Vol. 6 No. 1 OCT 2009

International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication October 2009, Volume 6 No. 1 (Download Full Journal)

Copyright © 2009-2010 IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Paper 30080931: A New Fuzzy Approach for Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm (pp. 001-005)
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Abbas Karimi1,2,3, Faraneh Zarafshan 1,3, Adznan b. Jantan1,A.R. Ramli1, M. Iqbal b.Saripan1
1Department of Computer Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UPM, Malaysia
2Computer Department, Faculty of Engineering, IAU, Arak, Iran
3Young Researchers’ Club, IAU, Arak, Iran

Abstract— Load balancing is the process of improving the Performance of a parallel and distributed system through is distribution of load among the processors [1-2]. Most of the previous work in load balancing and distributed decision making in general, do not effectively take into account the uncertainty and inconsistency in state information but in fuzzy logic, we have advantage of using crisps inputs. In this paper,
we present a new approach for implementing dynamic load balancing algorithm with fuzzy logic, which can face to uncertainty and inconsistency of previous algorithms, further more our algorithm shows better response time than round robin and randomize algorithm respectively 30.84% and 45.45%.

Keywords- Load balancing, Fuzzy logic, Distributed systems.
Paper 11090911: Knowledge Extraction for Discriminating Male and Female in Logical Reasoning from Student Model (pp. 006-015)
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A. E. E. ElAlfi, Dept. of Computer Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura Egypt, 35516
M. E. ElAlami, Dept. of Computer Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura Egypt, 35516
Y. M. Asem, Dept. of Computer Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudia Arabia. 

Abstract: The learning process is a process of communication and interaction between the teacher and his students on one side and between the students and each others on the other side. Interaction of the teacher with his students has a great importance in the process of learning and education. The pattern and style of this interaction is determined by the educational situation, trends and concerns, and educational characteristics. 
Classroom interaction has an importance and a big role in increasing the efficiency of the learning process and raising the achievement levels of students. Students need to learn skills and habits of study, especially at the university level. The effectiveness of learning is affected by several factors that include the prevailing patterns of interactive behavior in the classroom. These patterns are reflected in the activities of teacher and learners during the learning process. The effectiveness of learning is also influenced by the cognitive and non cognitive characteristics of teacher that help him to succeed, the characteristics of learners, teaching subject, and the teaching methods. 
This paper presents a machine learning algorithm for extracting knowledge from student model. The proposed algorithm utilizes the inherent characteristic of genetic algorithm and neural network for extracting comprehensible rules from the student database. The knowledge is used for discriminating male and female levels in logical reasoning as a part of an expert system course. 

Keywords: Knowledge extraction, Student model, Expert system, Logical reasoning, Classroom interaction, Genetic algorithm, Neural network.
Paper 30090953: A Mirroring Theorem and its Application to a New Method of Unsupervised Hierarchical Pattern Classification (pp. 016-025)
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Dasika Ratna Deepthi, Department of Computer Science, Aurora’s Engineering College, Bhongir, Nalgonda Dist., A.P., India. 
K. Eswaran, Department of Computer Science, Srinidhi Institute of Science and Technology, Yamnampet, Ghatkesar, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract— In this paper, we prove a crucial theorem called “Mirroring Theorem” which affirms that given a collection of samples with enough information in it such that it can be classified into classes and sub-classes then (i) There exists a mapping which classifies and subclassifies these samples (ii) There exists a hierarchical classifier which can be constructed by using Mirroring Neural Networks (MNNs) in combination with a clustering algorithm that can approximate this mapping. Thus, the proof of the Mirroring theorem provides a theoretical basis for the existence and a practical feasibility of constructing hierarchical classifiers, given the maps. Our proposed Mirroring Theorem can also be considered as an extension to Kolmogrov’s theorem in providing a realistic solution for unsupervised classification. The techniques we develop, are general in nature and have led to the construction of learning machines which are (i) tree like in structure, (ii) modular (iii) with each module running on a common algorithm (tandem algorithm) and (iv) self-supervised. We have actually built the architecture, developed the tandem algorithm of such a hierarchical classifier and demonstrated it on an example problem. 

Keywords-Hierarchical Unsupervised Pattern Recognition; Mirroring theorem; classifier; Mirroring Neural Networks; feature extraction; Tandem Algorithm; self-supervised learning.
Paper 30090938: Algorithm as Defining Dynamic Systems (pp. 026-028)
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Keehang Kwon, Department of Computer Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan, Republic of Korea
Hong Pyo Ha, Department of Computer Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan, Republic of Korea

Abstract—This paper proposes a new view to algorithms: Algorithms as defining dynamic systems. This view extends the traditional, deterministic view that an algorithm is a step-by-step procedure with nondeterminism. As a dynamic system can be designed by a set of its defining laws, it is also desirable to design an algorithm by a (possibly nondeterministic) set of defining laws. This observation requires some changes to algorithm development. We propose a two-step approach: the first step is to design an algorithm via a set of defining laws of dynamic system. The second step is to translate these laws (written in a natural language) into a formal language such as linear logic. 

Key words: dynamic, systems, algorithm, nondeterminisim, linear logic.
Paper 30090957: A Wavelet-Based Digital Watermarking for Video (pp. 029-033)
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A.Essaouabi and F.regragui, Department of physics, LIMIARF Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences Mohammed V University Rabat, Morocco 
E.Ibnelhaj, Image laboratory, National Institute of Posts and Telecommunications, Rabat, Morocco  

Abstract— A novel video watermarking system operating in the three-dimensional wavelet transform is here presented. Specifically the video sequence is partitioned into spatio-temporal units and the single shots are projected onto the 3D wavelet domain. First a gray- scale watermark image is decomposed into a series of bitplanes that are preprocessed with a random location matrix. After that the preprocessed bitplanes are adaptively spread spectrum and added in 3D wavelet coefficients of the video shot. Our video watermarking algorithm is robust against the attacks of frame dropping, averaging and swapping. Furthermore, it allows blind retrieval of embedded watermark which does not need the original video and the watermark is perceptually invisible. The algorithm design, evaluation, and experimentation of the proposed scheme are described in this paper.

Keywords-component; video watermarking; security; copyright protection; wavelet transform
Paper 15090916: A Cost Effective RFID Based Customized DVD-ROM to Thwart Software Piracy (pp. 034-039)
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Prof. Sudip Dogra, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata, India
Ritwik Ray, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata, India
Prof. Subir Kr. Sarkar, Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India
Saustav Ghosh, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata, India 
Debharshi Bhattacharya, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology Kolkata, India

Abstract—Software piracy has been a very perilous adversary of the software-based industry, from the very beginning of the development of the latter into a significant business. There has been no developed foolproof system that has been developed to appropriately tackle this vile issue. We have in our scheme tried to develop a way to embark upon this problem using a very recently developed technology of RFID.

Keywords- DVD, DVD-ROM, Piracy, RFID, Reader, Software, Tag
Paper 30090954: A O(|E|) Time Shortest Path Algorithm For Non- Negative Weighted Undirected Graphs (pp. 040-046)
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Muhammad Aasim Qureshi, Dr. Fadzil B. Hassan, Sohail Safdar, Rehan Akbar,
Computer And Information Science Department, University Technologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia

Abstract— In most of the shortest path problems like vehicle routing problems and network routing problems, we only need an efficient path between two points—source and destination, and it is not necessary to calculate the shortest path from source to all other nodes. This paper concentrates on this very idea and presents an algorithm for calculating shortest path for (i) nonnegative weighted undirected graphs (ii) unweighted undirected graphs. The algorithm completes its execution in O(|E|) for all graphs except few in which longer path (in terms of number of edges) from source to some node makes it best selection for that node. The main advantage of the algorithms is its simplicity and it does not need complex data structures for implementations.

Keywords-component; Shortest Path, Directed Graphs, Undirected Graphs, Algorithm, Theoretical Computer Science
Paper 30090956: Biologically Inspired Execution Framework for Vulnerable Workflow Systems (pp. 047-051)
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Sohail Safdar, Mohd. Fadzil B. Hassan, Muhammad Aasim Qureshi, Rehan Akbar
Department of Computer & Information Sciences,Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia

Abstract—The main objective of the research is to introduce a biologically inspired execution framework for workflow systems under threat due to some intrusion attack. Usually vulnerable systems need to be stop and put into wait state, hence to insure the data security and privacy while being recovered. This research ensures the availability of services and data to the end user by keeping the data security, privacy and integrity intact. To achieve the specified goals, the behavior of chameleons and concept of hibernation has been considered in combination. Hence the workflow systems become more robust using biologically inspired methods and remain available to the business consumers safely even in a vulnerable state.

Keywords— IDS (Intrusion Detection System), WFMS (Workflow Management Systems), Chameleon, Hibernation.
Paper 29090936: RCFT : Re-Clustering Formation Technique in Hierarchical Sensor Network (pp. 052-055)
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 Boseung Kim, Joohyun Lee, Yongtae Shin, Department of Computing, Soongsil University Seoul, South Korea
Abstract— Because of limited energy of nodes, an important issue for sensor network is efficient use of the energy. The clustering technique reduces energy consumption as cluster head sends sensed information to a sink node. Because of such character of clustering technique, electing cluster head is an important element for networks. This paper proposes RCFT (Re-Clustering Formation Technique) that reconstruct clusters in hierarchical sensor networks. RCFT is a protocol that reconstructed clusters considering position of a cluster head and nodes in randomly constructed clusters. And this paper demonstrated that clusters are composed evenly through simulation, accordingly this simulation shows the result reducing energy consumption. 

Keywords-Wireless Sensor Networks, Clustering
Paper 28090931: An Alternative To Common Content Management Techniques (pp. 056-060)
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Rares Vasilescu, Computer Science and Engineering Department, Faculty of Automatic Control and Computers, Politehnica University, Bucharest, Romania

Abstract— Content management systems use various strategies to store and manage information. One of the most usual methods encountered in commercial products is to make use of the file system to store the raw content information, while the associated metadata is kept synchronized in a relational database management system. This strategy has its advantages but we believe it also has significant limitations which should be addressed and eventually solved. In this paper we propose an alternative method of storing and managing content aiming at finding solutions for current limitations both in terms of functional and nonfunctional requirements. 

Keywords- CMS; content management; performance; architecture
Paper 29090937: Routing Technique Based on Clustering for Data Duplication Prevention in Wireless Sensor Network (pp. 061-065)
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Boseung Kim, Huibin Lim, Yongtae Shin, Department of Computing, Soongsil University Seoul, South Korea

Abstract— Wireless Sensor Networks is important to node’s energy consumption for long activity of sensor nodes because nodes that compose sensor network are small size, and battery capacity is limited. For energy consumption decrease of sensor nodes, sensor network’s routing technique is divided by flat routing and hierarchical routing technique. Specially, hierarchical routing technique is energy-efficient routing protocol to pare down energy consumption of whole sensor nodes and to scatter energy consumption of sensor nodes by forming cluster and communicating with cluster head. but though hierarchical routing technique based on clustering is advantage more than flat routing technique, this is not used for reason that is not realistic. The reason that is not realistic is because hierarchical routing technique does not consider data transmission radius of sensor node in actually. so this paper propose realistic routing technique base on clustering. 

Keywords- Wireless Sensor Networks, Clustering 

Paper 11090910: An Optimal Method For Wake Detection In SAR Images Using Radon Transformation Combined With Wavelet Filters (pp. 066-069)
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Ms. M. Krishnaveni, Lecturer (SG), Department of Computer Science, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, India.
Mr. Suresh Kumar Thakur, Deputy Director, Naval Research Board-DRDO, New Delhi, India.
Dr. P. Subashini, Research Assistant-NRB, Department of Computer Science, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, India

Abstract -A new-fangled method for ship wake detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is explored here. Most of the detection procedure applies the Radon transform as its properties outfit more than any other transformation for the detection purpose. But still it holds problems when the transform is applied to an image with a high level of noise. Here this paper articulates the combination between the radon transformation and the shrinkage methods which increase the mode of wake detection process. The latter shrinkage method with RT maximize the signal to noise ratio hence it leads to most optimal detection of lines in the SAR images. The originality mainly works on the denoising segment of the proposed algorithm. Experimental work outs are carried over both in simulated and real SAR images. The detection process is more adequate with the proposed method and improves better than the conventional methods. 

Keywords: SAR images, threshold, radon transformation, Signal to noise ratio, denoising
Paper 30090948: AES Implementation and Performance Evaluation on 8-bit Microcontrollers (pp. 070-074)
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Hyubgun Lee, Kyounghwa Lee, Yongtae Shin, Department of Computing, Soongsil University Seoul, South Korea

Abstract— The sensor network is a network technique for the implementation of Ubiquitous computing environment. It is wireless network environment that consists of the many sensors of lightweight and low-power. Though sensor network provides various capabilities, it is unable to ensure the secure authentication between nodes. Eventually it causes the losing reliability of the entire network and many secure problems. Therefore, encryption algorithm for the implementation of reliable sensor network environments is required to the applicable sensor network. In this paper, we proposed the solution of reliable sensor network to analyze the communication efficiency through measuring performance of AES encryption algorithm by plaintext size, and cost of operation per hop according to the network scale.

Keywords-component; Wireless Sensor Networks; AES algorithm; 8-bit Microcontroller;
Paper 30090942: GoS Proposal to Improve Trust and Delay of MPLS Flows for MCN Services (pp. 075-082)
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Francisco J. Rodríguez-Pérez, Computer Science Dept., Area of Telematics Engineering, University of ExtremaduraCáceres, Spain
José-Luis González-Sánchez, Computer Science Dept., Area of Telematics Engineering, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain
Alfonso Gazo-Cervero, Computer Science Dept., Area of Telematics Engineering, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain

Abstract—In this article, Guarantee of Service (GoS) is defined as a proposal to improve the integration of Mission Critical Networking (MCN) services in the Internet, analyzing the congestion impact on those privileged flows with high requirements of trust and delay. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a technology that offers flow differentiation and QoS in the Internet. Therefore, in order to improve network
performance in case of congested domains, GoS is proposed as a technique that allows the local recovering of lost packets of MPLS privileged flows. To fulfill the GoS requirements for integration of MCN in MPLS, a minimum set of extensions to RSVP-TE has been proposed to provide GoS capable routes. Moreover, we have carried out an analytical study of GoS scalability and a performance improvement analysis by means of simulations.

Keywords- MPLS, congestion, trust, RSVP-TE, Guarantee of Service, local re-transmissions
Paper 30090963: Novel Intrusion Detection using Probabilistic Neural Network and Adaptive Boosting (pp. 083-091)
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Tich Phuoc Tran & Longbing Cao, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Dat Tran, Faculty of Information Sciences and Engineering University of Canberra, Australia
Cuong Duc Nguyen, School of Computer Science and Engineering, International University, HCMC, Vietnam

Abstract— This article applies Machine Learning techniques to solve Intrusion Detection problems within
computer networks. Due to complex and dynamic nature of computer networks and hacking techniques, detecting malicious activities remains a challenging task for security experts, that is, currently available defense systems suffer from low detection capability and high number of false alarms. To overcome such performance limitations, we propose a novel Machine Learning algorithm, namely Boosted Subspace Probabilistic Neural Network (BSPNN), which integrates an adaptive boosting technique and a semi-parametric neural network to obtain good trade-off between accuracy and generality. As the result, learning bias and generalization variance can be significantly minimized. Substantial experiments on KDD-99 intrusion benchmark indicate that our model outperforms other state-of-the-art learning algorithms, with significantly improved detection accuracy, minimal false alarms and relatively small computational complexity.

Keywords- Intrusion Detection, Neural Network, Adaptive Boosting
Paper 04090940: Building a Vietnamese Language Query Processing Framework for e-Library Searching Systems (pp. 092-096)
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Dang Tuan Nguyen, & Ha Quy-Tinh Luong, Faculty of Computer Science, University of Information Technology, VNU- HCM, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam
Tuyen Thi-Thanh Do, Faculty of Software Engineering, University of Information Technology, VNU – HCM, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam

Abstract—In the objective of building intelligent searching systems for e-libraries or online bookstores, we have proposed a searching system model based on a Vietnamese language query processing component. Such document searching systems based on this model can allow users to use Vietnamese queries that represent content information as input, instead of entering keywords for searching in specific fields in database. To simplify the realization process of system based on this searching system model, we set a
target of building a framework to support the rapid development of Vietnamese language query processing components. Such framework let the implementation of Vietnamese language query processing component in similar systems in this domain to be done more easily.

Keyword— Natural language processing; document retrieval; search engine.
Paper 04090902: Detecting Botnet Activities Based on Abnormal DNS traffic (pp. 097-104)
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Ahmed M. Manasrah & Awsan Hasan, National Advanced IPv6 Center of Excellence, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Omar Amer Abouabdalla, & Sureswaran Ramadass, National Advanced IPv6 Center of Excellence, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Abstract— The botnet is considered as a critical issue of the Internet due to its fast growing mechanism and affect. Recently, Botnets have utilized the DNS and query DNS server just like any legitimate hosts. In this case, it is difficult to distinguish between the legitimate DNS traffic and illegitimate DNS traffic. It is important to build a suitable solution for botnet detection in the DNS traffic and consequently protect the network from the malicious Botnets activities. In this paper, a simple mechanism is proposed to monitors the DNS traffic and detects the abnormal DNS traffic issued by the botnet based on the fact that botnets appear as a group of hosts periodically. The proposed mechanism is also able to classify the DNS traffic requested by group of hosts (group behavior) and single hosts (individual behavior), consequently detect the abnormal domain name issued by the malicious Botnets. Finally, the experimental results proved that the proposed mechanism is robust and able to classify DNS traffic, and efficiently detects the botnet activity with average detection rate of 89%.

Keywords- Botnet detection, Network threat detection, Network worm detection.
Paper 30090934: SOAP Serialization Performance Enhancement - Design And Implementation Of A Middleware (pp. 105-110) 
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Behrouz Minaei, Computer Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran 
Parinaz Saadat, Computer Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract—The most straightforward way to improve performance of any system is to define the bottlenecks and think of ways to remove them. Web services are the inseparable part of any web application, as a result enhancing performance of web services will have a great effect on the overall performance of the system. The most widely used communication protocol in the web services model, SOAP, is a simple protocol for the exchange of messages. The serialization of large SOAP responses is a major performance bottleneck in a SOAP message exchange.  
Clearly, some web servers can expect to receive many similar messages for a particular web service as they share the same signature. The idea behind this paper is to avoid the redundant serialization stage of SOAP responses for request which have the same call parameters. The technique exploits the similarities between call parameters to improve web service Response Time by avoiding redundant serialization of the same response with the help of a middleware running on top of web server. The middleware will maintain a trie of incoming parameters for every set of current requests. This way request processing and serialization of the response of same requests will be done only once. 
In a nutshell, to serialize only the different responses is the simplest way to avoid extra work done by a serializer. It might worth noting that although our approach is to utilize the exact repeating portion parameters, the middleware can be configured to apply changes made to the result set of response to the serialized response being maintained in a trie to generate valid results. 

Keywords: Web Sercives,Performance,Middleware,Serialization
Paper 30090964: Breast Cancer Detection Using Multilevel Thresholding (pp. 111-115)
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Y. Ireaneus Anna Rejani, Noorul Islam College of Engineering, Kumaracoil,, Tamilnadu, India.
Dr.S.Thamarai Selvi, Professor & Head, Department of Information and technology, MIT, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract— This paper presents an algorithm which aims to assist the radiologist in identifying breast cancer at its earlier stages. It combines several image processing techniques like image negative, thresholding and segmentation techniques for detection of tumor in mammograms. The algorithm is verified by using mammograms from Mammographic Image Analysis Society. The results obtained by applying these techniques are described.

Keywords- Image negative, thresholding, segmentation.
Paper 30090943. Energy Efficient Security Architecture for Wireless Bio-Medical Sensor Networks (pp. 116-122)
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Rajeswari Mukesh, Dept of Computer Science & Engg, Easwari Engineering College, Chennai- 600 089
Dr. A. Damodaram, Vice Principal, JNTU College of Engineering, Hyderabad-500 072
Dr. V. Subbiah Bharathi, Dean Academics, DMI College of engineering, Chennai-601 302

Abstract - Latest developments in VLSI, wireless communications, and biomedical sensing devices allow very small, lightweight, low power, intelligent sensing devices called biosensors. A set of these devices can be integrated into a Wireless Biomedical Sensor Network (WBSN), a new breakthrough technology used in telemedicine for monitoring the physiological condition of an individual. The biosensor nodes in WBSN has got resource limitations in terms of battery lifetime, CPU processing capability, and memory capacity.
Replacement or recharging of batteries on thousands of biosensor nodes is quiet difficult or too costly. So, a key challenge in wireless biomedical sensor networks is the reduction of energy and memory consumption. Considering, the sensitivity of information in WBSN, we must provide security and patient privacy, as it is an important issue in the design of such systems. Hence this paper proposes an energy efficient security protocol for WBSN where security is provided to the physiological data, which is being transmitted from the sensor node to the sink device. This is achieved by authenticating the data using patients biometric , encrypting the data using Quasi Group cryptography after compressing the image data using an energy efficient number theory based technique. 

Keywords - Wireless Biomedical Sensor Networks, Chinese remainder Theorem, Heart Rate Variability, QRS complex, Quasigroup Encryption, Latin Squares
Paper 29090933: Software Security Rules: SDLC Perspective (pp. 123-128)
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C. Banerjee, S. K. Pandey 
Department of Information Technology, Board of Studies, The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Noida- 201301, INDIA

Abstract---Software has become an integral part of everyday life. Everyday, millions of people perform transaction through internet, ATM, mobile phone, they send email & e-greetings, and use word processing and spreadsheet for various purpose. People use software bearing in mind that it is reliable and can be trust upon and the operation they perform is secured. Now, if these software have exploitable security hole then how can they be safe for use. Security brings value to software in terms of people’s trust. The value provided by secure software is of vital importance because many critical functions are entirely dependent on the software. That is why security is a serious topic which should be given proper attention during the entire SDLC, ‘right from the beginning’. For the proper implementation of security in the software, twenty one security rules are proposed in this paper along with validation results. It is found that by applying these rules as per given implementation mechanism, most of the vulnerabilities are eliminated in the software and a more secure software can be built.

Keywords-Security rules, Security rules in SDLC, Software Security
Paper 10080908: An Entropy Architecture for Defending Distributed Denial-of-service Attacks (pp. 129-136)
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Meera Gandhi, Research Scholar, Department of CSE, Sathyabama University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
S. K. Srivatsa, Professor, Sathyabama University, ICE, St.Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

Abstract - The goal of intrusion detection is to identify entities attempting to destabilize the security controls. Network based intrusion detection techniques are used to identify unauthorized, illicit and anomalous behavior based on the network traffic. Identifying the network intruders is the most significant problem for network administrators and network security experts. Intrusion detection systems are an important component of defensive measures protecting computer systems and networks from abuse. New threats are emerging at an increasing rate. Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks have emerged as a popular means of causing mass damage. The impacts of DoS attack will cause greater collateral damage. DoS attacks remain a serious threat to the users, organizations, and infrastructures of the Internet. The approaches used in the existing defense techniques are based on traffic characteristics such as traffic deviation, attack pattern matching etc, which may not yield accurate detection and involves high complexity. In this paper, the router based entropy algorithm has been designed to improve the performance and protection from the distributed denial-of-service attacks. This work includes attack tree construction, attacks detection and clustering of alerts. By calculating the predicted entropy for a router, alerts are raised for flows in which the predicted entropy is more than a threshold value. Then the alerts are grouped into different clusters according to their source, target, time and attack-type. It helps to avoid group redundant alerts and to associate alerts that are of the same nature. By Simulation results, it has been shown that the proposed architecture improves the detection accuracy and throughput while reducing the alert overhead. In this paper, we have explored the current research potential in terms of security, throughput performance of the router and impact of DoS attack technology based on intruder activity and attack tools. 

Key words: Intruders, denial of service, attacks, router entropy; attack tree, attack type
Paper 30090951: A Context-based Trust Management Model for Pervasive Computing Systems (pp. 137-142)
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Negin Razavi, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran 
Amir Masoud Rahmani, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran 
Mehran Mohsenzadeh, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran 

Abstract—Trust plays an important role in making collaborative decisions about service evaluation and service selection in pervasive computing. Context is a fundamental concept in pervasive systems, which is based on the interpretation of environment and systems. The dynamic nature of context can strongly affect trust management and service selection. In this paper, we present a context-based trust management model for pervasive computing systems. The concept of context is considered in basic components of the model such as trust computation module, recommender assessment module, transaction management module, and request responder. In order to measure a predicted trustworthiness according to the fuzzy nature of trust in pervasive environments, fuzzy concepts are integrated in the proposed model.  

Keywords-Pervasive Computing Systems; Context; Trust Management; Privacy; Service Selection.
Paper 30090958: Proposed platform for improving grid security by trust management system (pp. 143-148)
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Safieh Siadat, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Amir Masoud Rahmani, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Mehran Mohsenzadeh, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

Abstract— With increasing the applications of grid system, the risk in security field is enhancing too. Recently Trust management system has been recognized as a noticeable approach in enhancing of security in grid systems. In this article due to improve the grid security a new trust management system with two levels is proposed. The benefits of this platform are adding new domain in grid system, selecting one service provider which has closest adaption with user requests and using from domains security attribute as an important factor in computing the trust value.

Keywords- trust, grid, platform, security, component.
Paper 24090928: An Innovative Scheme For Effectual Fingerprint Data Compression Using Bezier Curve Representations (pp. 149-157)
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Vani Perumal, Department of Computer Applications, S.A.Engineering College, Chennai – 600 077, India.
Dr.Jagannathan Ramaswamy, Deputy Registrar (Education), Vinayaka Missions University, Chennai, India.

Abstract— Naturally, with the mounting application of biometric systems, there arises a difficulty in storing and handling those acquired biometric data. Fingerprint recognition has been recognized as one of the most mature and established technique among all the biometrics systems. In recent times, with fingerprint recognition receiving increasingly more attention the amount of fingerprints collected has been constantly creating enormous problems in storage and transmission. Henceforth, the compression of fingerprints has emerged as an indispensable step in automated fingerprint recognition systems. Several researchers have presented approaches for fingerprint image compression. In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient scheme for fingerprint image compression. The presented scheme utilizes the Bezier curve representations for effective compression of fingerprint images. Initially, the ridges present in the fingerprint image are extracted along with their co-ordinate values using the approach presented. Subsequently, the control points are determined for all the ridges by visualizing each ridge as a Bezier curve. The control points of all the ridges determined are stored and are used to represent the fingerprint image. When needed, the fingerprint image is reconstructed from the stored control points using Bezier curves. The quality of the reconstructed fingerprint is determined by a formal evaluation. The proposed scheme achieves considerable memory reduction in storing the fingerprint.

Keywords-Biometrics; Fingerprint; Orientation field; Minutiae points; Ridges; Compression; Bezier curves; Control points.
Paper 30090946: Exception Agent Detection System for IP Spoofing Over Online Environments (pp. 158-164)
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Al-Sammarraie Hosam , Center for IT and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia 
Adli Mustafa, School of Mathematical sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia 
Shakeel Ahmad, School of Mathematical sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Institute of Computing and Information Technology, Gomal University, Pakistan, Penang, Malaysia
Merza Abbas, Center for IT and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia 

Abstract—Over the recent years, IP and email spoofing gained much importance for security concerns due to the current changes in manipulating the system performance in different online environments. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has been used to secure these environments for sharing their data over network and host based IDS approaches. However, the rapid growth of intrusion events over Internet and local area network become responsible for the distribution of different threats and vulnerabilities in the computing systems. The current signature detection approach used by IDS, detects unclear actions based on analyzing and describing the action patterns such as time, text, password etc and has been faced difficulties in updating information, detect unknown novel attacks, maintenance of an IDS which is necessarily connected with analyzing and patching of security holes, and the lack of information on user privileges and attack signature structure. Thus, this paper proposes an EADS (Exception agent detection system) for securing the header information carried by IP over online environments. The study mainly concerns with the deployment of new technique for detecting and eliminating the unknown threats attacks during the data sharing over online environments.

Keywords- component; IP spoofing; Intrusion detection system; Exception agent system; Local area network.
Paper 31070957: A Trust-Based Cross-Layer Security Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (pp. 165-172)
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A. Rajaram, Anna University, Coimbatore, India
Dr. S. Palaniswami, Anna University, Coimbatore

Abstract—In this paper, we develop a trust based security protocol based on a cross-layer approach which attains confidentiality and authentication of packets in both routing and link layers of MANETs. In the first phase of the protocol, we design a trust based packet forwarding scheme for detecting and isolating the malicious nodes using the routing layer information. It uses trust values to favor packet forwarding by maintaining a trust counter for each node. A node is punished or rewarded by decreasing or increasing the trust counter. If the trust counter value falls below a trust threshold, the corresponding intermediate node is marked as malicious. In the next phase of the protocol, we provide link-layer security using the CBC-X mode of authentication and encryption. By simulation results, we show that the proposed cross-layer security protocol achieves high packet delivery ratio while attaining low delay and overhead.

Keywords- MANETs; Cross-Layer; Security Protocol; Encryption; authentication; Packet Delivery; Overhead.
Paper 30090944: Generalized Discriminant Analysis algorithm for feature reduction in Cyber Attack Detection System (pp. 173-180)
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Shailendra Singh, Department of Information Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Technological University, Bhopal, India
Sanjay Silakari, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Technological University, Bhopal, India

Abstract—This Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) has provided an extremely powerful approach to extracting non-linear features. The network traffic data provided for the design of intrusion detection system always are large with ineffective information, thus we need to remove the worthless information from the original high dimensional database. To improve the generalization ability, we usually generate a small set of features from the original input variables by feature extraction. The conventional Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) feature reduction technique has its limitations. It is not suitable for non-linear dataset. Thus we propose an efficient algorithm based on the Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) feature reduction technique which is novel approach used in the area of cyber attack detection. This not only reduces the number of the input features but also increases the classification accuracy and reduces the training and testing time of the classifiers by selecting most discriminating features. We use Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and C4.5 classifiers to compare the performance of the proposed technique. The result indicates the superiority of algorithm.

Keywords-Linear Discriminant Analysis, Generalized Discriminant Analysis, Artificial Neural Network, C4.5.

Paper 12090913: Management of Location Based Advertisement Services using Spatial Triggers in Cellular Networks (pp. 181-185)
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M. Irfan , M.M. Tahir N. Baig, Furqan H. Khan, Raheel M. Hashmi, Khurram Shehzad, Assad Ali
Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract- This paper discusses the advent of new technologies which have emerged under the area of Location Based Services (LBS). An innovative implementation and approach has been presented for design of applications which are inventive and attractive towards the user. Spatial Trigger is one of the most promising additions to the LBS technologies. This paper describes ways in which mobile advertisement services can be introduced effectively in the cellular market by bringing innovation in them through effective usage of Spatial Triggers. Hence, opening new horizons to make the consumer cellular networks, commercially, more effective and informative. 

Keywords-Location based services; GSM; Wireless Communication; 3G and 4G Technologies; Spatial triggers.
Paper 05090904: A Way to Understand Various Patterns of Data Mining Techniques for Selected Domains (pp. 186-191)
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Dr. Kanak Saxena, Computer Applications, SATI, Vidisha  
D.S Rajpoot, UIT, RGPV, Bhopal

Abstract: This has much in common with traditional work in statistics and machine learning. However, there are important new issues which arise because of the sheer size of the data. One of the important problem in data mining is the Classification-rule learning which involves finding rules that partition given data into predefined classes. In the data mining domain where millions of records and a large number of attributes are involved, the execution time of existing algorithms can become prohibitive, particularly in interactive applications.

Keywords: Data mining, machine learning