Vol. 10 No. 4 APR 2012

Vol. 10 No. 4 April 2012 International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security
Publication April 2012, Volume 10 No. 4 (Download Full Journal) (Archive) (Download 2)

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Copyright © IJCSIS. This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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1. Paper 31031283: An Alert Endorsement through Cooperative Trust Management for VANET (pp. 1-10)
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Amel LTIFI & Mohamed Salim BOUHLEL, Research Unit: Sciences and Technologies of Image and Telecommunications, Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax-Tunisia
Ahmed ZOUINKHI, Research Unit: Modeling, Analysis and Control Systems, National Engineering school of Gabes-Tunisia

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Abstract - There is an urgent need to an effective trust management for vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs), given the dreadful consequences of acting on false information sent out by malicious peers in this context. In the absence of trust authorities, the trust management is a difficult task. We are interested in this paper to propose a new approach to verify the correctness of alert messages sent by other vehicles about road accident. This paper presents a cluster-based trust management system based on cooperation between vehicles. These vehicles communicate through a set of messages and follow a dedicated protocol of communication. This protocol defines the responsibility of each vehicle in the group. Each intelligent vehicle creates and manages a local vision of the network. The local vision consists of trust values of other vehicles in the same group. In our application, we include artificial and ambient intelligence technologies to the active security in VANET that is taken in charge by vehicles on the road. In this article, we explain our approach of trust management establishment based on cooperation protocol. This protocol is modeled by Petri Nets. Petri Net modeling activity is conducted with the CPN-Tools software.
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Keywords- Active security; Cooperation; Petri Nets; Trust management; VANET

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2. Paper 15031206: Template Matching based on SAD and Pyramid (pp. 11-16)
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F. Alsaade and
Y. M. Fouda, College of Computer Science and Information Technology, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
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Abstract - Template matching is one of the important topic in pattern recognition, and it is used in many applications related to computer vision and image processing. In this paper, we propose a fast pattern matching algorithm namely SADP based on sum of absolute difference (SAD) as a measure of similarity and pyramid structure. First SADP apply pyramid concept to obtain a number of levels of original and template image. Secondly, SAD measure is applied for each level of image from bottom to up to obtain the correct match in the original image. In comparison to some template matching algorithms, the SADP is computationally inexpensive and more robust against noise. The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm was efficient and faster than the conventional image template matching algorithms and more robust in some real intervals.
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Keywords: Template matching, SAD, image pyramid.

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3. Paper 15031209: MCS: Archiving System Mechanism (pp. 17-20)
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(1) Husein A. Hiyasat, (1) Hazem Nagawi, (1) Ababneh Jafar, (1) Adeeb Al-Saaidah, (1) Abd-Jaber Hussein, (1, 2) Mahmoud Baklizi
(1):Department of Computer Sciences, The World Islamic Sciences and Education (W.I.S.E.) University, Amman, 11947, P.O. Box 1101
(2): National Advanced IPv6 Center of Excellence , Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

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Abstract — Nowadays, the Video conferencing systems are widely used in many areas. The multimedia conference system (MCS) is one of the Video conferencing systems which increasingly gaining acceptance because of its unique features. However, the MCS is lacking of the archiving system which used to store the session data for later retrieve. This paper proposed to add archiving server to the MCS, in order to store the session data. The proposed archiving system store four types of media data, which they are video, audio, files, and chat. The four types of media data stored in the archiving server through FTP session between the archiving server and the client.
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Keywords- Multimedia Conferencing System (MCS), RSW Control Protocol, Archiving server.
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4. Paper 18031228: Computer Worm Classification (pp. 21-24)
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Andhika Pratama, Faculty of Engineering, Dian Nuswantoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
Fauzi Adi Rafrastara, Master of Information Technology, Post-Graduate Program, Dian Nuswantoro University, Semarang, Indonesia

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Abstract — To find out more the ins and the outs of computer worm, including how the work and how to overcome, it is necessary to study the classification of computer worm itself first. This paper presents taxonomy for classifying worm structure, worm attack, worm defense, and user defense.
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Keywords- computer worm; computer security worm classification
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5. Paper 31031271: Design and Implementation of Agent-oriented EC System by using Automated Negotiation (pp. 25-32)
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Asmaa Y. Hammo, College of Computers Sciences and Mathematics, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq
Maher T. Alasaady, Computer Systems dept., Foundation of Technical Education/Mosul, Mosul, Iraq

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Abstract — This research demonstrates the negotiation property between conflict interest software agents by using Contract Net protocol (CNP), and demonstrates the designing and implementation of this agent-oriented Electronic Commerce (EC) system. The function of this distributed decentralized system is selling and buying items within an automated negotiation between vendors and customers. It uses intelligent agents to do the job on behalf the real users in an autonomous manner. The negotiating process between these distributed agents is accomplished for item price till an agreement is reached that satisfies both negotiating parties, and the order details will be saved in a SQL-server database .The development process accomplished through a proposed methodology by melding phases from another methodologies such as: Gaia, MaSE, Tropos and MASD. This methodology capturing roles, goals, tasks and dependences, and analyzing them in high-level manner, as well as design these components to be consistence with Jadex framework to implemented it.
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Keywords- Software agent; Automated negotiation; Distributed systems; E-commerce; Contract Net Protocol; Agent based software engineering.
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6. Paper 26031236: An Analysis and Comparison of Multi-Hop Ad-Hoc wireless Routing Protocols for Mobile Node (pp. 33-37)
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S. Tamilarasan, Department of Information Technology, Loyola Institute of Technology and Management (LITAM), Settanapalli-Mandal, Guntur, AP. India.
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Abstract — A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a group of wireless nodes and distributed throughout the network. In MANET each node using the multi hops wireless links without an infrastructure or centralized administration. Now days, a variety of routing protocols targeted specifically at this environment have been developed and some performance simulations are made. Depending upon the requirement, the nodes in wireless network can change its topology dynamically and arbitrary establish routes between source and destination. The important task of wireless routing protocol is to face the challenges of the dynamically changing topology and establish an efficient route between any two nodes with minimum routing overhead and bandwidth consumption. The existing routing security is not enough for routing protocols. A several protocols are introduced for improving the routing mechanism to find route between any source and destination host across the network. In this paper present a logical survey on routing protocols and compare the performance of AODV, DSR and TORA.
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Keywords- AODV, DSR, TORA, MANET, Routing.
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7. Paper 27031242: Optimization of Membership Functions Based on Ant Colony Algorithm (pp. 38-45)
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Parvinder Kaur, Department of Electronics & Communications, SLIET, Longowal, Punjab, India
Shakti Kumar, Computational Intelligence Laboratory, IST Kalawad, Haryana, India
Amarpartap Singh, Department of Electronics & Communications, SLIET, Longowal, Punjab, India

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Abstract — In fuzzy model identification membership function tuning plays an important role towards error minimization. This paper proposes a ACO based strategy for membership function tuning. The algorithm was implemented on a standard rapid battery charger data set. The simulation results were compared with other three algorithms available in the literature. It was observed that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three algorithms on mean squared error (MSE) performance basis.
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Keywords — Ant Colony Algorithm; Fuzzy Membership function.

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8. Paper 27031246: Remote File Inclusion and Countermeasures (pp. 46-49)
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A. Sankara Narayanan, M. Mohamed Ashik
Department of Information Technology, Salalah College of Technology, Sultanate of Oman

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Abstract - This paper describes the mechanics of a RFI attack by doing a code analysis and an attack walk through vulnerable application. The title itself already explains a bit about it. This paper discusses the clear view of remote file include attacks, specifically those exploiting weaknesses in PHP web applications as the scripting language has allowed a large number of vulnerabilities to be created. We will cover the mechanics of RFI attacks before detailing the perspective of both analysts and attackers. This RFI paper focuses on web application vulnerabilities and prevent your site from being compromised via a file include attack.
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Keywords: Remote File Inclusion, Web Application Vulnerability, Website Hacking

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9. Paper 29031253: Clustering Wireless Sensor Nodes Using Caterpillar Graph (pp. 50-54)
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Dr H B Walikar, Professor, Dept of Computer Science, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India
Ishwar Baidari, Asst. Professor, Dept of Computer Science, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India

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Abstract — When sensors nodes are deployed and organized in the form of clusters, they could use either single hop or multi hop mode of communication to send their data to their respective cluster heads. We implemented algorithm on class of graph called caterpillar graphs. We also propose, deploying and clustering wireless sensor nodes in the form of caterpillar graphs. Here our objective is to find Connected Dominating Set (CDS) of a caterpillar graphs.
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Keywords: clustering, cluster head, connected dominating set, caterpillar graphs, tree.
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10. Paper 29031259: Prevention of Financial Statement Fraud using Data Mining (pp. 55-59)
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Rajan Gupta, Dept. of Computer Sc. & Applications, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak
Nasib S. Gill, Head, Dept. of Computer Sc. & Applications, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (Haryana), India.

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Abstract - Fraudulent financial statement costs million of dollars to the world economy every year and is the main reason behind the failure of many companies. Auditors while analysing the financial statements, categorize their observations in to four groups namely: fraudulent cases, cases of circumventing procedures, errors or mistakes, and extreme values. The fraudulent observations are usually used for identification and detection of fraud, whereas the observation that circumvent procedures or are a result of mistakes / errors helps in fraud prevention. A measure to stop fraud from occurring in the first place is termed as fraud prevention. In this paper we discuss the use of a descriptive data mining techniques for prevention of financial statement fraud.
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Keywords: Financial statement fraud, Descriptive data mining, Fraud triangle
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11. Paper 31031263: Texture Synthesis Based On Image Resolution Enhancement Using Wavelet Transforms (pp. 60-64)
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G. Venkata Rami Reddy, CSE Dept., School of Information Technology, JNT University Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India
S.Kezia, ECE Dept., CIET, Rajahmundry, AP, India
Dr.V.Vijaya Kumar, IT & MCA Depts., Godavari Institute of Engg. & Tech., Rajahmundry, AP, India

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Abstract — In this paper, we propose a Wavelet and Stationary domain normalization (WSDN) technique for texture synthesis. The proposed WSDN improve the image resolution by estimating the high frequency band information. The proposed technique is based on the idea of splitting the texture synthesis problem into three stages. In the first stage stationary and discrete wavelet transforms are applied on the original low resolution image. The LH, HL, HH subbands generated after applying DWT is interpolated. In the second stage, estimated LH, HL, HH subbands are generated by the normalization technique. In the third stage inverse DWT (IDWT) is applied to generate synthesized image. To test the efficacy of the proposed method PSNR values are calculated and compared with the existing methods. The experimental results clearly indicate the efficacy of the proposed method over the existing method.
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Keywords- Wavelet Transform; Interpolation; image resolution enhancement;
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12. Paper 31031273: Frankenstein’s other Monster: Toward a Philosophy of Information Security (pp. 65-70)
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Paul D. Nugent, Ph.D., Center for Security Studies, University of Maryland University College, Adelphi, Maryland
Amjad Ali, Ph.D., Center for Security Studies, University of Maryland University College, Adelphi, Maryland

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Abstract In this paper we take steps toward a philosophy of Information Security. A review of the current state of the philosophy of technology reveals a strong bias toward system capabilities and away from system vulnerabilities. By introducing a systems context to these philosophical dialogues we show that vulnerability is as fundamental to both man-made and natural systems as capability and that this creates new spaces for framing technology as well as for thinking about how humans experience these technologies. Frankenstein’s well-known monster is often invoked as a metaphor for the kinds of problems that man encounters when the technological capabilities that he creates are beyond his control. We contrast this monster with another monster, also created by man, which captures the problems arising not from technology’s capabilities, but from technology’s vulnerabilities. Frankenstein’s other monster is the set of complex networked information systems that need to be understood and protected from various environmental threats. Implications for the philosophy of technology and for the theory and practice of Information Security are discussed.
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Keywords- philosophy of technology, information security, systems engineering
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13. Paper 31031284: Curve Fitting Approximation in Internet Traffic Distribution in Computer Network in Two Market Environment (pp. 71-78)
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Diwakar Shukla, Deptt. Of Maths and Statistics, Dr. H.S. Gour Central University, Sagar, M.P., India.
Kapil Verma, Deptt. Of Computer Science, M.P.Bhoj (Open) University, Bhopal, M.P., India.
B.T. Institute of Research and Technology, Seronja, Sagar, M.P.
Sharad Gangele, Deptt. Of Computer Science, M.P.Bhoj (Open) University, Bhopal, M.P, India

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Abstract — The Internet traffic sharing problem has been studied by many researchers using a Markov chain model. The market situations are also responsible for determining the traffic share. The market prime location has better chance to capture the users proportion. Using Markov chain model one can established mathematical relationship among the system parameters and variables. If the relationship is complicated than it is difficult to predict about the output variable when input variables are known. This paper presents least square curve fitting approach to simplify and present the complicated relationship into a simple linear relationship. This methodology is in use for the case of  traffic sharing under Markov chain model with two operators and two market environments. The coefficient of determination is used as a tool to judge the accuracy of line fitting between two prime system variables. Graphical study is performed to support the findings.
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Keywords- User behavior, Transition Probability Matrix (TPM), Markov Chain Model (MCM), Coefficient of Determination (COD), Confidence Interval.
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14. Paper 31031292: Fuzzy Model for Quantifying Usability of Object Oriented Software System (pp. 79-84)
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Sanjay Kumar Dubey, Mridu and Prof. (Dr.) Ajay Rana
Computer Science and Engineering Department, Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University, NOIDA, (U.P.), India

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Abstract — The demand for quality oriented software system is increasing day by day. Usability is considered as a significant quality factor for successful software system. These days mostly software systems are developed using object-oriented technique. Object-oriented approach enhances the usability of software system when software engineering is combined with usability engineering. Inspite of such significant importance of usability there is no well defined criteria to quantify usability. This paper proposes a fuzzy model to measure usability of an object-oriented software system. The model takes a project, developed in java and quantifies its usability. The obtained value is validated by using AHP technique.
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Keywords- Usability, fuzzy, metrics, object-oriented system, model, AHP.
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15. Paper 31031294: Machine Learning Techniques for Intrusion Detection System (pp. 85-92)
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Shaik Akbar, Research Scholar, Associate Professor, SVIET, Nadamuru.
Dr. J.A. Chandulal, Professor, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam.
Dr. K. Nageswara Rao, Professor & H.O.D, P.V.P.S.I.T, Vijayawada

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Abstract — The fast expansion of computer networks amount of threats are grown extensively. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is only recognized and protects the system successfully. The paper presents Genetic Algorithm and C4.5 algorithm which recognizes attack type connections. These two algorithms consider different features by duration, protocol type, hot etc. in creating a rule set. The Genetic Algorithm and C4.5 algorithms are trained on the KDDCup99 Data Set in order to create a set of rules which applied on Intrusion Detection System classifies different kinds of attacks. Our experimental results are good with high detection rate and low false alarm rate for Denial of Service (DoS), Root to Local (R2L), User to Root (U2R) and Probe attacks. These experimental results are compared with G.A based IDS and C4.5 based IDS.
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Keywords — IDS, KDDCup99 Data Set, Genetic Algorithm, DoS, R2L, U2R, Probe.

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16. Paper 31031296: Developing Agent Oriented Mobile Learning System (pp. 93-98)
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Rajesh Wadhvani, Computer Science Department, National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India
Devshri Roy, Computer Science Department, National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India

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Abstract — Mobile learning through the use of wireless mobile technology allows anyone to access information and learning materials from anywhere and at anytime. As a result, learners have control of when they want to learn and from which location they want to learn. This paper suggest a multi-agent architecture where different agents named interface agent, information agent, mobile agent, learning agent deals with different environments like user environment, network environment and information environment. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a functional architecture that supports the m-learning objectives. This paper is focused on the use of agent technology integrated with hypermedia concept. Mobile agents is used to reduce the communication cost, especially over low bandwidth links. A mathematical model for the time parameters of mobile agent is proposed. The proposed model is analyzed with experimental results. Caching technique is used to reduce the time parameter of mobile agent.
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Keywords: M-Learning, Hypermedia, Mobile agent, Learning agent
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17. Paper 31031297: The Effect of Choosing Proper Overlay Topology on the Peer to Peer Networks Properties (pp. 99-102)
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Mohammed Gharib, Department of Computer Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Amirreza Soudi, Department of Computer Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

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Abstract -
P2P networks have attracted attention of many Internet users due to their ability to share large volume of data (mostly video and music) among people regardless of their locations. The underlay of such networks is usually based on Internet infrastructure. Thus a large amount of the Internet Bandwidth is allocated to transfer different data. As a result, the traffic generated by this type of networks is becoming one of the main problems in the cyber world. Since that most P2P networks choose their graph due to their algorithm, not graph’s properties, so we suggest to choose overlay graph based on graph properties itself; it cause enhancement in the network traffic, network time and many other properties of the P2P networks. To show this fact, we use Chord network, as the most renowned P2P overlay. It uses a ring graph as its overlay topology, we replace it by the more appropriate graph, Hypercube, then study the effects of this replacement on the network properties. We showed that this simple modification enhance the creation time and decrease the control traffic of the network.
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Keywords: P2P networks; Hypercube; Chord; Control traffic; Overlay topology.
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18. Paper 31101075: Modeling Asset Dependency for Security Risk Analysis using Threat-Scenario Dependency (pp. 103-111)
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Basuki Rahmad, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Institut Teknologi Telkom, Indonesia
Jaka Sembiring, School of Electrical Engineering & Informatic, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Suhono Harso Supangkat, School of Electrical Engineering & Informatic, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Kridanto Surendro, School of Electrical Engineering & Informatic, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

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Abstract — The lack of asset dependency consideration in the majority models of information system risk analysis has limitation in business model and value model representation. This paper is aimed to propose the new model of information security risk analysis based on the paradigm of asset dependency using threat-scenario dependency. Based on the experiment, the proposed model has a greater sensitivity compared to model that uses security objective dependency. The features of proposed model also provide a greater flexibility and efficiency to the information security risk analysis cycle.
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Keywords: Asset-Dependency; Risk Analysis; Security; Bayesian-Network
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19. Paper 20021206: Mining Rules from Crisp Attributes by Rough Sets on the Fuzzy Class Sets (pp. 112-120)
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Mojtaba MadadyarAdeh, Dariush Dashchi Rezaee, Ali Soultanmohammadi
Sama Technical and Vocational Training College, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran

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Abstract — Machine learning can extract desired knowledge and ease the development bottleneck in building expert systems. Among the proposed approaches, deriving classification rules from training examples is the most common. Given a set of examples, a learning program tries to induce rules that describe each class. The rough-set theory has served as a good mathematical tool for dealing with data classification problems. In the past, the rough-set theory was widely used in dealing with data classification problems that data sets were containing crisp attributes and crisp class sets. This paper thus extends rough-set theory previous approach to deal with the problem of producing a set of certain and possible rules from crisp attribute by rough sets on the fuzzy class sets. The proposed approach combines the rough-set theory and the fuzzy class sets theory to learn. The examples and the approximations then interact on each other to drive certain and possible rules. The rules derived can then serve as knowledge concerning the data sets on the fuzzy class sets.
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Keywords- Fuzzy set; Rough set; Data mining; Fuzzy class sets; Crisp attributes; Certain rule; Possible rule; α-cut
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20. Paper 150312105: Comparison between Agent Development Frameworks : BEE-GENT and JADE (pp. 121-124)
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Rajesh Wadhwani, Asst. Professor, Computer Science Department, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal (M.P.)
Ankit Singh, M.Tech, Computer Science Department, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal (M.P.)
Devshri Roy, Computer Science Department, National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India

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Abstract — Agent-oriented programming is the software paradigm that brings the concepts of artificial intelligence into the realm of distributed systems. Agent-based distributed systems have been used in wide range of applications. This encouraged us to research on different agent development tools. This paper presents a brief introduction of multi-agent development frameworks: BEE-GENT and JADE. Comparison between their architecture, interaction mechanism and implementation are discussed. Based on the comparison, the advantages and limitations of BEE-GENT and JADE are concluded in the end.
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Keywords: JADE, BEE-GENT, agent framework.
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21. Paper 29021237: Secant Method Based ML estimation of Carrier Frequency Offset in OFDM system (pp. 125-128)
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Dr. M. S. Prasad Babu, Professor, Dept. of CS & SE, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India
K. Seshadri Sastry, PhD Research Scholar, Dept. of CS & SE, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India

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Abstract - This paper proposes a numerical technique based on the Secant method for blind ML (Maximum-Likelihood) estimation of CFO (carrier frequency offset) in OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing) systems. The proposed technique is characterized by low complexity and fast convergence while maintaining the estimation accuracy.
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Keywords – ML estimation, secant method, Carrier Frequency Offset estimation, OFDM
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22. Paper 27031241: Automated Access Control Mechanism in Emergency Department (pp. 129-134)
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Md. Mahmudul Hasan Rafee 1, Kazi Hassan Robin 2
(1, 2) Lecturer, Department of Computer Science Engineering, World University of Bangladesh (WUB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Md. Oly-Uz-Zaman 3, Md. Ridwan Islam 4
(3, 4) Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Islamic University of Technology (IUT), Gazipur, Bangladesh.

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Abstract - It is important to have a secure and reliable access control mechanism for any sensitive case. Medical emergency department is also such type of area where we need a good access control mechanism. So by using PBAC, we can make a reliable access control so that doctors, nurses, patients have sensible access control over there. In PBAC, users do not need to use any complicated things to access into the resource. In this paper, we have found some limitations of the current system. Currently there are 3 types of roles. We have suggested for I) using four types of access level: Unauthenticated user access, Nurse Access, Doctor Access, Administrative access, II) setting a notification system to improve this system III) handling multiple user situation and IV) handling critical situation. There are also problems for overlapping. Two or more proximity zone can overlap with one another and there will be a difficult situation for making a good management of the resource. We worked on that to make it more efficient. Inner zone notification is the addition of this model because person residing in the inner zone cannot be notified about the outsider, so if he can finish quickly or leave if it is not so important then it would be better. Our proposal meets critical situation also. The goal of our work is to make a more secure environment, so that user will be relaxed from worrying about security and trouble. As we want to make a best system for treating patients so that it can make the best way to treat patients. We have vision to improve existing ED work flow by automating certain mundane activities so that care givers can only focus on patient rather than authentication.
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Keywords: Proximity Based Access Control, Automated Access Control, Proximity Zone, Proximity sensor, Authentication, Ultra wide band.
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23. Paper 310312107: IPv6 Multicast in VANET (pp. 135-139)
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Prof. Uma Nagaraj, Department of Computer Engineering, M.A.E Alandi (D), Pune India
Ms. Deesha G. Deotale, Department of Computer Engineering, M.A.E Alandi (D), Pune, India

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Abstract -- VANET is the Mobile ad-hoc network, to provide communications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment, usually described as roadside equipment. VANET turns every participating car into a wireless router or node, allowing cars approximately 100 to 300 meters of each other to connect and, in turn, create a network with a wide range. As cars fall out of the signal range and drop out of the network, other cars can join in, connecting vehicles to one another so that a mobile Internet is created. IPv6 support is needed in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) with geographical routing. Basic IPv6 protocols such as address auto-configuration assume multicast capable link. In this we take the geographical information of each car which is in defined Geographical area through the GPS system, and also capturing the graph of all the car in the network through Google Mapit is presented in the paper, which aims at combining IPv6 networking and C2CNet..
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Keywords — VANET, IPv6, Multicasting V2V, C2C, Multicasing, Geonetworking.
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24. Paper 26031239: Wireless Security System (pp. 140-144)
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B. Kirankumar,@ V.Madhu Babu, * D. Siva Prasad, ** R. Vishnumurthy
* WellFare Institute of Science, Technology & Management.
**BVC college of engineering
@ Dr.KV Subbha Reddy Institute of Technology, Kurnool

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Abstract: - Wireless networking provides many advantages, but it also coupled with new security threats and alters the organization’s overall information security risk profile. Although implementation of technological solutions is the usual respond to wireless security threats and vulnerabilities, wireless security is primarily a management issue. Wireless networks, in general, are more vulnerable to security attacks than wired networks, due to the broadcast nature of the transmission medium. Furthermore, wireless sensor networks have an additional vulnerability because nodes are often placed in a hostile or dangerous environment where they are not physically protected. In a wireless network, based on threats and security, we come across the security mechanisms and the different types of security level for overcoming the problem of attacks.
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Keywords: - Wireless Security, Wireless Threats, Security network, Wireless security, Security level

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