## IIURL PPST

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• Jennifer Kosiak
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• Robert Hoar

### Domain III: Geometry and Measurement

Geometry and its study of shapes and relationships is an effort to understand the nature and beauty of the world. While the need to understand our environment is still with us, the rapid advance of technology has created another need: to understand ideas communicated visually through electronic media. For these reasons, educated people in the 21st Century need a well-developed sense of spatial order to visualize and model real world problem situations.

Two related content areas are geometry and measurement. According to the PRAXIS II Study Guide, these content areas account for 25% of the mathematics component of the Middle School Content Examination and include the following topics.

Geometry (20%): Examinees should have knowledge of relationships in both two and three dimensions, as well as draw inferences on the concepts of parallelism, perpendicularity, congruence and similarity, angle measure, and polygons.

Measurement (5%): Examinees should have knowledge and application of standard units of both the English and metric systems, nonstandard units, estimation, perimeter, area, volume, mass, weight, angle measure, time and temperature.

To review these mathematical concepts, visit the submodules listed below:

### Geometry

Geometrical shapes and solids are all around us. Look out the window and you may see angles, triangles, squares, or circles. In ancient times, people built and interacted with a variety of objects and structures. The shapes and solids that recurred most often were named and their properties were discovered. In this section, you will explore the properties of these two- dimensional shapes.

### Measurement

Measurement is the assignment of a numerical value to an attribute of an object, such as the length of a pencil, the area of a playground, the weight of a rock, or the temperature of a hot cup of coffee. The units that we use to measure are most often standard units, which means that they are universally available and are the same size for all who use them. Sometimes we measure using nonstandard units, which means that we are using units that we have invented. For example, we could measure the length of a room in arm spans instead of meters.

Next Topic > Geometric Properties