1940's

.         Containment: US foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the US tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances

·         Truman Doctrine: US policy of giving economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents, announced by President Harry Truman in 1947. (Initiated to Greece and Turkey)

·         Marshall Plan: US program of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after WWII.
·         Iron Curtain: During the Cold War, the boundary separating the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the mostly democratic nations of Western Europe.
·         Yalta Conference: (February 1945) Meeting of the Big Three (FDR, Churchill, and Stalin). WWII is not over but close and the major powers must decide about the world after the war. Germany is divided into zones of occupation. Germany also agrees to pay for Russian loss of life and property. Stalin gains “control” of Eastern European nation and promises free elections. Stalin also agrees to enter the war against Japan in six months. Later it will be seen as the West giving into the Russians.
·         Potsdam Conference: (July – August 1945) Truman, Stalin, Churchill, Atlee make a declaration of Japan to surrender unconditionally. The leaders agree to spheres of influence and elements of non-cooperation by the Soviet Union begin to be seen. Truman receives knowledge that the atomic bomb is ready to be used.
·         Joseph Stalin: After a power struggle following the death of Vladimir Lenin, Stalin assumes control of the Soviet Union in 1929.  Under Stalin’s dictatorship he imposes strict controls over social, political and economic spheres.  Later, Stalin is a key player in both World War II leadership and its conclusion as well as promoting the arms race and the development of major Cold War tenets.  Stalin dies in 1953 and is succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev.

·         Berlin Airlift: Soviet Union cut off highway, railway, and water traffic into Berlin’s Western Zone (occupied by US, Britain, and France). US and British officials flew food and supplies into West Berlin for nearly 11 months. The block ended in May 1949.

·         Buffer zone: Area between nations that served as protection, or safety zone.
·         NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization—a defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European nations, the US and Canada.
·         Arms Race: Beginning with the advent of nuclear weaponry, and the use of atomic bombs on Japan by the United States during World War II, the arms race begins the continued stockpiling of nuclear weaponry by both the United States and Soviet Union through the four-decade Cold War.
·         Eastern Bloc: Bloc of communist countries (see Soviet satellites)
·         Soviet Satellites: Like the moon is a satellite of the Earth and is controlled by our planet’s gravitational pull, these satellites are the Eastern European nations that were in the Soviet Union’s gravitational pull—the did what the USSR told them to do. Also known as the Eastern Bloc.
·         Mao Zedong (Tse-tung): Became the leader of the Chinese Communists (“Father of Chinese Communism”( while on the Long March—a one year march across 6,000 miles of China while being pursued by Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists—the Chinese Civil War. Chairman Mao was the dictator who instituted the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution/Red Guards. He is buried in a crystal sarcophagus in Tiananmen Square.
·         Jiang Jieshi: Formerly known as Chiang Kai Shek.  Following the death of Sun Yixian (Sun Yat Sen) in 1925, Jiang Jieshi headed the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) as an ally with the Communists against the warlords of China.  In 1927, Jiang Jieshi led an attack against the Communists and virtually wiped out the Communist Party in China until the civil war of 1946-1949 wherein Mao Zedong and the Communists take control of China.  In 1949 Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists flee China for the island of Taiwan and establish a Nationalist government which is recognized by the United States as the official governing body of China until 1972.

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