Vol. 5, SEPTEMBER 2009

International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security

Publication September 2009, Volume 5 (Download Full Journal)
Copyright © 2009 IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Paper 22070916: Robustness of the Digital Image Watermarking Techniques against Brightness and Rotation Attack
Full Text: PDF

Harsh K Verma, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India
Abhishek Narain Singh, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India
Raman Kumar, 
Singh, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India

Abstract- The recent advent in the field of multimedia proposed a many facilities in transport, transmission and manipulation of data. Along with this advancement of facilities there are larger threats in authentication of data, its licensed use and protection against illegal use of data. A lot of digital image watermarking techniques have been designed and implemented to stop the illegal use of the digital multimedia images. This paper compares the robustness of three different watermarking schemes against brightness and rotation attacks. The robustness of the watermarked images has been verified on the parameters of PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) and MAE (Mean Absolute Error). 
Keywords- Watermarking, Spread Spectrum, Fingerprinting, Copyright Protection.
Paper 30070945: ODMRP with Quality of Service and local recovery with security Support
Full Text: PDF

Farzane kabudvand
Computer Engineering Department zanjan, Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

In this paper we focus on one critical issue in mobile ad hoc networks that is multicast routing and propose a mesh based ”on demand” multicast routing protocol for Ad-Hoc networks with QoS (quality of service) support. Then a model was presented which is used for create a local recovering mechanism in order to joining the nodes to multi sectional groups at the minimized time and method for security in this protocol we present .  


Paper 29060952: An Empirical Comparative Study of Checklist-based and Ad Hoc Code Reading Techniques in a Distributed Groupware Environment
Olalekan S. Akinola and Adenike O. Osofisan
Department of Computer Science, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Abstract - Software inspection is a necessary and important tool for software quality assurance. Since it was introduced by Fagan at IBM in 1976, arguments exist as to which method should be adopted to carry out the exercise, whether it should be paper-based or tool-based, and what reading technique should be used on the inspection document. Extensive works have been done to determine the effectiveness of reviewers in paper-based environment when using ad hoc and checklist reading techniques. In this work, we take the software inspection research further by examining whether there is going to be any significant difference in defect detection effectiveness of reviewers when they use either ad hoc or checklist reading techniques in a distributed groupware environment. Twenty final year undergraduate students of computer science, divided into ad hoc and checklist reviewers groups of ten members each were employed to inspect a medium-sized java code synchronously on groupware deployed on the Internet. The data obtained were subjected to tests of hypotheses using independent t-test and correlation coefficients. Results from the study indicate that there are no significant differences in the defect detection effectiveness, effort in terms of time taken in minutes and false positives reported by the reviewers using either ad hoc or checklist based reading techniques in the distributed groupware environment studied.

Key words: Software Inspection, Ad hoc, Checklist, groupware.

Paper 01080901: Design and Experimental Analysis of High Performance Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Broadband Communication

Raheel M. Hashmi, Arooj M. Siddiqui, Memoona Jabeen, Dr Shahzad A. Malik, Dr Shahid A. Khan
Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract—Antennas have fundamental importance in the field of wireless communication systems. With advances in miniature design for communicating devices and broadband technologies, needs for low-cost and small sized antennas supporting broadband communications have grown like never before. In this paper, we present a simple and very low-cost design of a wideband micro patch antenna for operation in the broadband wireless spectrum. The proposed design has been optimized using quarter-wave strip-line approach to provide high performance at
a wide functional bandwidth while minimizing reflection effects. The design has been fabricated and the prototype been analyzed using the results from Network Analyzer. The results of the analysis suggest that the characteristics of the fabricated prototype comply with the simulated outcomes. Hence, the proposed design proves to be simple, scalable and very low-cost with provision of optimum features by combining the advantages of broadband communication with micro-strip design.

Keywords-Broadband Communication; Micro-strip lines; Radio Frequency, Radiation Pattern;
Paper 04080902: Improving Effectiveness Of E-Learning In Maintenance Using Interactive-3D
Full Text: PDF
Lt.Dr.S Santhosh Baboo, Reader, P.G. & Research Dept of Computer Science, D.G.Vaishnav College, Chennai 106
Nikhil Lobo, Research Scholar, Bharathiar University

Abstract: In aerospace and defense, training is being carried out on the web by viewing PowerPoint presentations, manuals and videos that are limited in their ability to convey information to the technician. Interactive training in the form of 3D is a more cost effective approach compared to creation of physical simulations and mockups. This paper demonstrates how training using interactive 3D simulations in e-learning achieves a reduction in the time spent in training and improves the efficiency of a trainee performing the installation or removal.
Keywords: Interactive 3D, E-Learning, Training, Simulation

Paper 04080903: A Study Of Forensic Watermarking In Audio / Video Signals

Prasina.A, Asst. Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
VelTech Multitech Dr.Rangarajan Dr.Sakunthala Engineering College, Avadi 

Bhavani.S, Evelin Rose Annie.S, Krithika Vijaykumar,
Final Year(B.E), Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
VelTech Multitech Dr.Rangarajan Dr.Sakunthala Engineering College, Avadi 

Abstract - An ever increasing variety of entertainment content is being distributed under control of DRM technology which imposes limitations on the storage and rendering (playback) of the content. By imposing too strict preventative controls, even the legitimate consumers may get frustrated. To overcome this, an alternative "investigative" control called forensic watermarking is proposed as a complement to DRM technology. Forensic watermarking follows two steps- embedding and recovery. Further embedding is implemented using two models –single ended embedding model and replacement model. Forensic watermarking method is highly secure for transmitting and for making copies of audio and video signals. These models offer wider bandwidth, robustness, flexibility and renewability.

Keywords:, forensic watermarking, single ended embedding architecture, blind embedding model, replacement model.

Paper 04080904: Dynamic Obstacle Detector Using Local Range Decrement

Senthil Kumar.M, Asst. Professor , Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
VelTech Multitech Dr.Rangarajan Dr.Sakunthala Engineering College, Avadi 

Rajesh.P, Gowtham.V, Venkatajalapathy.K, Final Year(B.E), Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, VelTech Multitech Dr.Rangarajan Dr.Sakunthala Engineering College, Avadi 


The paper “dynamic obstacle detector with local range decrement” is used to determine the dimensional area and its 2-D view of the surrounding from a remote place. The overall view of the area is mapped by the ‘drifter’ and displayed as the top view of the place or the target in the PC. The intelligent part of the whole system is the PIC micro controller controlling the overall detection system operation. The ‘drifter’ is initiated by the PC and the ultrasonic sensors are used to determine the distance and the corresponding angle around the ‘drifter’. These data are then sent to the PC via the communication channel. The system then manipulates the data sent by the PIC about the ambient to generate the top view of the environment. The API waits for the user to lock the target location and when it is done, the relative positional co-ordinates (angle, distance) is communicated to the MC residing in the ‘drifter’. The AI of the ‘dynamo’ understands the info and guides the ‘drifter’ to the desired target.

Index terms: PIC microcontroller, Drifter, Guided locomotion, Echo ranging, Polar Dimensional plotter. 

Paper 04080905: Convergence Time Evaluation of Algorithms in MANETs
Full-Text : PDF
Annapurna P.Patil, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore-54,India.
Narmada Sambaturu, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology,Bangalore-54,India. 
Krittaya Chunhaviriyakul, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology,Bangalore-54,India.  
Abstract - Since the advent of wireless communication, the need for mobile ad hoc networks has been growing exponentially. This has opened up a Pandora’s Box of algorithms for dealing with mobile ad hoc networks, or MANETs, as they are generally referred to. Most attempts made at evaluating these algorithms so far have focused on parameters such as throughput, packet delivery ratio, overhead etc. An analysis of the convergence times of these algorithms is still an open issue. The work carried out fills this gap by evaluating the algorithms on the basis of convergence time.  Algorithms for MANETs can be classified into 3 categories: reactive, proactive, and hybrid protocols. In this project, we compare the convergence times of representative algorithms in each category, namely Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)-reactive, Destination Sequence Distance Vector protocol (DSDV)-proactive, and Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)-hybrid.
 The algorithm performances are compared by simulating them in ns2. Tcl is used to conduct the simulations, while perl is used to extract data from the simulation output and calculate convergence time. The design of the experiments carriered on is documented using Unified modeling Language. Also, a user interface is created using perl, which enables the user to either run a desired simulation and measure convergence time, or measure the convergence time of a simulation that has been run earlier.
 After extensive testing, it was found that the two algorithms AODV and DSDV are suited to opposite ends of the spectrum of possible scenarios. AODV was observed to outperform DSDV when the node density was low and pause time was high (sparsely populated very dynamic networks), while DSDV performed better when the node density was high and pause time was low (densely populated, relatively static networks). The implementation of TORA in ns2 was found to contain bugs, and hence analysis of TORA was not possible.
Future enhancements include rectifying the bugs in TORA and performing convergence time analysis of TORA as well. Also, a system could be developed which can switch between protocols in real time if it is found that another protocol is better suited to the current network environment. 

Paper 04080906: Fingerprint Identification System With The Blackfin Processor And Atmel’s Fingerchip Sensor

Survenika.S.S, Lecturer, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

Karthick. V, Sreenath. K, Selva. D.
Final Year(B.E), Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
VelTech Multitech Dr.Rangarajan Dr.Sakunthala Engineering College, Avadi 

Abstract - The need for effective security, implemented efficiently, is manifest in today's world. Individuals must be identified to allow or prohibit access to secure areas—or to enable them to use a computer, personal digital assistant (PDA), or mobile phone. Biometric signatures, or biometrics, are used to identify individuals by measuring certain unique physical and behavioral characteristics. Virtually all biometric techniques are implemented using a sensor, to acquire raw biometric data from an individual; feature extraction, to process the acquired data to develop a feature-set that represents the biometric trait; pattern matching, to compare the extracted feature-set against stored templates residing in a database; and decision-making, whereby a user's claimed identity is authenticated or rejected. This paper describes How to create a fingerprint identification system with the Blackfin processor and Atmel's FingerChip sensor.

KEYWORDS: Biometrics, fingerprint identification, Blackfin processor, Atmel’s FingerChip sensor.

Paper 04080907: User Focused Policy for Detection and Prevention of Botnets in an Academic Community

Zachary Dwight
Department of Information Services, Westminster College, Salt Lake City, USA

Abstract— Botnets are a serious problem for community members and security professionals within academic environments. Residing on a local machine, terminal, or server, bots can steal personal information, credit card numbers, and system resources. In conjunction with communication channels, like the IRC, bots become increasingly more malicious as the infected computer is controlled by a bot-herder in order to acquire personal information, store illegal software, and replicate itself to other vulnerable systems and terminals within the network. To combat the growing threat of bot infestation in academic environments, computer professionals can mitigate risk by using antivirus and web filtering software, educating users as to bot characteristics, and limiting user generated content in course management systems. Computer professionals can also detect botnets with an academic setting by analyzing port traffic, IRC messaging, and technical support requests. 

Keywords-bot; botnet; security; detection; academic

Paper 10080908: An Entropy Based Architecture for Defending Distributed Denial-Of-Service Attacks

Meera Gandhi, Research Scholar, Department of CSE, Sathyabama University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

S.K.Srivatsa, Professor, Sathyabama University, ICE, St.Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 

Abstract—Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks have emerged as a popular means of causing mass targeted service disruptions, often for extended periods of time. The approaches used in the existing defense techniques are based on traffic characteristics such as traffic deviation, attack pattern matching etc, which may not yield accurate detection and involves high
complexity. In this paper, we propose an entropy based architecture to defend such distributed denial-of-service attacks .Our architecture includes attack tree construction, attacks detection and clustering of alerts. By calculating the predicted entropy for a router, alerts are raised for flows in which the predicted entropy is more than a threshold value. Then the alerts are grouped into different clusters according to their source, target, time and attack-type. It helps to avoid group redundant alerts and to associate alerts that are of the same nature. By Simulation results, we show that the proposed architecture improves the detection accuracy and throughput while reducing the alert overhead.

Key words— Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS), Clustering, Over head, Attacks, Entropy

Paper 11080909: Detection Of Anomaly In Online Transaction

Renu Dhir and Krishn Kumar
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology

Abstract- The growth of the Internet in the last years has created an electronic marketplace for goods and services. With the turn of the century over 70 million computers are connected to the Internet. Successful e-business sites like Amazon.com or ebay have recognized the business potential of this huge number of users and offer world-wide services to consumers for buying and selling goods using their web browsers. With about 93 percent of all consumer Internet purchases made with online transactions, online transaction anomaly is on the rise. Most traditional online anomaly detection methods require labeled data for both genuine as well as fraudulent transactions to train the classifiers. Moreover, these methods are unable to detect those frauds for which no labeled data is available. In this paper observation sequence of the customer spending profile has been used to find out online transaction anomaly. The transaction process has been modeled by the HMM stochastic process providing a different way of detecting online transaction anomaly.
Keywords- Internet, online shopping, credit card, e-commerce security, anomaly detection, Hidden Markov Model.


Paper 12080911: RASDP: A Resource-Aware Service Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Abbas Asosheh, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Gholam Abbas Angouti, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract— Nodes in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) in real world applications are different in resources such as memory size, battery power and processing power and highly heterogeneous. This fact either has been paid a little attention or ignored in most of proposed Service Discovery Protocols (SDPs) for ad hoc environments. Nodes that are selected to maintain directory in directory-based SDPs, demand more battery power and need more memory and processing power than the other nodes which are not directory nodes. In this paper a novel directory-based SDP has been proposed that regards this heterogeneity and selects most proper nodes, according to some criteria, as directory agent nodes. Also, by saving reverse track of service advertisement and discovery messages accelerates joining of service requester and provider nodes of a specific service. This protocol includes two distinct parts: The first part, selects a set of the network nodes to form a subset of relatively stable directory nodes regarding some criteria and maintains built mesh structure against topology changes by inserting or removing nodes to/from this subset; and the second part, is used to efficiently distribute the service request, registration, and reply messages among service requester, intermediate or provider nodes. Also, proposed protocol has been simulated by GloMoSim which is one of well-known simulation tools. Simulation results based on some parameters prove this assertion that the protocol in an ad hoc environment has high performance, more scalability and uses critical resources of the nodes more efficiently.
Keywords- SDP; directory-based; MANET; heterogenity; resource-awareness

Paper 12080912: Design and Development of Biometric Authentication Technology for Ignition System

Jagadeesh Gowda, KTwo Technology Solutions

Modern automobile security which includes the remote keyless-entry systems that are found on modern cars can be easily deceived by professional thieves. Thieves with a little electronic know-how can crack the security code in some car keys within a span of time using specialized but inexpensive homemade decoders. Biometric based security systems are proven to be much safer and reliable compared to remote keyless-entry systems. Biometrics uses physiological or behavioral characteristics to determine or verify an individual’s identity, makes the system more secured against thefts. Literature reports various biometric personal identity authentication techniques used in vehicles such as Retina, Fingerprint, Face, Voice etc and finds Fingerprint technology to be the most appropriate one for low cost and high security applications. 
In the present investigation, a brief study on the ignition system has been carried out. The Biometric Authentication System has been designed as an extra barrier between the Key system and the ECM which controls the ignition. Three security modes have been implemented which provides easy access to the vehicle for the authorized user. A Fingerprint sensor has been used to enroll and iden4fy the users. In case of Biometric sensor failure, a provision has been made for password authentfication. Also a secured LIN network has been designed between Biometric Authentication System and the ECM for communication. 

Paper 12080913: A New Generic Taxonomy on Hybrid Malware Detection Technique
Full Text: PDF
Robiah Y, Siti Rahayu S., Mohd Zaki M, Shahrin S., Faizal M. A., Marliza R.
Faculty of Information Technology and Communication 
Univeristi Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, 
Durian Tunggal, Melaka,

Abstract-Malware is a type of malicious program that replicate from host machine and propagate through network. It has been considered as one type of computer attack and intrusion that can do a variety of malicious activity on a computer. This paper addresses the current trend of malware detection techniques and identifies the significant criteria in each technique to improve malware detection in Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Several existing techniques are analyzing from 48 various researches and the capability criteria of malware detection technique have been reviewed. From the analysis, a new generic taxonomy of malware detection technique have been proposed named Hybrid-Malware Detection Technique (Hybrid-MDT) which consists of Hybrid-Signature and Anomaly detection technique and Hybrid-Specification based and Anomaly detection technique to complement the weaknesses of the existing malware detection technique in detecting known and unknown attack as well as reducing false alert before and during the intrusion occur.

Keywords: Malware, taxonomy, Intrusion Detection System.

Paper 12080914: Multiple Cross-Layer Design Based Complete Architecture for Mobile Adhoc Networks
R.Venkatachalam, K.S.R College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Namakkal District.,Tamilnadu, India
A.Krishnan, K.S.R College of Engineering, Tiruchengode, Namakkal District, Tamilnadu

Abstract—Different cross-layer design for mobile adhoc network focuses on different optimization purpose, different Quality of Service (QoS) metric and the functions like delay, priority handling, security, etc. Existing cross-layer designs provide individual solution for congestion control, fault tolerance, power conservation, energy minimization and flow control and the major drawback is of high cost and overhead. In this paper, we propose to design a multiple cross-layer design based architecture to provide a combined solution for link failure
management, power conservation, congestion control and admission control. By simulation results, we show that the average end-to-end delay and the packet loss is considerably reduced with the increase in high throughput and good delivery ratio.

Keywords-Cross-Layer, MANETs, end-to-end, Packet loss,Delivery ratio, congestion control

Paper 13080915: A Novel Embedding Method to Increase Capacity of LSB Audio Steganography Using Noise Gate Software Logic Algorithm  

Mohamed A. Ahmed, Miss Laiha Mat Kiah, Bilal Bahaa Zaidan, Aos Alaa Zaidan
Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University Of Malaya, Kuala Lumpure, Malaysia

Abstract – In this paper, we developed a novel method that is able to shift the limit for transparent data hiding in audio from the fourth LSB layer to the eighth LSB layer, thus the method has improved the capacity of data hiding in the audio file. using a two steps approach. In the first step, noise gate software logic used to obtain a desired signal for embedding the secret message of the input host audio signal (carrier) . In the second step, standard 8th LSB layer embedding has been done for this desired signal. Objective test showed the algorithm succeeds in this task, while increasing SNR values of our algorithm comparing to SNR values obtained by standard LSB embedding in the 8th bits LSB layer. Subjective listening test proved that high perceptual transparency is accomplished even if eight LSBs of host audio signal are used for data hiding.  

(keyword):Data hidden, Audio steganography,SNR, Steganography, noise gate , least significant bit (LSB)

Paper 14080916: Web User Categorization and Behavior Study Based on Refreshing

Ratnesh Kumar Jain, , Sanjay Singh Thakur and Dr. R. S. Kasana 
Department of Computer Science & Applications, Dr. H. S. Gour, University, Sagar, MP (India) 

Dr. Suresh Jain, Department of Computer Engineering, Institute of Engineering & Technology, 
Devi Ahilya University, Indore, MP (India) 

Abstract : 
As the information available on World Wide Web is growing the usage of the web sites is also growing. Since each access to the web pages are recorded in the web logs it is becoming a huge data repository which when mined properly can provide useful information for decision making. The designer of the web site, analyst and management executives are interested in extracting this hidden information from web logs for decision making. In this research paper we proposed a method to categorize the users into faithful, Partially Impatient and Completely Impatient user, page wise so that study of user behavior can be easier. To categorize the user we proposed one new information in the web log that represent each instance of refreshing. We used the markov chain model in which we treated the clicking of Refresh button as another state i.e. Refresh State. We derive some theorem to study each type of user behavior and show that how do users behavior differ. 

Keywords: Web mining, Pattern discovery, Adaptive web sites, Markov chain model, and Transition probability.

Paper 15080917: VHDL Implementation of JPEG2000 Encoder
Kanchan H. Wagh

This paper deals with the design and implementation of JPEG2000 Encoder using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The new still compression image standard, JPEG2000 has emerged with a number of significant features that would allow it to be used efficiently over a wide variety of images. The scalability of the new standard is intended to allow trading off between compression rates and quality of images. Due to multi-resolution nature of wavelet transforms, they have been adopted by the JPEG2000 standard as the transform of choice. In this paper, an implementation for a reconfigurable fully scalable Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) unit that satisfies the specifications of the JPEG2000 standard has been presented. The implementation is based on the lifting scheme, which is the most 
computation efficient implementation of the discrete wavelet transform. 

Key Words- JPEG2000, Run Length Encoder, Wavelet transform, Le-Gall 5/3-filter bank, Lifting scheme, data compression.

Paper 16080918: Analysis, Design and Simulation of a New System for Internet Multimedia Transmission Guarantee 
Full-Text: PDF
O. Said, S. Bahgat, M. Ghoniemy, Y. Elawdy 
Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computers and Information Systems, Taif University, Taif, KSA.

Abstract: QoS (quality of service) is a very important issue for multimedia (audio and video) communication systems. In this paper, a new system that reinstalls the relation between the QoS elements (RSVP, routing protocol, sender, and receiver) during the multimedia transmission is proposed, then an alternative path is created in case of original multimedia path failure. The suggested system considers the resulted problems that may be faced within and after the creation of rerouting path. Finally, the proposed system is simulated using OPNET 11.5 simulation package, and the obtained results are compared with the published ones for extracting contributions.

Key words: Multimedia Protocols, RSVP, QoS, DiffServ, MPLS


Paper 16080919: Analysis and Study of Intrusion Detection System using Data Mining Machine Learning Techniques

Prof. Rishi Sayal
HOD CSE dept., Guru Nanak Engineering College, Hyderabad, India
P.Harsha, M.tech student(SWE)CSE dept., Guru Nanak Engineering College
Hyderabad, India

Abstract—— Intrusions pose a serious security problem in the network environment. Security of computer systems is very important to their utility and acceptance. Security in the network environment is maintained by monitoring the data. Security of a network also depends on the amount of data to be monitored. Unfortunately the available amount of network audit data instances is usually large that usually demands human labeling which is a tedious and time consuming task as well as proven to be expensive. To solve similar kinds of problems such as mentioned above, like the human interventions or high level of data biasing intrusion detection systems implement a suite of techniques that use data mining machine learning systems to identify the attacks against computers and network infrastructures. The suites of IDS techniques are widely discussed through out the paper.
Keywords- Intrusion, Data mining, Intrusion Detection Systems, Machine learning systems

Paper 18080920: A Framework for Computer Aided Investigation of ATM Fraud in Nigeria

Azeez Nureni Ayofe, Department of Maths & Computer Science, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Fountain University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.

Azeez Raheem Ajetola, Department of Maths & Computer Science, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Fountain University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.

Sulaimon Bashir Adebayo, Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

The conventional approach for criminal investigation and trial of cases in the law courts in developing countries like Nigeria is usually slow and unreliable. Consequently, the society is characterized by prolonged periods of detention of the suspects awaiting trial and congestion in the prisons and law courts. This paper attempts to describe the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the investigation of ATM fraud in Nigeria. An expert system (ES) is proposed which provides and supports the storage and intelligent interactive processing of the knowledge acquired by and experience of the human expert in the domain of criminal investigation, law and justice.

One of the objectives of the study is to provide an intelligent computer-based system which will smooth, enhance and speed the efficient and reliable performance of the human expert in the domain of criminal investigation. Other objective is to provide a system for computer aided learning of criminal investigation.

Keywords: ATM fraud, framework, user, culprit, bank, bank staff, ATM Clone, investigate, expert system.

Paper 20080921: Performance Measures Of A Computer Network System

Deepankar Sharma, Ruchi Rani Garg, Amit Kumar Gupta
1 Assoc. Prof., Department of Mathematics, DJCET, Modinagar, India-201204
2Sr. Lecturer, Department of Mathematics, MIET, Meerut, India 
3Asst. Prof., Department of M.C.A., KIET, Ghaziabad, India 


Paper 21080922: A Survey of Biometric keystroke Dynamics: Approaches, Security and Challenges
Mrs. D. Shanmugapriya, Dept. of Information Technology, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India
Dr. G. Padmavathi ,
Dept. of Computer Science, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract— Biometrics technologies are gaining popularity today since they provide more reliable and efficient means of authentication and verification. Keystroke Dynamics is one of the famous biometric technologies, which will try to identify the authenticity of a user when the user is working via a keyboard. The authentication process is done by observing the change in the typing pattern of the user. A comprehensive survey of the existing keystroke dynamics methods, metrics, different approaches are given in this study. This paper also discusses about the various security issues and challenges faced by keystroke dynamics.
Keywords- Biometris; Keystroke Dynamics; computer Security; Information Security; User Authentication.

Paper 23080923: A Secure and Fault-tolerant framework for Mobile IPv6 based networks
Full Text:PDF
Rathi S, Sr. Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, INDIA

Thanuskodi K, Principal, Akshaya College of Engineering, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, INDIA

Abstract— Mobile IPv6 will be an integral part of the next generation Internet protocol. The importance of mobility in the Internet gets keep on increasing. Current specification of Mobile IPv6 does not provide proper support for reliability in the mobile network and there are other problems associated with it. In this paper, we propose “Virtual Private Network (VPN) based Home Agent Reliability Protocol (VHAHA)” as a complete system architecture and extension to Mobile IPv6 that supports reliability and offers solutions to the security problems that are found in Mobile IP registration part. The key features of this protocol over other protocols are: better survivability, transparent failure detection and recovery, reduced complexity of the system and workload, secure data transfer and improved overall performance.

Keywords-Mobility Agents; VPN; VHAHA; Fault-tolerance; Reliability; Self-certified keys; Confidentiality; Authentication; Attack prevention

Paper 25080924: A Cross-Layer Based Intrusion Detection Technique for Wireless Networks

Jatinder Singh, Department of Computer, Engineering, SSIET, Patti (PB)

Lakhwinder Kaur, Department of Computer Engineering, University College of Engineering, (UCOE), Punjabi University, Patiala.

Savita Gupta, Department of Computer Engineering, UIET, Punjab University, Chandigrah

Abstract— In this paper, we propose to design a cross-layer based intrusion detection technique for wireless networks. In this technique a combined weight value is computed from the Received signal strength (RSS) and Time taken for RTS-CTS handshake between sender and receiver (TT). Since it is not possible for an attacker to assume the RSS exactly for a sender by a receiver, it is an useful measure for intrusion detection. We propose that we can develop a dynamic profile for the communicating nodes based on their RSS values through monitoring the RSS values periodically for a specific mobile station (MS) or a base station (BS) from a server. Monitoring observed TT values at the server provides a reliable passive detection mechanism for session hijacking attacks since it is an unspoofable parameter related to its measuring entity. If the weight value is greater than a threshold value, then the corresponding node is considered as an attacker. By suitably adjusting the threshold value and the weight constants, we can reduce the false positive rate, significantly. By simulation results, we show that our proposed technique attains low misdetection ratio and false positive rate while increasing the packet delivery ratio.
Keywords-Intrusion detection; Wireless Networks; Received signal strength (RSS); Cross-Layer; RTS-CTS Handshake (TT).

Paper 25080925: SVM-Based Effective Land Use Classification System For Multispectral Remote Sensing Images

K Perumal, Department of Computer Science, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625021, Tamilnadu, India

R Bhaskaran, School of Mathematics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract— Land use classification is a significant aspect of a good number of remote-sensing applications. A plenty of researches have gone into the application of statistical and neural network classifiers to remote-sensing images. In general, classification of remotely sensed images is normally on the basis of assigning classes on a ‘per-pixel’ basis and as a result ignoring spatial information captured by the image. The primary intent of this research is to achieve image classification by means of a new classification technique introduced within the framework of Statistical learning Theory called the Support Vector Machines. This paper presents a novel and efficient land use image classification system for classifying the land use areas like paddy, water bodies, wetlands, forests and more, from remote sensing images for land cover with the aid of Image Processing and classification techniques. The proposed classification system makes use of the multispectral image data that corresponds to land cover regions, obtained from remote sensing. The proposed land use classification system comprises of three phases namely: i) preprocessing, ii) Training data selection and iii) Testing using Support Vector Machine. Initially, the land cover image data is preprocessed by making use of the unsharp filter and nonlinear isotropic diffusion approach. Subsequently, the segmented image pixels are used to train the Support Vector Machine for classification. Finally, when a new land cover image is provided, the Support Vector Machines accurately classifies the land cover regions based on the pixel values attained. The effectiveness of the proposed classification system has been proved by testing the system with varied land cover images obtained from remote sensing.

Keywords- Remote Sensing; Multispectral; Land Cover; Image Classification; Unsharp Filter; Nonlinear Diffusion Segmentation; Support Vector Machine (SVM); Kernel Function

Paper 26080926: Recent Development In Fractals

Munesh Chandra, Institute of Management Studies, Ghaziabad, India
Sanjay M. Shah, S.V. Institute of Computer Studies, Kadi (Gujrat)

Abstract - A brief review of chaotic dynamics and fractals is presented. Topics discussed include basic concepts, recent developments, and applications of fractals. Fractals are exotic graphics techniques, widely seen as a mathematical oddity only six years ago, hold promise for image compression. In this article I would like to report on some developments since the 1960s. This, however, is very far from a survey. I hope that by focusing on a couple of examples and a small sample of ideas I can convey to the general mathematics community a sense of some of the progress that has been made.

Paper 27080927: Secure Multi Server Strong-Password Authentication Using Two Factor Approach

Prof. Dr.B.V.Ramana Murthy, Guru Nanak Engineering College, Hyderabad, India 

R.K.Sundararao, M.tech student(SWE)CSE dept. , Guru Nanak Engineering College
 Hyderabad, India

Abstract — Secure multi server strong-password authentication using two factor approach is a very practical solution to validate the eligibility of a remote user and provide secure communication later. Also, due to fast progress of networks and information technology, most of provided services are in multi-server environments. In this paper, we propose a novel user authentication and key agreement scheme using mobile for multi-server environments with much less computational cost and more functionality. It uses algorithms to generate passwords for sending to mobile by combining user password and server password. The major merits include: (1) users only need to register at the registration centre once and can use permitted services in eligible servers; (2) users can freely choose their passwords; (3) the computation and communication cost is very low; (4) servers and users can authenticate each other; (5) it generates a session key agreed by the user and the server; (6) it is a nonce-based scheme;

keywords- password, remote authentication, session key, mobile, multi server.

Paper 27080928: Hybrid Intrusion Detection and Prediction multiAgent System, HIDPAS

Farah Jemili, Mohamed Ben Ahmed, Montaceur Zaghdoud
RIADI Laboratory, Manouba University, Manouba 2010, Tunisia 

Abstract— This paper proposes an intrusion detection and prediction system based on uncertain and imprecise inference networks and its implementation. Giving a historic of sessions, it is about proposing a method of supervised learning doubled of a classifier permitting to extract the necessary knowledge in order to identify the presence or not of an intrusion in a session and in the positive case to recognize its type and to predict the possible intrusions that will follow it. The proposed system takes into account the uncertainty and imprecision that can affect the statistical data of the historic. The systematic utilization of an unique probability distribution to represent this type of knowledge supposes a too rich subjective information and risk to be in part arbitrary. One of the first objectives of this work was therefore to permit the consistency between the manner of which we represent information and information which we really dispose. Besides, our system integrates host intrusion detection and network intrusion prediction in the setting of a global anti-intrusions system capable to function like a HIDS (Host based Intrusion Detection System) before functioning like NIPS (Network based Intrusion Prediction System). The so proposed anti-intrusions system permits to combine two powerful tools together to permit a reliable host intrusion detection leading to an as reliable network intrusion prediction. In our contribution, we chose to do a supervised learning based on Bayesian networks. The choice of modeling the historic of data with Bayesian networks is dictated by the nature of learning data (statistical data) and the modeling power of Bayesian networks. However, taking into account the incompleteness that can affect the knowledge of parameters characterizing the statistical data and the set of relations between phenomena, the proposed system in the present work uses for the inference process a propagation method based on a bayesian possibilistic hybridization. The so proposed system is adapted to the modeling of reliability with taking into account imprecision. 
Keywords-uncertainty; imprecision; host intrusion detection; network intrusion prediction; Bayesian networks; bayesian possibilistic hybridization.


Paper 29080929: An Analysis of Energy Consumption on ACK+Rate Packet in Rate Based Transport Protocol
Full-Text: PDF
P.Ganeshkumar, Department of IT, PSNA College of Engineering & Technology, Dindigul, TN, India, 624622
K.Thyagarajah, Principal, PSNA College of Engineering & Technology, Dindigul, TN, India, 624622

Abstract— Rate based transport protocol determines the rate of data transmission between the sender and receiver and then sends the data according to that rate. To notify the rate to the sender, the receiver sends ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry. In this paper, through detailed arguments and simulation it is shown that the transmission of ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry consumes more energy in network with low mobility. To overcome this problem, a new technique called Dynamic Rate Feedback (DRF) is proposed. DRF sends ACK+Rate whenever there is a change in rate of ±25% than the previous rate. Based on ns2 simulation DRF is compared with ATP.
Keywords- Ad hoc network, Ad hoc transport Protocol, Rate based transport protocols, energy consumption, Intermediate node

Paper 29080930: Wavelet Based Multifocus Image Fusion incorporating Adaptive Block Size

Muhammad Hassan Arif
Department of Computer Science, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Syed Muhammad Saqlain
Department of Computer Science, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Muhammad Iqbal
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Abbottabad, Pakistan

Abstract— The objective of image fusion is to generate a resultant fused image from a set of input images (of the same scene) which describes the scene better than any single input image with respect to some relevant properties. The fused image is obtained by extracting all the useful information from the source images while not introducing artifacts or inconsistencies which will
distract human observers or the following machine processing. When a camera is to catch several objects that are in different distances away from it, the camera could not be focused on these objects simultaneously to get a clear image in any way. However, the camera can be focused on each object individually to get a clear image of it. To get a clear image containing all objects, the
usual method is image fusion, which has been widely applied in some fields such as machine vision, digital camera and object recognition. For this purpose a new image fusion technique that
is actually integration of multi-scale wavelet transform, gradient and mathematical morphology schemes, has been proposed. The proposed scheme uses adaptive block size. Different algorithms are devised using multilevel blocks of different sizes.

Keywords-image fusion; adaptive block size; wavelet transform;

Paper 30080931: A New Fuzzy Approach for Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm
Full-Text: PDF
Abbas Karimi*, Faraneh Zarafshan*, Adznan.b. Jantan**, A.R Ramli**, M.Iqbal b.Saripan** 
*Member of Young Researchers Club, PhD Candidate of UPM, Member of Faculty, IAU Arak Branch
**department of computer system engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UPM, Malaysia,43400

Abstract - Load balancing is the process of improving the Performance of a parallel and distributed system through is distribution of load among the processors. Most of the previous work in load balancing and distributed decision making in general, do not effectively take into account the uncertainty and inconsistency in state information but in fuzzy logic we have advantage of using crisps inputs. In this paper we present a new approach for implementing dynamic load balancing algorithm with fuzzy logic which can face to uncertainty and inconsistency of previous algorithms, further more our algorithm shows better response time than round robin and randomize algorithm respectively % 30.84 and % 45.45.

Keywords: Load balancing, Fuzzy logic, Distributed systems.

Paper 31080932: An Effective Approach to Network Intrusion Detection System using Genetic Algorithm

Ms.Nivedita Naidu, Student, MTech, IIISem,
Department of Computer Science & Engineering, G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur,

R.V.Dharaskar, Professor & Head, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering,Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract - This paper presents a general overview of Intrusion Detection Systems and the methods used in these systems, giving brief points of the design principles and the major trends. Artificial intelligence techniques are widely used in this area such as fuzzy logic and Genetic algorithms. In this paper, we will focus on the Genetic algorithm technique and how it could be used in Intrusion Detection Systems giving some examples of systems and experiments proposed in this field.
The purpose of this paper is to give a clear understanding of the use of Genetic Algorithm in IDS.  
Keywords - Intrusion Detection System, Genetic Algorithm.

Paper 31080933: Proposed Fast Algoirtham For Edge Detection Using Fuzzy Logic And Discrete Auto Function Algoritham Architechture

Nikhat Raza Khan
Department of Computer Science & Engineering 
Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology
Bhopal, India

Praveen Kaushik, Dr.R.P. Singh 
Department of Computer Science & Engineering 
Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology
Bhopal, India

Abstract— Edge detection is the forefront of the image processing for object detection.
The Proposed algorithm detector does not need parameter setting as existing edge detector does such as canny, sobel, and it can preserve image details. The Proposed algorithm compare with existing algorithm such as canny algorithm, sobel algorithm. It is robust to noise and can work well under high level noise situations, while other edge detectors cannot work. The proposed algorithm used auto discrete function for adjusting parameter, and fuzzy logic used for edge continuity on the basis of inference rule.

Keywords: edge detection, fuzzy logic, discrete function, image processing.

Paper 31080934: Performance Evaluation of Wimax Physical Layer under Adaptive Modulation Techniques and Communication Channels
Full Text : PDF
Md. Ashraful Islam,
Dept. of Information & Communication Engineering, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Riaz Uddin Mondal (corresponding author),
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Information & Communication Engineering,University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Md. Zahid Hasan,  
Dept. of Information & Communication Engineering, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Abstract— Wimax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a promising technology which can offer high speed voice, video and data service up to the customer end. The aim of this paper is the performance evaluation of an Wimax system under different combinations of digital modulation (BPSK, QPSK, 4-QAM and 16-QAM) and different communication channels AWGN and fading channels (Rayleigh and Rician) are considered. And the Wimax system incorporates Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder with Convolutional encoder with ½ and 2⁄3 rated codes in FEC channel coding. A computer program written in the MATLAB source code is developed and the data processing under Additive Whtie Gaussian Noise (AWGN), Rayleigh and Rician channel. The simulation results of estimated Bit Error Rate (BER) displays that the implementation of interleaved RS code (255,239,8) with 2/3 rated Convolutional code under BPSK modulation technique is highly effective to combat in the Wimax communication system. To complete this performance analysis in Wimax based systems, a segment of audio signal is used for analysis. The transmitted audio message is found to have retrieved effectively under noisy situation.

Keywords-OFDM, Block Coding, Convolution coding, Additive White Gaussian Noise, Fading Channel.

Paper 31080935: Multi-Agent System Interaction in Integrated SCM

Ritu Sindhu, Department of CSE, World Institute of Technology, Gurgaon, India
Abdul Wahid, Dept. of CS, AKG Engineering College, Ghaziabad, India

G N Purohit, Dean, Banasthali University, Rajasthan, India

Abstract-Coordination between organizations on strategic, tactical and operation levels leads to more effective and efficient supply chains. Supply chain management is increasing day by day in modern enterprises.. The environment is becoming competitive and many enterprises will find it difficult to survive if they do not make their sourcing, production and distribution more efficient. Multi-agent supply chain management has recognized as an effective methodology for supply chain management. Multi-agent systems (MAS) offer new methods compared to conventional, centrally organized architectures in the scope of supply chain management (SCM). Since necessary data are not available within the whole supply chain, an integrated approach for production planning and control taking into account all the partners involved is not feasible. In this study we show how MAS architecture interacts in the integrated SCM architecture with the help of various intelligent agents to highlight the above problem.

Keywords: Supply Chain management (SCM), Processing Management, Multi agent system (MAS )Bullwhip effect..

Paper 31080936: A Framework For Intelligent Multi Agent System Based Neural Network Classification Model
Full-Text: PDF
Roya Asadi, Norwati Mustapha, Nasir Sulaiman
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology,
University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Abstract—Intelligent multi agent systems have great potentials to use in different purposes and research areas. One of the important issues to apply intelligent multi agent systems in real world and virtual environment is to develop a framework that support machine learning model to reflect the whole complexity of the real world. In this paper, we proposed a framework of intelligent agent based neural network classification model to solve the problem of gap between two applicable flows of intelligent multi agent technology and learning model from real environment. We consider the new Supervised Multi-layers Feed Forward Neural Network (SMFFNN) model as an intelligent classification for learning model in the framework. The framework earns the information from the respective environment and its behavior can be recognized by the weights. Therefore, the SMFFNN model that lies in the framework will give more benefits in finding the suitable information and the real weights from the environment which result for better recognition. The framework is applicable to different domains successfully and for the potential case study, the clinical organization and its domain is considered for the proposed framework.
Keywords-Intelligent agents; Multi agent systems; Learning systems; Neural networks; New SMFFNN model; PWLA technique; Intelligent classification; Preprocessing; Pre-training.

Paper 31080937: Agent’s Multiple Architectural Capabilities: A Critical Review
Ritu Sindhu, Department of CSE, World Institute of Technology, Gurgaon, India
Abdul Wahid, Department of CS, Ajay Kumar Garg Enginnering College, Ghaziabad, India 
Prof. G.N.Purohit, Dean, Banasthali University, Rajasthan, India

Abstract-It is true that any organization of non-trivial size, scope and function, is destined to change. The organization which is not robust, evolvable or adaptable can not survive. To model an adaptable agent organization, the capability must be present to transition from one state to the next over the life of the organization. The organization model must include not only the structural components, but also the ability to facilitate change. The objective of this paper is to provide some of important capabilities possessed by the Agents. Twelve architectures have been used for this preliminary analysis representing a wide range of current architectures in artificial intelligence (AI). The aim of this paper is to understand the various capabilities that agents should possess generally. Also because of the design of the architecture of the agents that we have taken in to consideration, the capabilities also vary from one agent to another.
Key Words: Adaptive Intelligent System, Meta Reasoning Architecture, Entropy Reduction System.

Paper 31080938: A Method for Extraction and Recognition of Isolated License Plate Characters
Full Text: PDF
YON-PING CHEN, Dept. of Electrical and Control Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University Hsinchu, Taiwan

TIEN-DER YEH, Dept. of Electrical and Control Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan

Abstract—A method to extract and recognize isolated characters in license plates is proposed. In extraction stage, the proposed method detects isolated characters by using Difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) function, The DOG function, similar to Laplacian of Gaussian function, was proven to produce the most stable image features compared to a range of other possible image functions. The candidate characters are extracted by doing connected component analysis on different scale DOG images. In recognition stage, a novel feature vector named accumulated gradient projection vector (AGPV) is used to compare the candidate character with the standard ones. The AGPV is calculated by first projecting pixels of similar gradient orientations onto specific axes, and then accumulates the projected gradient magnitudes by each axis. In the experiments, the AGPVs are proven to be invariant from image scaling and rotation, and robust to noise and illumination change.

Keywords-accumulated gradient; gradient projection; isolated character; character extraction; character recognition

Paper 31080939: Prediction of Zoonosis Incidence in Human using Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA)
Full Text: PDF
Adhistya Erna Permanasari, Computer and Information Science Dept., Universiti Teknonologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
Dayang Rohaya Awang Rambli,
Computer and Information Science Dept. Universiti Teknonologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
Dhanapal Durai Dominic, Computer and Information Science Dept., Universiti Teknonologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia

Abstract— Zoonosis, refers to the transmission of infectious diseases from animal to human, has resulted great losses to lives, including humans and animals, and social economic. It motivates development of a system that can predict the future number of zoonosis occurrences in human. This paper analyses and presents the use of Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) method for developing a forecasting model that able to support and provide prediction number of zoonosis human incidence. The dataset for model development was collected on a time series data of human tuberculosis occurrences in United States which comprises of fourteen years of monthly data obtained from a study published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Several trial models of SARIMA were compared to obtain the most appropriate model. Then, diagnostic tests were used to determine model validity. The result showed that the SARIMA(9,0,14)(12,1,24)12 is the fittest model. While in the measure of accuracy, the selected model achieved 0.062 of Theil’s U value. It implied that the model was highly accurate and a close fit. It was also indicated the capability of final model to closely represent and made prediction based on the tuberculosis historical dataset.

Keywords—zoonosis; forecasting; time series; SARIMA

Paper 31080940: Congestion Control in the Internet by Employing a Ratio-dependent Plant-Herbivore-Carnivorous Model
Full-Text: PDF
Shahram Jamali, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
Morteza Analoui, Computer Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract—The demand for Internet-based services has exploded over the last decade. Many organizations use the Internet and particularly the World Wide Web as their primary medium for communication and business. This phenomenal growth has dramatically increased the performance requirements for the Internet. To have a high-performance Internet, a good congestion control system is essential for it. The current work proposes that the congestion control in the Internet can be inspired from the population control tactics of the nature. Toward this idea, each flow (W) in the network is viewed as a species whose population size is congestion window size of the flow. By this assumption, congestion control problem is redefined as population control of flow species. This paper defines a three-trophic food chain analogy in congestion control area, and gives a ratio-dependent model to control population size of W species within this plant-herbivore-carnivorous food chain. Simulation results show that this model achieves fair bandwidth allocation, high utilization and small queue size. It does not maintain any per-flow state in routers and have few computational loads per packet, which makes it scalable.
Keywords- Communication Networks; Congestion Control; Nature-inspired

Paper 31080941: An Algorithm for Mining Multidimensional Fuzzy Assoiation Rules
Neelu Khare, Department of computer Applications, MANIT, Bhopal (M.P.) 
Neeru Adlakha, Department of Applied Mathematics, SVNIT, Surat (Gujrat)  
K. R. Pardasani, Department of computer Applications, MANIT, Bhopal (M.P.)

Abstract— Multidimensional association rule mining searches for interesting relationship among the values from different dimensions/attributes in a relational database. In this method the correlation is among set of dimensions i.e., the items forming a rule come from different dimensions. Therefore each dimension should be partitioned at the fuzzy set level. This paper proposes a new algorithm for generating multidimensional association rules by utilizing fuzzy sets , a database consisting of fuzzy fuzzy transactions, the Apriory property is employed to prune th useless candidates; itemsets.
Keywords- interdimension ; multidimensional association rules; fuzzy membership functions ;categories.

Paper 31080942: Prefetching of VoD Programs Based On ART1 Requesting Clustering
Full-Text: PDF
P Jayarekha, Research Scholar, Dr. MGR University Dept. of ISE, BMSCE, Bangalore .
Member, Multimedia Research Group, Research Centre, DSI, Bangalore.

Dr.T R GopalaKrishnan Nair
Director, Research and Industry Incubation Centre, DSI, Bangalore.  

Abstract—In this paper, we propose a novel approach to group users according to the VoD user request pattern. We cluster the user requests based on ART1 neural network algorithm. The knowledge extracted from the cluster is used to prefetch the multimedia object from each cluster before the user’s request. We have developed an algorithm to cluster users according to the user’s request patterns based on ART1 neural network algorithm that offers an unsupervised clustering. This approach adapts to changes in user request patterns over period without losing previous information. Each cluster is represented as prototype vector by generalizing the most frequently used URLs that are accessed by all the cluster members. The simulation results of our proposed clustering and prefetching algorithm, shows enormous increase in the performance of streaming server. Our algorithm helps the server’s agent to learn user preferences and discover the information about the corresponding sources and other similar interested individuals.
Keywords - Adaptive Resonance theory 1 (ART1), clustering, Predictive prefetch, neural networks.

Paper 31080943: Prefix based Chaining Scheme for Streaming Popular Videos using Proxy servers in VoD
Full-Text: PDF
M Dakshayini, Research Scholar, Dr. MGR University.Working with Dept. of ISE, BMSCE, 
Member, Multimedia Research Group, Research Centre, DSI, Bangalore, India.

Dr T R GopalaKrishnan Nair, Director, Research and Industry Incubation Centre, DSI, Bangalore, India

Abstract—Streaming high quality videos consumes significantly large amount of network resources. In this context request-to-service delay, network traffic, congestion and server overloading are the main parameters to be considered in video streaming over the internet that effect the quality of service (QoS). In this paper, we propose an efficient architecture as a cluster of proxy servers and clients that uses a peer-to-peer (P2P) approach to cooperatively stream the video using chaining technique. We consider the following two key issues in the proposed architecture (1) Prefix caching technique to accommodate more number of videos close to client (2) Cooperative client and proxy chaining to achieve the network efficiency. Our simulation results shows that the proposed approach yields a prefix caching close to the optimal solution minimizing WAN bandwidth usage on server-proxy path by utilizing the proxy-client and client-client path bandwidth, which is much cheaper than the expensive server –proxy path bandwidth, server load, and client rejection ratio significantly using chaining. 
Keywords-component: prefix caching, cooperative clients, video streaming, bandwidth usage, and Chaining.

Paper 31080944: Hierarchical Approach for Key Management in Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Full-Text: PDF
Renuka A., Dept. of Computer Science and Engg., Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal-576104-India
Dr. K.C.Shet, Dept. of Computer Engg., National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O.Srinivasanagar-575025

Abstract— Abstract—A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. The conventional security solutions to provide key management through accessing trusted authorities or centralized servers are infeasible for this new environment since mobile ad hoc networks are characterized by the
absence of any infrastructure, frequent mobility, and wireless links. We propose a hierarchical group key management scheme that is hierarchical and fully distributed with no central authority and uses a simple rekeying procedure which is suitable for large and high mobility mobile ad hoc networks. We show through analysis and simulations that our scheme has less computation, communication and energy consumption compared to the existing schemes.
Keywords- - mobile ad hoc network, key management, rekeying.

Paper 31080945: K-means Clustering For Remote Sensing Image Indexing

Priti Maheshwary, Department of Computer Application, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India

Namita Srivastava, Department of Mathematics, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology
Bhopal, India

Abstract—As the remote sensing image achieve is increasing day by day storage and retrieval of these images is getting significance. We are in this paper use K-means Clustering Algorithm for Remote Sensing Image Indexing and develop a prototype for retrieval of remote sensing images on the basis of HSV color model, Haar Wavelet Texture feature and normalized difference vegetation index feature extractor as color, texture and spectral features which plays very important content in remote sensing images. We get promising results and these results can further used for change detection in different areas of remote sensing images.

Keywords- Remote Sensing Image Retrieval, NDVI, Clustering.

Paper 31080946: Personal Information Databases
Full Text:PDF
Sabah S. Al-Fedaghi, Computer Engineering Department, Kuwait University
Bernhard Thalheim, Computer Science Institute, Kiel University, Germany

Abstract - One of the most important aspects of security organization is to establish a framework to identify security-significant points where policies and procedures are declared. The (information) security infrastructure comprises entities, processes, and technology. All are participants in handling information, which is the item that needs to be protected. Usable privacy and security information technology is a critical and unmet need in the management of personal information. This paper proposes concepts and technologies for management of private information. Two different types of information can be distinguished: Personal information and non-personal information. Personal information can either be personal-identifiable information (PII), and non-identifiable information (NII). Security, policy, and technical requirements can be based on this distinction. At the conceptual level, PII is defined and formalized by propositions over infons (discrete pieces of information) that specify transformations over PII and NII. PII is categorized into simple infons that reflect the proprietor’s aspects, relationships with objects, and relationships with other proprietors. The proprietor is the identified person about whom the information is communicated. The paper proposes a database organization that focuses on the PII spheres of proprietors. At the design level, the paper describes databases of personal identifiable information that are built exclusively for this type of information with their own conceptual scheme, system management, and physical structure.

Paper 31080947: Enhancement of Exon Regions Recognition in Gene Sequences Using a Radix -4 Multi-valued Logic with DSP Approach

D. Venkat Reddy , Department of E.C.E, M.G.I.T, Gandipet, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh., India

Ch. D. V. Paradesi Rao, Sri Vishnu institute of technology, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

E.G.Rajan, Pentagram Research Center, Jubilee hills, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract— Numerous levels of concepts perform logical design and logical representations in an efficient manner. In typical and quantum theories of computation, Binary logic and Boolean algebra occupies an imperative place. But they have the limitation of representing signals or sequences by using either binary ‘1’ or ‘0’. This has major drawbacks that the neutralities or any intermediate values are ignored which are essential in most of the applications. Because of the occurrence of such situations it is the need of the hour to look into other alternative logics in order to fulfill the necessities of the user in their respective applications. The binary logic can be replaced by Multi-Valued Logic (MVL), which grabs the positions of the major applications because of the ability to provide representation by using more than two values. As most of the
significant applications are based on the logical sequences, the multi-valued logic shines because of its thriving feature. Genomic signal processing, a novel research area in bio-informatics, is one of the foremost applications which involve the operations of logical sequences. It is concerned with the digital signal representations and analysis of genomic data. Determination of
the coding region in DNA sequence is one of the genomic operations. This leads to the identification of the characteristics of the gene which in turn finds out an individual’s behavior. In order to extract the coding regions on the basis of logical sequences a number of techniques have been proposed by researchers. But most of the works utilized binary logic, which lead to the problem of losing some of the coding regions and incorrectly recognizing non-coding regions as the coding regions.

Hereby, we are proposing an approach for recognizing the exon regions from a gene sequence based on the multi-valued logic. In this approach, we have utilized four-level logical system, termed as quaternary logic for the representation of gene sequences and so that we recognize the exon regions from the DNA sequence.

Keywords- Multi-valued logic (MVL); Quaternary logic; spectral component; gene sequence; exon regions, exon regions recognition
Paper 31080948: Tool Identification for Learning Object Creation
Full Text: PDF
Sonal Chawla, Dept. of Computer Science and Applications, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Dr.R.K.Singla, Dept. of Computer Science and Applications, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

Learning objects are a collection of chunks organized into a whole that covers a topic or logical sequence of instruction. The creation of Learning Objects is an activity that involves many intricacies in regards of the effectiveness they must possess in order to serve as a usable tool to aid or accelerate the process of learning in students. Learning objects have numerous features of which Interoperability enables content from multiple sources to work well together with different systems. Reusablity enables content to be transferable to other contexts allowing for chunks of information to communicate with learning systems using a standardized method. Deciding upon the tool to use for creating interoperable, reusable Learning
Objects ,thus, becomes a difficult task. This paper tries to identify the parameters based on which the tools can be compared and then goes ahead to compare the tools for Learning Object Creation. Thus, the purpose of this paper is threefolds. Firstly, to define the learning objects and their purpose . Secondly, to identify the tools available for effective creation of Learning Objects and finally compare and find which amongst them offers better facilities for content creation.
Keywords: Learning objects, authoring tools,comparison,XERTE,eXe,RELOAD,GLO Maker


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