight (NLOS) ability of WIMAX make the system very attractive for users, but there will be slightly higher BER at low SNR. The aim of this paper is the comparative study of different guard time intervals effect for improving BER at different SNR under digital modulation (QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM) techniques and different communication channels AWGN and fading channels Stanford University Interim (SUI-1) of an WIMAX system. The comparison between these effects with Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder with Convolutional encoder ½ rated codes in FEC channel coding will be investigated. The simulation results of estimated Bit Error Rate (BER) displays that the implementation of interleaved RS code (255,239,8) with ½ rated Convolutional code of 0.25 guard time intervals under QPSK modulation technique over AWGN channel is highly effective to combat in the Wimax communication system. To complete this performance analysis in Wimax based systems, a segment of audio signal is used for analysis. The transmitted audio message is found to have retrieved effectively under noisy situation.

Keywords- OFDM;Wimax; Block Coding; Convolution coding; Additive White Gaussian Noise; SUI channel;
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Paper 28100947: A novel approach for implementing Steganography with computing power obtained by combining Cuda and Matlab (pp. 133-137)
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Samir B. Patel, Shrikant N. Pradhan, Saumitra U. Ambegaokar,
Computer Science and Engineering Department, Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
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Abstract --With the current development of multiprocessor systems, strive for computing data on such processor have also increased exponentially. If the multi core processors are not fully utilized, then even though we have the computing power the speed is not available to the end users for their respective applications. In accordance to this, the users or application designers also have to design newer applications taking care of the computing infrastructure available within. Our approach is to use the CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) as backend and MATLAB as the front end to design an application for implementing steganography. Steganography is the term used for hiding information in the cover object like Image, Audio or Video data. As the computing required for multimedia data is much more than the text information, we have been successful in implementing image Steganography with the help of technology for the next generation.

Keywords: CUDA; Steganography; LSB
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Paper 30100964: Fingerprint Verification based on Gabor Filter Enhancement (pp. 138-144)
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Lavanya B N, K B Raja and Venugopal K R,
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University Visvesvariah College of Engineering, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001
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Abstract—Human fingerprints are reliable characteristics for personnel identification as it is unique and persistence. A fingerprint pattern consists of ridges, valleys and minutiae. In this paper we propose Fingerprint Verification based on Gabor Filter Enhancement (FVGFE) algorithm for minutiae feature extraction and post processing based on 9-pixel neighborhood. A global feature extraction and fingerprints enhancement are based on Hong enhancement method which is simultaneously able to extract local ridge orientation and ridge frequency. It is observed that the Sensitivity and Specificity values are better compared to the existing algorithms.

Keywords- fingerprints; biometrics; ridge; orientation image; minutiae extraction.
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Paper 31100966: Shoulder Surfing attack in graphical password authentication (pp. 145-154)
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Arash Habibi Lashkari, Computer Science and Data Communication (MCS), University Malaya (UM),Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Samaneh Farmand, Computer Science and Information Technology (IT), University Malaya (UM),Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Dr. Omar Bin Zakaria, Computer Science and Data Communication (MCS), University of Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Dr. Rosli Saleh, Computer Science and Data Communication (MCS), University of Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Abstract- Information and computer security is supported largely by passwords which are the principle part of the authentication process. The most common computer authentication method is to use alphanumerical username and password which has significant drawbacks. To overcome the vulnerabilities of traditional methods, visual or graphical password schemes have been developed as possible alternative solutions to text-based scheme. A potential drawback of graphical password schemes is that they are more vulnerable to shoulder surfing than conventional alphanumeric text passwords. When users input their passwords in a public place, they may be at risk of attackers stealing their password. An attacker can capture a password by direct observation or by recording the individual’s authentication session. This is referred to as shouldersurfing and is a known risk, of special concern when authenticating in public places. In this paper we will present a survey on graphical password schemes from 2005 till 2009 which are proposed to be resistant against shoulder surfing attacks.

Keywords: Graphical Password; Shoulder Surfing; Authentication Scheme; Passwords; Graphical Authentication; Password Attacks;
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Paper 28100948: An approach to secure highly confidential documents of any size in the corporate or institutes having unsecured networks (pp. 155-163)
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Samir B. Patel and Shrikant N. Pradhan, Computer Science and Engineering Department, Institute of Technology, Nirma University, SG-Highway, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
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Abstract- With the tremendous amount of computing because of the wide usage of internet it is observed that some user(s) are not able to manage their desktop with antivirus software properly installed. It is happening few times, that we allow our friends, students and colleagues to sit on our networked PC. Sometimes the user is unaware of the situation that there workstations are unsecured and so some one else could also be monitoring your flow of information and your most important data could go haywire, resulting into leakage of most confidential data to unwanted or malicious user(s). Example of some such documents could be question papers designed by the faculty member by various universities. Now a day most of the universities are having the biggest threat about the question papers and many other confidential documents designed by their faculty members. We in this paper present the solution to over come such a situation using the concept of Steganography. Steganography is a technique through which one can hide information into some cover object. This technique, if used, in positive direction could be of great help to solve such a problem and even other. 

Keywords:
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Paper 23100933: Robust Multi-biometric Recognition Using Face and Ear Images (pp. 164-169)
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Nazmeen Bibi Boodoo, and R. K. Subramanian, Computer Science Department, University of Mauritius, Mauritius
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Abstract: This study investigates the use of ear as a biometric for authentication and shows experimental results obtained on a newly created dataset of 420 images. Images are passed to a quality module in order to reduce False Rejection Rate. The Principal Component Analysis (“eigen ear”) approach was used, obtaining 90.7 % recognition rate. Improvement in recognition results is obtained when ear biometric is fused with face biometric. The fusion is done at decision level, achieving a recognition rate of 96 %.

Keywords: Biometric; Ear Recognition; Face Recognition; PCA; Multi-biometric; Fusion.
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Paper 29100952: Secure Authenticated and Key Agreement Protocols With Access Control for Mobile Environments (pp. 170-183)
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Pierre E. ABI-CHAR, Laboratory of Reseaux et Service De Telecommunication (RST), Telecom & Management SudParis (ex. INT), 9 Rue Charles Fourier, Evry, France
Abdallah M'HAMED, Laboratory of Reseaux et Service De Telecommunication (RST), Telecom & Management SudParis (ex. INT), 9 Rue Charles Fourier, Evry, France
Bachar EL-HASSAN, Laboratory of Electronic Systems, Telecommunication and Networking (LASTRE), Faculty of Engineering, Branch 1, Al Arz Street, El Kobbeh, Tripoli , Lebanon.
Mounir MOKHTARI, Laboratory of Reseaux et Service De Telecommunication (RST), Telecom & Management SudParis (ex. INT), 9 Rue
Charles Fourier, Evry, France

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Abstract- The increasing development and progress in wireless mobile communications has attracted an important amount of attention on the security, anonymity and privacy issues. To provide secure communications over un-trusted network, authenticated key agreement protocols are crucial primitive by establishing secure session keys. Achieving secure communications between communicating entities is an important issue for mobile environment. Anonymous authentication is a means of authorizing a user without revealing his/her identification. Mobile technologies such PDAs and mobile phone systems are increasingly being deployed in mobile computing. These mobile devices have raised public concern regarding violation of privacy, anonymity and information confidentiality. Considering these concerns, there is a growing need to discover and develop techniques and methods to overcome the threats described above. In this paper we propose several protocols which enhance the authentication, security and access control in mobile computing and yet preserves the security requirements of the system. Our proposed protocols are based on different cryptographic techniques including Elliptic Curve techniques, Map-to-Curve function, Weil/bilinear pairing techniques and elliptic curve based Identity Schemes. Our proposed protocols achieve many of desirable security requirements including man-in-the-middle attack, dictionary attack, perfect forward secrecy, etc. In addition, a comparative study in terms of computational and communication load over comparably many authenticated key agreement protocol (i.e., B-SPEKE, SRP, AMP, EC-SRP, etc) is given. 

Index Terms: Authentication; Access Control; WLAN; ECCryptography; Bilinear Pairing; Map-to-Point/Curve Function; AVISPA; Identification Scheme; Digital Signature;
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Paper 31100974: Privacy-Preserving k-Secure Sum Protocol (pp. 184-188)
Full Text: PDF

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Rashid Sheikh, and Beerendra Kumar, SSSIST, Sehore, India
Durgesh Kumar Mishra, Acropolis Institute of Technology and Research, Indore, India

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Abstract-Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC) allows parties to know the result of cooperative computation while preserving privacy of individual data. Secure sum computation is an important application of SMC. In our proposed protocols parties are allowed to compute the sum while keeping their individual data secret with increased computation complexity for hacking individual data. In this paper the data of individual party is broken into a fixed number of segments. For increasing the complexity we have used the randomization technique with segmentation 

Keywords- Computation Complexity, Privacy, Random numbers, Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC)
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Paper 31100969: Ethics Understanding of Software Professional In Risk Reducing Reusability Coding Using Inclusion Set Theory (pp. 189-193)
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G. Singaravel, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, K.S.R.College of Engineering, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India
Dr. V. Palanisamy, Principal, Info Institute of Engineering, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
Dr. A. Krishnan, Dean, K. S. R. College of Engineering, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India

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Abstract— The technical skill or ability of an individual is different to person in software developments of projects. So, it is necessary to identify the talent and attitude of an individual contribution can be uniformly distributed to the different phases of software development cycle. The line of code analysis metrics to understanding the various skills of the programmers in code development. By using the inclusion set theory of n (AUB) refer to strength and risk free code developed from union of software professionals and system must comprise of achievement of the system goal, effective memory utilization and intime delivery of the product.
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Keywords- Software Development; Software Coding; People Managements; Inclusion Set Theory; Risk Analysis and Management.
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Paper 31100973: Architectural Design Activities for JAS (pp. 194-198)
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Lena Khaled, Software engineering department Zarqa private university, Amman, Jordon
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Abstract—the critical part for building any software system is its architecture. Architectural design is a design at a higher level of abstraction. A good architecture ensures that software will satisfy its requirement. This paper defines the most important activities of architectural design that used through building any software; also it applies these activities on one type of Electronic Commerce (EC) applications that is Job Agency System(JAS) to show how these activities can work through these types of applications.

Keywords- Architecural Activities; context diagran; use case; Job Agency System(JAS)
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Paper 30100958: Ant Based Adaptive Multicast Routing Protocol (AAMRP) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (pp. 199-207)
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A. Sabari, Asst. Professor, Department of Information Tehnology, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, India.
K.Duraiswamy, Professor, Dept of Computer Science and Engineering, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, India.

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Abstract—Multicasting is effective when its group members are sparse and the speed is low. On the other hand, broadcasting is effective when the group members dense and the speed are high. Since mobile ad hoc networks are highly dynamic in nature, either of the above two strategies can be adopted at different scenarios. In this paper, we propose an ant agent based adaptive, multicast protocol that exploits group members’ desire to simplify multicast routing and invoke broadcast operations in appropriate localized regimes. By reducing the number of group members that participate in the construction of the multicast structure and by providing robustness to mobility by performing broadcasts in densely clustered local regions, the proposed protocol achieves packet delivery statistics that are comparable to that with a pure multicast protocol but with significantly lower overheads. By our simulation results, we show that our proposed protocol achieves increased Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF) with reduced overhead and routing load.
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Paper 19100918: A New Approach to Cold Start in Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Networks (pp. 208-214)
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Ehsan Hosseini and Mohammad Ali Nematbakhsh, Dept. of Computer Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstraction—Solving free riding and selecting a reliable service provider in P2P networks has been separately investigated in last few years. Using trust has shown to be one of the best ways of solving these problems. But using this approach to simultaneously deal with both problems makes it impossible for newcomers to join the network and the expansion of network is prevented. In this paper we used the game theory to model the behavior of peers and developed a mechanism in which free riding and providing bad service are dominated strategies for peers. At the same time newcomers can participate and are encouraged to be active in the network. The proposed model has been simulated and the results showed that the trust value of free riders and bad service providers converge to a finite value and trust of peers who provide good service is monotonically increased despite the time they join the network.

Keywords: cold start; peer-to-peer networks; free riding; server selection; trust;
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Paper 22100930: Fish recognition based on the combination between robust feature selection, image segmentation and geometrical parameter techniques using Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree (pp. 215-221)
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Mutasem Khalil Sari Alsmadi, Prof. Dr Khairuddin Bin Omar, Prof. Dr. Shahrul Azman Noah and Ibrahim Almarashdah, Faculty of Computer Sciences, University Kebangsaan Malaysia

Abstract--- We presents in this paper a novel fish classification methodology based on a combination between robust feature selection, image segmentation and geometrical parameter techniques using Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree. Unlike existing works for fish classification, which propose descriptors and do not analyze their individual impacts in the whole classification task and do not make the combination between the feature selection, image segmentation and geometrical parameter, we propose a general set of features extraction using robust feature selection, image segmentation and geometrical parameter and their correspondent weights that should be used as a priori information by the classifier. In this sense, instead of studying techniques for improving the classifiers structure itself, we consider it as a "black box" and focus our research in the determination of which input information must bring a robust fish discrimination. The study area selected for our proposed method from global information system (GIS) on Fishes (fish-base) and department of fisheries Malaysia ministry of agricultural and Agro-based industry in putrajaya, Malaysia region currently, the database contains 1513 of fish images. Data acquired on 22th August, 2008, is used. The classification problem involved the identification of 1513 types of image fishes; family, Scientific Name, English name , local name, Habitat , poison fish and nonpoison .The main contribution of this paper is enhancement recognize and classify fishes based on digital image and To develop and implement a novel fish recognition prototype using global feature extraction, image segmentation and geometrical parameters, it have the ability to Categorize the given fish into its cluster and Categorize the clustered fish into poison or non-poison fish, and categorizes the non-poison fish into its family . Both classification and recognition are based on combination between robust feature selection, image segmentation and geometrical parameter techniques.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Decision Tree; Backpropagation; Image Recognition; poison fish and non poison.
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Paper 22100929: Comparative Study of Congestion Control Techniques in High Speed Networks (pp. 222-231)
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Shakeel Ahmad, School of Mathematical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia (USM) Penang Malaysia, & ICIT, Gomal University, D. I. Khan, Pakistan
Adli Mustafa, School of Mathematical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia (USM) Penang Malaysia
Bashir Ahmad, ICIT, Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan
Arjamand Bano, Mathematics department, Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan
Al-Sammarraie Hosam, Center for IT and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

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Abstract: Congestion in network occurs due to exceed in aggregate demand as compared to the accessible capacity of the resources. Network congestion will increase as network speed increases and new effective congestion control methods are needed, especially to handle "bursty" traffic of today’s very high speed networks. Since late 90’s numerous schemes i.e. [1]-[10] etc. have been proposed. This paper concentrates on comparative study of the different congestion control schemes based on some key performance metrics. An effort has been made to judge the performance of Maximum Entropy (ME) based solution for a steady state GE/GE/1/N censored queues with partial buffer sharing scheme against these key performance metrics. 

Keywords: Bursty Traffic; Delay Sensitive; High Speed Networks; Performance Metrics; Quality of Service;
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Paper 23100934: Performance analysis of Non Linear Filtering Algorithms for underwater images (pp. 232-238)
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Dr. G. Padmavathi, Dr. P. Subashini, Mr. M. Muthu Kumar and Suresh Kumar Thakur
Department of Computer Science, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, TN, India


Abstract- Image filtering algorithms are applied on images to remove the different types of noise that are either present in the image during capturing or injected in to the image during transmission. Underwater images when captured usually have Gaussian noise, speckle noise and salt and pepper noise. In this work, five different image filtering algorithms are compared for the three different noise types. The performances of the filters are compared using the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE). The modified spatial median filter gives desirable results in terms of the above two parameters for the three different noise. Forty underwater images are taken for study.

Key words: Mean filter; Median filter; Component Median filter; Vector Median filter; Spatial Median filter; Modified Spatial Median filter for Gaussian noise; Peak Signal to Noise Ratio ; Mean Square Error.
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Paper 21100926: Designing Kernel Scheme for Classifiers Fusion (pp. 239-248)
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Mehdi Salkhordeh Haghighi, Computer Dept, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran  
Hadi Sadoghi Yazdi, Computer Dept, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran 
AbedinVahedian, Computer Dept, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran  
Hamed Modaghegh, Electrical Eng Dept, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran

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Abstract — In this paper, we propose a special fusion method for combining ensembles of base classifiers
utilizing new neural networks in order to improve overall efficiency of classification. While ensembles are
designed such that each classifier is trained independently while the decision fusion is performed as a final procedure, in this method, we would be interested in making the fusion process more adaptive and efficient. This new combiner, called Neural Network Kernel Least Mean Square1, attempts to fuse outputs of the ensembles of classifiers. The proposed Neural Network has some special properties such as Kernel abilities, Least Mean Square features, easy learning over variants of patterns and traditional neuron capabilities. Neural Network Kernel Least Mean Square is a special neuron which is trained with Kernel Least Mean Square properties. This new neuron is used as a classifiers combiner to fuse outputs of base neural network classifiers. Performance of this method is analyzed and compared with other fusion methods. The analysis represents higher performance of our new method as opposed to others.

Keywords—classifiers fusion; combining classifiers; NN classifiers; kernel methods; least mean square;
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Paper 06100901: Semi-Reliable encoding and transmitting scheme for Visual Sensor Networks driven by energy considerations (pp. 249-258)
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Abdelhamid Mammeri, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1K 2R1
Ahmed Khoumsi, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1K 2R1
Djemel Ziou, Department of Computer Science, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1K 2R1
Brahim Hadjou, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1K 2R1

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Abstract—While designing a JPEG-like compression scheme for Visual Sensor Networks (VSN), engineers and designers must respect their strict constraints on power consumption. In this work, a Semi-Reliable encoding and transmission scheme based on JPEG is investigated. It is driven by its energy efficiency and reliability considerations. Our approach for tackling the energy constraint problem consists in adapting JPEG by exploiting the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) energy compaction property. This exploitation is performed by processing only a small portion of each block of 8 x 8 DCT coefficients of the target image. For reliability considerations, the target image is partitioned into sub-images of three categories: Region of High Interest (RHI), Region of Average Interest (RAI), and Region of Non Interest (RNI). Depending on its relevance to the user, each region is processed and sent differently, except RNI where no compression or transmission procedures are made. For that reason, a priority queuing model is used, where RHIs are granted higher priority than RAI. For computational complexity, we have developed a power dissipation model for JPEG based on the number of times basic operations are performed at each stage of the compression scheme.

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Paper 31100978: Approaches for user profile Investigation in Orkut Social Network (pp. 259-268)
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Rajni Ranjan Singh, and Deepak Singh Tomar, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT)
Bhopal, India.

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Abstract- Internet becomes a large & rich repository of information about us as individually. Any thing form user profile information to friends links the user subscribes to are reflection of social interactions as user has in real worlds. Social networking has created new ways to communicate and share information. Social networking websites are being used regularly by millions of people, and it now seems that social networking will be an enduring part of everyday life. Social networks such as Orkut, Bebo, MySpace, Flickr, Facebook, Friendster and LinkedIn, have attracted millions of internet user who are involved in bogging, participatory book reviewing, personal networking and photo sharing. Social network services are
increasingly being used in legal and criminal investigations. Information posted on sites such as Orkut and Facebook has been used by police, probation, and university officials to prosecute users of said sites. In some situations, content posted on web social network has been used in court. In the proposed work degree of closeness is identified by link weight approaches and information matrices are generated and matched on the basis of similarity in user profile information. The proposed technique is useful to investigate a user profile and calculate closeness /interaction between users. 

Keywords— Social networks; similarity measure; User profile; web communities; link analysis;
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Paper 08100907: Biogeography based Satellite Image Classification (pp. 269-274)
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V. K. Panchal, Scientist’G’, DTRL , DRDO, Delhi, India
Parminder Singh, G.N.E College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
Navdeep Kaur, M.Tech Student, G.N.E College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
Harish Kundra, Assistant Professor, Rayat Institute of Engineering & IT, Railmajra, Punjab, India

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Abstract- Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of biological organisms. The mindset of the engineer is that we can learn from nature. Biogeography Based Optimization is a burgeoning nature inspired technique to find the optimal solution of the problem. Satellite image classification is an important task because it is the only way we can know about the land cover map of inaccessible areas. Though satellite images have been classified in past by using various techniques, the researchers are always finding alternative strategies for satellite image classification so that they may be prepared to select the most appropriate technique for the feature extraction task in hand. This paper is focused on classification of the satellite image of a particular land cover using the theory of Biogeography based Optimization. The original BBO algorithm does not have the inbuilt property of clustering which is required during image classification. Hence modifications have been proposed to the original algorithm and the modified algorithm is used to classify the satellite image of a given region. The results indicate that highly accurate land cover features can be extracted effectively when the proposed algorithm is used.

Keywords – Biogeography; Biogeography Based Optimization; Satellite Image Classification; Rough Set Theory;
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Paper 15100914: Web Document Analysis for Companies Listed in Bursa Malaysia (pp. 275-280)
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Mohd Shahizan Othman and Lizawati Mi Yusuf, Faculty of Computer Science and Information System, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.
Juhana Salim, Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

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Abstract- This paper discusses a research on web document analysis for companies listed on Bursa Malaysia which is the forerunner of financial and investment center in Malaysia. Data set used in this research are from the company web documents listed in the Main Board and Second Board on Bursa Malaysia. This research has used the Web Resources Extraction System which was developed by the research group mainly to extract information for the web documents involved. Our research findings have shown that the level of website usage among the companies on Bursa Malaysia is still minimal. Furthermore, research has also found that 60.02% of the image files are utilized making it the most used type of file in creating websites.
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Keywords - Web Document Analysis; Malaysian Stock Market; Web Resources Extraction;
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Paper 25100939: A Reliable Replication Strategy for VoD System using Markov Chain (pp. 281-290)
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R. Ashok Kumar, Research Scholar, School of Computing Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India. 
K. Ganesan, Senior Professor, School of Computing Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India. 

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Abstract—In this paper we have investigated on the reliability of streams for a VoD system. The objective of the paper is to maximize the availability of streams for the peers in the VoD system. We have achieved this by using data replication technique in the peers. Hence, we proposed a new data replication technique to optimally store the videos in the peers. The new data replication technique generates more number of replicas than the existing techniques such as random, minimum request and maximize hit. We have also investigated by applying the CTMC model for the reliability of replications during the peer failures. Our result shows that the mean lifetime of replicas are more under various circumstances. We have addressed the practical issues of efficient utilization of overall bandwidth and buffer in the VoD system. We achieved greater success playback probability of videos than the existing techniques. 
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Keywords- Reliability; Availability; Video on Demand; Peer; Proxy Server; Replication, Bandwidth, Buffer.
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Paper 17090920: An Efficient Admission Control Algorithm for Load Balancing In Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks (pp. 291-296)
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Prof P.Harini, HOD, Department of IT, StAnns College of Engineering & Technology, Chirala, Andhra Pradesh.
Dr. O.B.V.Ramanaiah, Professor in CSE Department, JNTUCEA, Ananthpur, Andhra Pradesh.


Abstract— In hierarchical Mobile IPv6 networks, Mobility Anchor Point (MAP) may become a single point of bottleneck as it handles more and more mobile nodes (MNs). A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve load balancing among different MAPs. However, signaling reduction is still imperfect because these schemes also avoid the effect of the number of CN’s. Also only the balancing of MN is performed, but not the balancing of the actual traffic load, since CN of each MN may be different. This paper proposes an efficient admission control algorithm along with a replacement mechanism for HMIPv6 networks. The admission control algorithm is based on the number of serving CNs and achieves actual load balancing among MAPs. Moreover, a replacement mechanism is introduced to decrease the new MN blocking probability and the handoff MN dropping probability. By simulation results, we show that, the handoff delay and packet loss are reduced in our scheme, when compared with the standard HMIPv6 based handoff.

Keywords- Load balancing; Admission; Handoff; Replacement; Blocking probability;
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Paper 19110983: An ensemble approach for feature selection of Cyber Attack Dataset (pp. 297-302)
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Shailendra Singh, Department of Information Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Technological University, Bhopal, India
Sanjay Silakari, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Technological University, Bhopal, India

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Abstract— Feature selection is an indispensable pre-processing step when mining huge datasets that can significantly improve the overall system performance. Therefore in this paper we focus on a hybrid approach of feature selection. This method falls into two phases. The filter phase select the features with highest information gain and guides the initialization of search process for wrapper phase whose output the final feature subset. The final feature subsets are passed through the K-nearest neighbor classifier for classification of attacks. The effectiveness of this algorithm is demonstrated on DARPA KDDCUP99 cyber attack dataset.
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Keywords- Filter; Wrapper; Information gain; K-nearest neighbor; KDDCUP99;

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Paper 27100945: Short Term Load Forecasting Using Multi Parameter Regression (pp. 303-306)
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Mrs. J. P. Rothe Dr. A. K. Wadhwani Dr. Mrs. S. Wadhwani
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Abstract - Short Term Load forecasting in this paper uses input data dependent on parameters such as load for current hour and previous two hours, temperature for current hour and previous two hours, wind for current hour and previous two hours, cloud for current hour and previous two hours. Forecasting will be of load demand for coming hour based on input parameters at that hour. In this paper we are using multiparameter regression method for forecasting which has error within tolerable range. Algorithms implementing these forecasting techniques have been programmed using MATLAB and applied to the case study. Other methodologies in this area are ANN, Fuzzy and Evolutionary Algorithms for which investigations are under process. Adaptive multiparameter regression for load forecasting, in near future will be possible.
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Keywords: Weather parameters; regression; Load forecasting;
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Paper 31100968: Refactoring of a Database (pp. 307-315)
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Ayeesha D’Sousa, Computer Engineering Dept , TSEC ,Thadomal Shahani Engineering College, Bandra West, Mumbai 400 050 , India
Shalini Bhatia, Computer Engineering Dept , TSEC , Thadomal Shahani Engineering College, Bandra West, Mumbai 400 050 , India
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Abstract—The technique of database refactoring is all about applying disciplined and controlled techniques to change an existing database schema. The problem is to successfully create a Database Refactoring Framework for databases. This paper concentrates on the feasibility of adapting this concept to work as a generic template. To retain the constraints regardless of the modifications to the metadata, the paper proposes a MetaData Manipulation Tool to facilitate change. The tool adopts a Template Design Pattern to make it database independent. The paper presents a drawback of using java for constraint extraction and proposes an alternative.
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Keywords- Refactoring of a Database; template design pattern; SQL; data dictionary
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Paper 31100965: Genetic Programming Framework for Fingerprint Matching (pp. 316-321)
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Ismail A. Ismail, Dean, Faculty of Computers and informatics, Misr International University, Egypt
Nabawia A. ElRamly, Mohammed A. Abd-ElWahid, Passent M. ElKafrawy and Mohammed M. Nasef, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt 

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Abstract— A fingerprint matching is a very difficult problem. Minutiae-based-matching is the most popular and widely used technique for fingerprint matching. The minutiae points considered in automatic identification systems are based normally on termination and bifurcation points. In this paper we propose a new technique for fingerprint matching using minutiae points and genetic programming. The goal of this paper is extracting the mathematical formula that defines the minutiae points. 
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Index Terms— Fingerprint matching; minutiae points; genetic programming;
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Paper 31100977: Location Update Accuracy in Human Tracking system using Zigbee modules (pp. 322-331)
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B.Amutha, Research Scholar, SRM University, Chennai,Tamil Nadu,India.  
M.Ponnavaikko, Vice Chancellor, Bharathidasan University, Trichy,Tamil nadu,India


Abstract: A location and tracking system becomes very important to our future world of pervasive computing. An algorithm for accurate location information is being incorporated in the human walking model and in the blind human walking model. We want to implement an accurate location tracking mechanism using Zigbee along with GPS, we have incorporated Markov chain algorithm for establishing accuracy. Normal Human and blind human walking steps were actually taken in the known environment within our campus and the Markov chain algorithm was used for smoothening the stepwise variation in location updates. A comparison module is also implemented to show the difference between normal human and blind human walking step variations. This accuracy is used for designing a blind tracking device so that the device can be used by the blind for finding the path without obstacles. We present a system level approach to localizing and tracking Human and blind users on a basis of different sources of location information [GPS + Zigbee]. The system can be applied outdoors especially for avoiding accidents, GPS as the source of location data. Performance evaluation shows that the system is accurate and it is a future path finding device with service for the blind.

Keywords: Localization; context awareness; blind walk; normal walk; Zigbee; GPS;
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Paper 23100932: Performance Evaluation of WiMAX (802.16) Using Different Encoding Schemes (pp. 332-336)
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Waqar Asif, Muhammad Bilal Qasim, Syed Musa Raza Tirmzi, Usman Muhammad Khan 
Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan


Abstract— This paper deals with the performance of Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), when we enhance its physical layer attributes with help of different encoding techniques. For this evaluation Space Time Block Codes (STBC) and Turbo codes are separately introduced into the architecture of WiMAX that works on adaptive modulation technique. 

Keywords- WiMAX; Adaptive Modulation; Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing; Guard Band; Inverse Fourier Transform; Space Time Block Codes; Maximum Likelihood Detector; Turbo Codes; Interleaver; Log Map Decoder;
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