Vol. 4, AUGUST 2009

International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication AUGUST 2009, Volume 4 (Download Full Journal)
Copyright © 2009 IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Paper 08070902: Handwritten Farsi Character Recognition using Artificial Neural Network
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Reza Gharoie Ahangar, Mohammad Farajpoor Ahangar 
Azad University of Babol branch Iran
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Abstract - Neural Networks are being used for character recognition from last many years but most of the work was confined to English character recognition. Till date, a very little work has been reported for Handwritten Farsi Character recognition. In this paper, we have made an attempt to recognize handwritten Farsi characters by using a multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer. The error backpropagation algorithm has been used to train the MLP network. In addition, an analysis has been carried out to determine the number of hidden nodes to achieve high performance of backpropagation network in the recognition of handwritten Farsi characters. The system has been trained using several different forms of handwriting provided by both male and female participants of different age groups. Finally, this rigorous training results an automatic HCR system using MLP network. In this work, the experiments were carried out on two hundred fifty samples of five writers. The results showed that the MLP networks trained by the error backpropagation algorithm are superior in recognition accuracy and memory usage. The result indicates that the backpropagation network provides good recognition accuracy of more than 80% of handwritten Farsi characters.

Key Words: Farsi character recognition, neural networks, multilayer perceptron (MLP) back propagation algorithm.
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Paper 08070903: Dynamic Multimedia Content Retrieval System in Distributed Environment
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R. Sivaraman , R. Prabakaran, S. Sujatha 
Anna University Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli, India 
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Abstract— WiCoM enables remote management of web resources. Our application Mobile reporter is aimed at Journalist, who will be able to capture the events in real-time using their mobile phones and update their web server on the latest event. WiCoM has been developed using J2ME technology on the client-side and PHP on the server–side. The communication between the client and the server is established through GPRS. Mobile reporter will be able to upload, edit and remove both textual as well as multimedia contents in the server. 

Keywords: wireless content management system; smart mobile device; J2ME; client-server architecture.
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Paper 08070905: Predictors Of Java Programming Self–Efficacy Among Engineering Students In A Nigerian University
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Philip Olu Jegede, Institute of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
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Abstract - The study examined the relationship between Java programming self-efficacy and programming background of engineering students in a Nigerian University. One hundred and ninety two final year engineering students randomly selected from six engineering departments of the university participated in the study. Two research instruments: Programming Background Questionnaire and Java Programming Self-Efficacy Scale were used in collecting relevant information from the subjects. The resulting data were analyzed using Pearson product correlation and Multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed that Java Programming self-efficacy has no significant relationship with each of the computing and programming background factors. It was additionally obtained that the number of programming courses offered and programming courses weighed scores were the only predictors of Java self-efficacy.
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Paper 13070906: Resource Matchmaking Algorithm using Dynamic Rough Set in Grid Environment
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Iraj Ataollahi, Mortza Analoui
Iran University of Science and Technology/Computer Engineering Department, Tehran, Iran.
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Abstract— Grid environment is a service oriented infrastructure in which many heterogeneous resources participate to provide the high performance computation. One of the bug issues in the grid environment is the vagueness and uncertainty between advertised resources and requested resources. Furthermore, in an environment such as grid dynamicity is considered as a crucial issue which must be dealt with. Classical rough set have been used to deal with the uncertainty and vagueness. But it can just be used on the static systems and can not support dynamicity in a system. In this work we propose a solution, called Dynamic Rough Set Resource Discovery (DRSRD), for dealing with cases of vagueness and uncertainty problems based on Dynamic rough set theory which considers dynamic features in this environment. In this way, requested resource properties have a weight as priority according to which resource matchmaking and ranking process is done. We also report the result of the solution obtained from the simulation in GridSim simulator. The comparison has been made between DRSRD, classical rough set theory based algorithm, and UDDI and OWL-S combined algorithm. DRSRD shows much better precision for the cases with vagueness and uncertainty in a dynamic system such as the grid rather than the classical rough set theory based algorithm, and UDDI and OWL-S combined algorithm.

keywords— Rough Set; Dynamic rough set; Resource Discovery; Ontology; UDDI; OWL-S 

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Paper 18070911: Enhanced Mode Selection Algorithm for H.264 encoder for Application in Low Computational power devices
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Sourabh Rungta, CSE Department, RCET, Durg, India.
Kshitij Verma, ABV-IIITM, Gwalior, India 
Neeta Tripathi, ECE Department., RSRCET, Durg, India. 
Anupam Shukla, ICT Department., ABV-IIITM, Gwalior, India.  

Abstract— The intent of the H.264/AVC project was to create a standard capable of providing good video quality at substantially lower bit rates than previous standards without increasing the complexity of design so much that it would be impractical or excessively expensive to implement. An additional goal was to provide enough flexibility to allow the standard to be applied to a wide variety of applications. To achieve better coding efficiency, H.264/AVC uses several techniques such as inter mode and intra mode prediction with variable size motion compensation, which adopts Rate Distortion Optimization (RDO). This increases the computational complexity of the encoder especially for devices with lower processing capabilities such as mobile and other handheld devices. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to reduce the number of mode and sub mode evaluations in inter mode prediction. Experimental results show that this fast intra mode selection algorithm can lessen about 75% encoding time with little loss of bit rate and visual quality.

Keywords:- H.264, RDO, Inter-Frame Prediction, Sub-Mode Selection.
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Paper 19070912: Visualization of Mined Pattern and Its Human Aspects
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Ratnesh Kumar Jain &  Dr. R. S. Kasana, Department of Computer Science & Applications, Dr. H. S. Gour, University, Sagar, MP (India) 
Dr. Suresh Jain, Department of Computer Engineering, Institute of Engineering & Technology, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, MP (India) 

Abstract - Researchers got success in mining the Web usage data effectively and efficiently. But representation of the mined patterns is often not in a form suitable for direct human consumption. Hence mechanisms and tools that can represent mined patterns in easily understandable format are utilized. Different techniques are used for pattern analysis, one of them is visualization. Visualization can provide valuable assistance for data analysis and decision making tasks. In the data visualization process, technical representations of web pages are replaced by user attractive text interpretations. Experiments with the real world problems showed that the visualization can significantly increase the quality and usefulness of web log mining results. However, how decision makers perceive and interact with a visual representation can strongly influence their understanding of the data as well as the usefulness of the visual presentation. Human factors therefore contribute significantly to the visualization process and should play an important role in the design and evaluation of visualization tools. 

Keywords: Web log mining, knowledge representation, Visualization, Human Aspects.
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Paper 20070913: A Survey of Attacks, Security Mechanisms and Challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Dr. G. Padmavathi, Prof and Head, Dept. of Computer Science, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, India,
Mrs. D. Shanmugapriya, Lecturer, Dept. of Information Technology, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, India,

Abstract—Wireless Sensor networks (WSN) is an emerging technology and have great potential to be employed in critical situations like battlefields and commercial applications such as building, traffic surveillance, habitat monitoring and smart homes and many more scenarios. One of the major challenges wireless sensor networks face today is security. While the deployment of sensor nodes in an unattended environment makes the networks vulnerable to a variety of potential attacks, the inherent power and memory limitations of sensor nodes makes conventional security solutions unfeasible. The sensing technology combined with processing power and wireless communication makes it profitable for being exploited in great quantity in future. The wireless communication technology also acquires various types of security threats. This paper discusses a wide variety of attacks in WSN and their classification mechanisms and different securities available to handle them including the challenges faced.

Keywords-Wireless Sensor Network; Security Goal; Security Attacks; Defensive mechanisms; Challenges
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Paper 22070916: Robustness of the Digital Image Watermarking Techniques against Brightness and Rotation Attack
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Harsh K Verma, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India
Abhishek Narain Singh, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India

Abstract- The recent advent in the field of multimedia proposed a many facilities in transport, transmission and manipulation of data. Along with this advancement of facilities there are larger threats in authentication of data, its licensed use and protection against illegal use of data. A lot of digital image watermarking techniques have been designed and implemented to stop the illegal use of the digital multimedia images. This paper compares the robustness of three different watermarking schemes against brightness and rotation attacks. The robustness of the watermarked images has been verified on the parameters of PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) and MAE (Mean Absolute Error). 
Keywords- Watermarking, Spread Spectrum, Fingerprinting, Copyright Protection.
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Paper 22070918: Factors Identification of Software Process Model – using a Questionnaire
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Zia Ur Rehamn, Research Scholar, Institute of Information Technology, Kohat University of Science & Technology (KUST), Kohat 26000, NWFP, Pakistan.
Abdur Rashid Khan, Institute of Computer and Information Technology, Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan.

Abstract— In this paper we are trying to identify the factors that are crucial parts of a software process model for a particular software project. Diverse types of software engineers can get benefit to select a software process model during development of software project. A questionnaire was developed with the help of domain experts, cited literature and heuristic rules. This was sent to 100 domain experts working at various institutions in Pakistan, having a vast experience and high qualification. Experts’ opinions from 33 domain experts were received with remarkable comments and suggestions. The acquired knowledge was analyzed through using SPSS and importance of these factors was identified. Among total of 11 main factors is being divided into 84 individuals parameters, Project Team, Unit Development, Software Integration & Testing, Project Team & Risk Management were placed on highest priorities in the analysis. This questionnaire will be used as a Knowledge Acquisition tool for ESPMS (Expert System for Software Process Model Selection); which will integrate the knowledge of experts of various domains, like software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Project Management. This questionnaire will become a standard document of knowledge acquisition for selection of an appropriate software process model for a particular project. Further work is required to verify through experts of various organizations (public and private) software houses within country and abroad. 

Keywords- Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Expert system, knowledge acquisition process, questionnaire, domain experts
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Paper 23070919: A Bit Table Based Knowledge Discovery System for Large Transactional Databases  
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Harsh K Verma and Neeraj kumar, 
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India

Abstract-Finding association rules is an important data mining problem and can be derived based on mining large frequent candidate sets. In this paper, a new algorithm for efficient generating large frequent candidate sets is proposed, which is called Bit table Based Algorithm. The proposed algorithm generates a binary bit table by scanning the entire database only once that is subsequently used to generate the frequent itemsets. Finally association rules are obtained from the generated frequent itemsets. Results from experimentation and comparison with the Apriori Algorithm on four randomly generated data sets with varying sizes reveal that the proposed algorithm is more effective than the Apriori Algorithm.

Keywords: Data Mining, Association Rules, Bit Table Algorithm.
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Paper 25070923: Experimental Performances Analysis of Load Balancing Algorithms in IEEE 802.11
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HAMDI Salah, Computer Sciences Department, ISSAT of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia
SOUDANI Adel & TOURKI Rached, Physique Department, EμE laboratory, Faculty of Sciences of Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia

Abstract— In IEEE 802.11, load balancing algorithms (LBA) consider only the associated stations to balance the load of the available access points (APs). However, although the APs are balanced, it causes a bad situation if the AP has a lower signal length (SNR) less than the neighbor APs. So, balance the load and associate one mobile station to an access point without care about the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the AP cause possibly an unforeseen QoS; such as the bit rate, the end to end delay, the packet loss, … In this way, we study an improvement load balancing algorithm with SNR integration at the selection policy.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11, QoS, Load Balancing Algorithm, Signal to Noise Ratio, MPEG-4
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Paper 28070927: Tracing Technique for Blaster Attack
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Siti Rahayu S., Robiah Y., Shahrin S., Faizal M. A., Mohd Zaki M, Irda R.
Faculty of Information Technology and Communication 
Univeristi Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia

Abstract - Blaster worm of 2003 is still persistent, the infection appears to have successfully transitioned to new hosts as the original systems are cleaned or shut off, suggesting that the Blaster worm, and other similar worms, will remain significant Internet threats for many years after their initial release. This paper is to propose technique on tracing the Blaster attack from various logs in different OSI layers based on fingerprint of Blaster attack on victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. The researchers intended to do a preliminary investigation upon this particular attack so that it can be used for further research in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

Keyword; Tracing technique, Blaster attack, fingerprint, log
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Paper 28070929: Retrieval of Remote Sensing Images Using Colour & Texture Attribute
Priti Maheswary, Research Scholar, Department Of Computer Application, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India

Dr. Namita Srivastava, Assistant Professor, Department Of Mathematics, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India.

Abstract - Grouping images into semantically meaningful categories using low-level visual feature is a challenging and important problem in content-based image retrieval. The groupings can be used to build effective indices for an image database. Digital image analysis techniques are being used widely in remote sensing assuming that each terrain surface category is characterized with spectral signature observed by remote sensors. Even with the remote sensing images of IRS data, integration of spatial information is expected to assist and to improve the image analysis of remote sensing data. In this paper we present a satellite image retrieval based on a mixture of old fashioned ideas and state of the art learning tools. We have developed a methodology to classify remote sensing images using HSV color features and Haar wavelet texture features and then grouping them on the basis of particular threshold value. The experimental results indicate that the use of color and texture feature extraction is very useful for image retrieval.

Key Words: Content Based Image Retrieval; k-means clustering; colour; texture
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Paper 29070931: Computational Complexities and Breaches in Authentication Frameworks of BWA
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Raheel Maqsood Hashmi, Arooj Mubashara Siddiqui, Memoona Jabeen, Khurram S. Alimgeer, Shahid A. Khan
Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad, Pakistan

Secure access of communication networks has become an increasingly important area of consideration for the communication service providers of present day. Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) networks are proving to be an efficient and cost-effective solution for the provisioning of high rate wireless traffic links in static and mobile domains. The secure access of these networks is necessary to ensure their superior operation and revenue efficacy. Although authentication process is a key to secure access in BWA networks, the breaches present in them limit the network’s performance. In this paper, the vulnerabilities in the authentication frameworks of BWA networks have been unveiled. Moreover, this paper also describes the limitations of these protocols and of the solutions proposed to them due to the involved computational complexities and overheads. The possible attacks on privacy and performance of BWA networks have been discussed and explained in detail.

Keywords- Comutational Complexity; Authentication; Security; Privacy; Key Management.

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Paper 29070932:Exploration of the Gap Between Computer Science Curriculum and Industrial I.T Skills Requirements
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Azeez Nureni Ayofe, Department of Maths & Computer Science, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Fountain University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. 
Azeez Raheem Ajetola, Department of Maths & Computer Science, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Fountain University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.

Abstract: This paper sets out to examine the skills gaps between the industrial application of Information Technology and university academic programmes (curriculum). It looks at some of the causes, and considers the probable solutions for bridging the gap between them and suggests the possibilities of exploring a new role for our universities and employers of labor. It also highlights strategies to abolish the misalignment between university and industry. The main concept is to blend the academic rigidity with the industrial relevance.  

Keywords: Skills gap, Industry, I.T, Curriculum, University, Graduates, government, business.
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Paper 30070938: Minimizing Cache Timing Attack Using Dynamic Cache Flushing (DCF) Algorithm
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Jalpa Bani and Syed S. Rizvi,
Computer Science and Engineering Department, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT 06601

Abstract: Rijndael algorithm was unanimously chosen as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) by the panel of researchers at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in October 2000. Since then, Rijndael was destined to be used massively in various software as well as hardware entities for encrypting data. However, a few years back, Daniel Bernstein [2] devised a cache-timing attack that was capable enough to break Rijndael’s seal that encapsulates the encryption key. In this paper, we propose a new Dynamic Cache Flushing (DCF) algorithm which shows a set of pragmatic software measures that would make Rijndael impregnable to cache timing attack. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed DCF algorithm provides better security by encrypting key at a constant time.

Keywords- dynamic cache flushing, Rijndael algorithm, timing attack.
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Paper 30070939: Codebook Design Method for Noise Robust Speaker Identification based on Genetic Algorithm

Md. Rabiul Islam, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi-6204, Bangladesh.
Md. Fayzur Rahman, Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi-6204, Bangladesh.

Abstract: In this paper, a novel method of designing a codebook for noise robust speaker identification purpose utilizing Genetic Algorithm has been proposed. Wiener filter has been used to remove the background noises from the source speech utterances. Speech features have been extracted using standard speech parameterization method such as LPC, LPCC, RCC, MFCC, MFCC and MFCC. For each of these techniques, the performance of the proposed system has been compared. In this codebook design method, Genetic Algorithm has the capability of getting global optimal result and hence improves the quality of the codebook. Comparing with the NOIZEOUS speech database, the experimental result shows that 79.62 [%] accuracy has been achieved.

Keywords- Codebook Design; Noise Robust Speaker Identification; Genetic Algorithm; Speech Pre-processing; Speech Parameterization.
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Paper 30070940: Consideration Points: Detecting Cross-Site Scripting
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Suman Saha, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, South Korea

Abstract: Web application (WA) expands its usages to provide more and more services and it has become one of the most essential communication channels between service providers and the users. To augment the users’ experience many web applications are using client side scripting languages such as JavaScript but this growing of JavaScript is increasing serious security vulnerabilities in web application too, such as cross-site scripting (XSS). In this paper, I survey all the techniques those have been used to detect XSS and arrange a number of analyses to evaluate performances of those methodologies. I point major difficulties to detect XSS. I don’t implement any solution of this vulnerability problem because; my focus is for reviewing this issue. But, I believe that this assessment will be cooperative for further research on this concern as this treatise figure out everything on this transcendent security problem.

Keywords- cross-site scripting, injection attack, javascript, scripting languages security, survey, web application security

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Paper 30070944: Covering Rough Sets From a Topological Point of View
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Nguyen Duc Thuan
Information Systems Dept. NhaTrang University, Nha Trang, Viet Nam

Nguyen Xuan Huy 
Institute of Information Technology, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology Ha noi, Viet Nam

Abstract— Covering-based rough set theory is an extension to classical rough set. The main purpose of this paper is to study covering rough sets from a topological point of view. The relationship among upper approximations based on topological spaces are explored. 
Keywords: Covering rough sets, approximation operators, topology.
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Paper 30070945: ODMRP with Quality of Service and local recovery with security Support
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Farzane kabudvand
Computer Engineering Department zanjan, Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

Abstract
In this paper we focus on one critical issue in mobile ad hoc networks that is multicast routing and propose a mesh based ”on demand” multicast routing protocol for Ad-Hoc networks with QoS (quality of service) support. 
Then a model was presented which is used for create a local recovering mechanism in order to joining the nodes to multi sectional groups at the minimized time and method for security in this protocol we present .  
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Paper 31070951: Constraint Minimum Vertex Cover in K-Partite Graph: Approximation Algorithm and Complexity Analysis
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Kamanashis Biswas, Computer Science and Engineering Department, Daffodil International University, 102, Shukrabad, Dhaka-1207 

S.A.M. Harun, Right Brain Solution, Flat# B4, House# 45, Road# 27, Banani, Dhaka

Abstract – Generally, a graph G, an independent set is a subset S of vertices in G such that no two vertices in S are adjacent (connected by an edge) and a vertex cover is a subset S of vertices such that each edge of G has at least one of its endpoints in S. Again, the minimum vertex cover problem is to find a vertex cover with the smallest number of vertices. Consider a k-partite graph G = (V, E) with vertex k-partition V = P1 ∪ P2 . . . ∪ Pk and the k integers are kp1, kp2, . . . , kpk. And, we want to find out whether there is a minimum vertex cover in G with at most kp1 vertices in P1 and kp2 vertices in P2 and so on or not. This study shows that the constrained minimum vertex cover problem in k-partite graph (MIN-CVCK) is NP-Complete which is an important property of k-partite graph. Many combinatorial problems on general graphs are NP-complete, but when restricted to k-partite graph with at most k vertices then many of these problems can be solved in polynomial time. This paper also illustrates an approximation algorithm for MIN-CVCK and analyzes its complexity. In future work section, we specified a number of dimensions which may be interesting for the researchers such as developing algorithm for maximum matching and polynomial algorithm for constructing k-partite graph from general graph. 

Keywords: Bipartite graph, Clique problem, Constraint minimum vertex cover, NP-Complete, Polynomial time algorithm

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Paper 31070952: Hardware Virtualization Support In INTEL, AMD And IBM Power Processors
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Kamanashis Biswas, Lecturer, CSE Dept., Daffodil International University

ABSTRACT – At present, the mostly used and developed mechanism is hardware virtualization which provides a common platform to run multiple operating systems and applications in independent partitions. More precisely, it is all about resource virtualization as the term ‘hardware virtualization’ is emphasized. In this paper, the aim is to find out the advantages and limitations of current virtualization techniques, analyze their cost and performance and also depict which forthcoming hardware virtualization techniques will able to provide efficient solutions for multiprocessor operating systems. This is done by making a methodical literature survey and statistical analysis of the benchmark reports provided by SPEC (Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation) and TPC (Transaction processing Performance Council). Finally, this paper presents the current aspects of hardware virtualization which will help the IT managers of the large organizations to take effective decision while choosing server with virtualization support. Again, the future works described in section 4 of this paper focuses on some real-world challenges such as abstraction of multiple servers, language level virtualization, pre-virtualization etc. which may be point of great interest for the researchers. 

Keywords: Hardware Virtualization, Paravirtualization, Virtual Machine Monitor, Hypervisor, Binary Translation, Xen, Denali.
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Paper 31070953: A Study on the Factors That Influence the Consumers’ Trust on E-commerce Adoption
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Yi Yi Thaw, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Malaysia

Ahmad Kamil, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Malaysia

Dhanapal Durai Dominic, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Malaysia

Abstract—The development of electronic commerce is characterized with anonymity, uncertainty, lack of control and potential opportunism. Therefore, the success of electronic commerce significantly depends on providing security and privacy for its consumers’ sensitive personal data. Consumers’ lack of acceptance in electronic commerce adoption today is not merely due to the concern on security and privacy of their personal data, but also lack of trust and reliability of Web vendors. Consumers’ trust in online transactions is crucial for the continuous growth and development of electronic commerce. Since Business to Consumer (B2C) e-commerce requires the consumers to engage the technologies, the consumers face a variety of security risks. This study addressed the role of security, privacy and risk perceptions of consumers to shop online in order to establish a consensus among them. The analyses provided descriptive frequencies for the research variables and for each of the study’s research constructs. In addition, the analyses were completed with factor analysis and Pearson correlation coefficients. The findings suggested that perceived privacy of online transaction on trust is mediated by perceived security, and consumers’ trust in online transaction is significantly related with the trustworthiness of Web vendors. Also, consumers’ trust is negatively associated with perceived risks in online transactions. However, there is no significant impact from perceived security and perceived privacy to trust in online transactions.

Keywords-perceived security and perceived privacy; perceived risk; trust; Web vendors; consumer behavior.
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Paper 31070954: Energy Efficient Location Aided Routing Protocol for Wireless MANETs
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Mohammad A. Mikki, Computer Engineering Department, IUG, P. O. Box 108, Gaza, Palestine

Abstract— A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without using any centralized access point,
infrastructure, or centralized administration. In this paper we introduce an Energy Efficient Location Aided Routing (EELAR) Protocol for MANETs that is based on the
Location Aided Routing (LAR). EELAR makes significant reduction in the energy consumption of the mobile nodes batteries by limiting the area of discovering a new route to a smaller zone. Thus, control packets overhead is significantly reduced. In EELAR a reference wireless base station is used and the network's circular area centered at the base station is divided into six equal sub-areas. At route discovery instead of flooding control packets to the whole network area, they are flooded to only the sub-area of the destination mobile node. The base station stores locations of the mobile nodes in a position table. To show the efficiency of the proposed protocol we present simulations using NS-2. Simulation results show that EELAR protocol makes an improvement in control packet overhead and delivery ratio compared to AODV, LAR, and DSR protocols.
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Paper 31070955: An Enhanced Static Data Compression Scheme Of Bengali Short Message
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Abu Shamim Mohammad Arif, Assistant Professor, Computer Science & Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh.
Asif Mahamud, Computer Science & Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh.
Rashedul Islam, Computer Science & Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh
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Abstract—This report concerns a modified approach of compressing Short Bengali Text Message for small devices. The prime objective of this thesis technique is to establish a low complexity compression scheme suitable for small devices having small memory and relatively lower processing speed. The basic aim is not to compress text of any size up to its maximum level without having any constraint on space and time; rather than the main target is to compress short messages up to an optimal level which needs minimum space, consume less time and the processor requirement is lower. We have implemented Character Masking, Dictionary Matching, Associative rule of data mining and Genetic algorithm for syllable based compression in hierarchical steps to achieve low complexity lossless compression of text message for any mobile devices. The scheme to choose the diagrams are performed on the basis of extensive statistical model and the static Huffman coding is done through the same context.
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Paper 31070961: Impact of Rushing attack on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
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V. PALANISAMY, Reader and Head (i/c), Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu ,India 
P.ANNADURAI, Lecturer in Computer Science, Kanchi Mamunivar Centre for Post Graduate Studies (Autonomous) , Lawspet, Puducherry, India. 
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  Abstract— A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate with each other via wireless links with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration such as base station or access points. Nodes in a MANETs operate both as host as well as routers to forward packets for each other in a multi-hop fashion. For many applications in wireless networks, multicasting is an important and frequent communication service. By multicasting, since a single message can be delivered to multiple receivers simultaneously. It greatly reduces the transmission cost when sending the same packet to multiple recipients. The security issue of MANETs in group communications is even more challenging because of involvement of multiple senders and multiple receivers. At that time of multicasting, mobile ad hoc network are unprotected by the attacks of malicious nodes because of vulnerabilities of routing protocols. Some of the attacks are Rushing attack, Blackhole attack, Sybil attack, Neighbor attack and Jellyfish attack. 
  This paper is based on Rushing attack. In Rushing attack, the attacker exploits the duplicate suppression mechanism by quickly forwarding route discovery packets in order to gain access to the forwarding group and this will affect the Average Attack Success Rate. In this paper, the goal is to measure the impact of Rushing attack and their node positions which affect the performance metrics of Average Attack Success Rate with respect to three scenarios: near sender, near receiver and anywhere within the network. The performance of the Attack Success Rate with respect to above three scenarios is also compared.

Index Terms—Multicast, Rushing attack, MANETs, Security, Multicast, attack strategies, Security threats, Attacks on Multicast.
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Paper 31070962: Optimization of Bit Plane Combination for Efficient Digital Image Watermarking 
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Sushma Kejgir, Electronics & Tele. Engineering, SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technology, Vishnupuri, Nanded, Maharashtra, India.
Manesh Kokare, Electronics & Tele. Engineering, SGGS Institute of Engineering and Technology, Vishnupuri, Nanded, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract: In view of the frequent multimedia data transfer authentication and protection of images has gained importance in today’s world. In this paper we propose a new watermarking technique, based on bit plane, which enhances robustness and capacity of the watermark, as well as maintains transparency of the watermark and fidelity of the image. In the proposed technique, higher strength bit plane of digital signature watermark is embedded in to a significant bit plane of the original image. The combination of bit planes (image and watermark) selection is an important issue. Therefore, a mechanism is developed for appropriate bit plane selection. Ten different attacks are selected to test different alternatives. These attacks are given different weightings as appropriate to user requirement. A weighted correlation coefficient for retrieved watermark is estimated for each of the alternatives. Based on these estimated values optimal bit plane combination is identified for a given user requirement. The proposed method is found to be useful for authentication and to prove legal ownership. We observed better results by our proposed method in comparison with the previously reported work on pseudorandom watermark embedded in least significant bit (LSB) plane.

Keywords: Digital signature watermark, Bit plane watermark embedding method, Correlation coefficient, weighted correlation coefficient.
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Paper 31070963: On The Optimality Of All-To-All Broadcast In k-ary n-dimensional Tori
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Jean-Pierre Jung & Ibrahima Sakho, UFR MIM, Université de Metz, Ile du Saulcy BP 80794 - 57012 Metz Cedex 01 – France
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Abstract- All-to-all broadcast is a collective communication in a network with the constraint that every node must send to each other certain piece of its data. This paper addresses the problem of optimal all-port all-to-all broadcast in multidimensional tori. The optimality criteria considered are the minimum exchange steps, no duplicated data in the sense that only new data are conveyed to receivers and the balance of the communication links-load. It is proved that under these constraints, an optimal broadcast is not feasible in any multidimensional torus. Then, the tori which are capable of optimal broadcasts are characterized.

Keywords-MIMD computers; distributed memory ; interconnection network; multidimensional torus; all-to-all broadcast; NODUP; store-and-forward routing; message combining; -optimality.
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Paper 31070966: QoS Provisioning Using Hybrid FSO-RF Based Hierarchical Model for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
Full Text: PDF

Saad Ahmad Khan & Sheheryar Ali Arshad, Department of Electrical Engineering, University Of Engineering & Technology, Lahore
Pakistan, 54890 

Abstract- Our objective is to provide guaranteed packet delivery service in time constrained sensor networks. The wireless network is a highly variable environment, where available link bandwidth may vary with network load. Since multimedia applications require higher bandwidth so we use FSO links for their transmission. The main advantage of FSO links is that they offer higher bandwidth and security, while RF links offer more reliability. The routing in this multi-tier network is based on directional geographic routing protocol, in which sensors route their data via multi-hop paths, to a powerful base station, through a cluster head. Some modifications have also been incorporated in the MAC layer to improve the QoS of such systems.

Index Terms — Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks; Visual Sensor Network; Hybrid RF-FSO; QoS Provisioning; Hierarchical Sensor Network Model .
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Paper 31070967: A Hybrid multi objective particle swarm optimization method to discover biclusters in microarray data
Full Text: PDF
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S. Amirhassan Monadjemi, Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, 81746, Iran
Mohsen lahkargir *, Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, najafabad branch, Isfahan, 81746, Iran 
Ahmad Baraani Dastjerdi, Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan
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Abstract — In recent years, with the development of microarray technique, discovery of useful knowledge from microarray data has become very important. Biclustering is a very useful data mining technique for discovering genes which have similar behavior. In microarray data, several objectives have to be optimized simultaneously and often these objectives are in conflict with each other. A multi objective model is very suitable for solving this problem. Our method proposes a Hybrid algorithm which is based on multi objective particle swarm optimization for discovering biclusters in gen expression data. In our method, we will consider a low level of overlapping among biclusters and as possible, will cover all elements of gene expression matrix. Experimental result in bench mark data base present a significant improvement in both overlap among biclusters and coverage of elements in gen expression. 
 (Abstract)
Keywords-component; biclustering; multiobjective particle swarm; gene expersion data;
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Paper 31070968: The Uniformization Process of the Fast Congestion Notrification (FN)
Full Text: PDF

Mohammed M. Kadhum MIEEE, and Suhaidi Hassan SMIEEE
InterNetWorks Research Group, College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, MALAYSIA

Abstract: Fast Congestion Notification (FN) one of the proactive queue management mechanisms that practices congestion avoidance to help avoid the beginning of congestion by marking/dropping packets before the router’s queue gets full; and exercises congestion control, when congestion avoidance fails, by increasing the rate of packet marking/dropping. Technically, FN avoids the queue overflows by controlling the instantaneous queue size below the optimal queue size, and control congestion by keeping the average arrival rate close to the outgoing link capacity. Upon arrival of each packet, FN uses the instantaneous queue size and the average arrival rate to calculate the packet marking/dropping probability. FN marks/drops packets at fairly regular intervals to avoid long intermarking intervals and clustered packet marks/drops. Too many marked/dropped packets close together can cause global synchronization, and also too long packet intermarking times between marked/dropped packets can cause large queue sizes and congestion. This paper shows how FN controls the queue size and avoids congestion and reduces global synchronization by uniformizing marked/dropped packet intervals. 

Keywords:
Internet Congestion; Active Queue Management (AQM); Random Early Detection (RED); Fast Congestion Notification (FN); Packet Mark/Drop Probability.
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Paper 31070969: Electronic Authority Variation
Full Text: PDF

M.N.Doja† and Dharmender Saini††,
Jamia Millia Islamia (CSE Department), New Delhi, India

Abstract
When a person joins in an organization, he becomes authorize to take some decisions on behalf of that organization; means he is given some authority to exercise. After some time, on the basis of his performance in the organization, he is given promotion and he becomes eligible to exercise to some higher authorities. And further, he may get some higher promotion or he may leave the organization. So, during his stay in the organization, the authority of that person varies from the time he joins the organization until he/she leaves the organization. This paper presents the variation in authorities of a person in the organization. The method implements the queuing model to analyze the various people in the queue of their promotion and looks at various parameters like average waiting time etc

Keywords: 
Authority, Authority Variation, Authority Level
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Paper 31070970: A Novel Model for Optimized GSM Network Design
Full Text: PDF

Alexei Barbosa de Aguiar, Plácido Rogério Pinheiro, Álvaro de Menezes S. Neto, Ruddy P. P. Cunha, Rebecca F. Pinheiro
Graduate Program in Applied Informatics, University of Fortaleza, Av. Washington Soares 1321, Sala J-30, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, 60811-905

Abstract – GSM networks are very expensive. The network design process requires too many decisions in a combinatorial explosion. For this reason, the larger is the network, the harder is to achieve a totally human based optimized solution. The BSC (Base Station Control) nodes have to be geographically well allocated to reduce the transmission costs. There are decisions of association between BTS and BSC that impacts in the correct dimensioning of these BSC. The choice of BSC quantity and model capable of carrying the cumulated traffic of its affiliated BTS nodes in turn reflects on the total cost. And the last component of the total cost is due to transmission for linking BSC nodes to MSC. These trunks have a major significance since the number of required E1 lines is larger than BTS to BSC link. This work presents an integer programming model and a computational tool for designing GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) networks, regarding BSS (Base Station Subsystem) with optimized cost.

Key words: GSM mobile network design, cellular telephony, Integer Programming (IP), Operations Research.
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Paper 31070977: A Step towards Software Corrective Maintenance: Using RCM model
Full Text: PDF

Shahid Hussain, Namal University, Mianwali
Dr. Bashir Ahmad, ICIT, Gomal University, D.I.Khan  
Muhammad Zubair Asghar, ICIT, Gomal University, D.I.Khan  

Abstract--From the preliminary stage of software engineering, selection of appropriate enforcement of standards remained a challenge for stakeholders during entire cycle of software development, but it can lead to reduce the efforts desired for software maintenance phase. Corrective maintenance is the reactive modification of a software product performed after delivery to correct discovered faults. Studies conducted by different researchers reveal that approximately 50 to 75% of the effort is spent on maintenance, out of which about 17 to 21% is exercised on corrective maintenance. In this paper, authors proposed a RCM (Reduce Corrective Maintenance) model which represents the implementation process of number of checklists to guide the stakeholders of all phases of software development. These check lists will be filled by corresponding stake holder of all phases before its start. More precise usage of the check list in relevant phase ensures successful enforcement of analysis, design, coding and testing standards for reducing errors in operation stage. Moreover authors represent the step by step integration of checklists in software development life cycle through RCM model. 

Index Term—RCM model, Maintenance, Checklist, Corrective maintenance, stakeholders.
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IJCSIS Editor,
Sep 13, 2009, 3:24 AM
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