ICU Services

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Overview of the ICU Services

ICU enables you to write language-independent C and C++ code that is used on separate, localized resources to get language-specific results. ICU supports many features, including language-sensitive text, dates, time, numbers, currency, message sorting, and searching. ICU provides language-specific results for a broad range of languages.

Strings, Properties and CharacterIterator

ICU provides basic Unicode support for the following:

    • Unicode string

    • ICU includes type definitions for UTF-16 strings and code points. It also contains many C u_string functions and the C++ UnicodeString class with many additional string functions.

    • Unicode properties

    • ICU includes the C definitions and functions found in uchar.h as well as some macros found in utf.h. It also includes the C++ Unicode class.

    • Unicode string iteration

    • In C, ICU uses the macros in utf.h for the iteration of strings. In C++, ICU uses the characterIterator and its subclasses.

Conversion Basics

A converter is used to transform text from one encoding type to another. In the case of Unicode, ICU transforms text from one encoding codepage to Unicode and back. An encoding is a mapping from a given character set definition to the actual bits used to represent the data.

Locale and Resources

The ICU package contains the locale and resource bundles as well as the classes that implement them. Also, the ICU package contains the locale data (plain text resource bundles) and provides APIs to access and make use of that data in various services. Users need to understand these terms and the relationship between them.

A locale identifies a group of users who have similar cultural and linguistic expectations for how their computers interact with them and process data. This is an abstract concept that is typically expressed by one of the following:

A locale ID specifies a language and region enabling the software to support culturally and linguistically appropriate information for each user. A locale object represents a specific geographical, political, or cultural region. As a programmatic expression of locale IDs, ICU provides the C++ locale class. In C, Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) use simple C strings for locale IDs.

ICU stores locale-specific data in resource bundles, which provide a general mechanism to access strings and other objects for ICU services to perform according to locale conventions. ICU contains data for its services to support many locales. Resource bundles contain the locale data of applications that use ICU. In C++, the ResourceBundle implements the locale data. In C, this feature is provided by the ures_ interface.

In addition to storing system-level data in ICU's resource bundles, applications typically also need to use resource bundles of their own to store locale-dependent application data. ICU provides the generic resource bundle APIs to access these bundles and also provides the tools to build them.

Display strings, which are displayed to a user of a program, are bundled in a separate file instead of being embedded in the lines of the program.

Locales and Services

The interaction between locales and services is fundamental to ICU. Please refer to the Locales and Services (§) section of the Locale chapter.


Transliteration was originally designed to convert characters from one script to another (for example, from Greek to Latin, or Japanese Katakana to Latin). Now, transliteration is a more flexible mechanism that has pre-built transformations for case conversions, normalization conversions, the removal of given characters, and also for a variety of language and script transliterations. Transliterations can be chained together to perform a series of operations and each step of the process can use a UnicodeSet to restrict the characters that are affected. There are two basic types of transliterators:

Most natural language transliterators (such as Greek-Latin) are written a rule-based transliterators. Transliterators can be written as text files using a simple language that is similar to regular expression syntax.

Date and Time Classes

Date and time routines manage independent date and time functions in milliseconds since January 1, 1970 (0:00:00.000 UTC). Points in time before then are represented as negative numbers.

ICU provides the following classes to support calendars and time zones:

    • Calendar (§)

    • The abstract superclass for extracting calendar-related attributes from a Date value. (§)

    • Gregorian Calendar (§)

    • A concrete class for representing a Gregorian calendar.

    • TimeZone (§)

    • An abstract superclass for representing a time zone.

    • SimpleTimeZone (§)

    • A concrete class for representing a time zone for use with a Gregorian calendar.

C classes provide the same functionality as the C++ classes with the exception of subclassing.

Format and Parse

Formatters translate between non-text data values and textual representations of those values. The result is a string of text that represents the internal value. A formatter can parse a string and convert a textual representation of some value (if it finds one it understands) back into its internal representation. For example, when the formatter reads the characters 1, 0, and 3 followed by something other than a digit, it produces the value 103 in its internal binary representation.

A formatter takes a value and produces a user-readable string that represents that value or takes a string and parses it to produce a value.

ICU provides the following areas and classes for general formatting, formatting numbers, formatting dates and times, and formatting messages:

General Formatting

    • Format

    • Format is the abstract superclass of all format classes. It provides the basic methods for formatting and parsing numbers, dates, strings, and other objects.

    • FieldPosition (§)

    • FieldPosition is a concrete class for holding the field constant and the beginning and ending indices for the number and date fields.

    • ParsePosition (§)

    • ParsePosition is a concrete class for holding the parse position in a string during parsing.

    • Formattable (§)

    • Objects that must be formatted can be passed to the Format class or its subclasses for formatting. The class encapsulates a polymorphic piece of data to be formatted and uses the MessageFormat class. Some formatting operations use the Formattable class to produce a single "type" that encompasses all formattable values such as a number, date, string, and so on.

Formatting Numbers

    • NumberFormat (§)

    • NumberFormat provides the basic fields and methods to format number objects and number primitives into localized strings and parse localized strings to number objects.

    • DecimalFormat (§)

    • DecimalFormat provides the methods used to format number objects and number primitives into localized strings and parse localized strings into number objects in base 10.

    • DecimalFormatSymbols (§)

    • DecimalFormatSymbols is a concrete class used by DecimalFormat to access localized number strings such as the grouping separators, the decimal separator, and the percent sign.

Formatting Dates and Times

    • DateFormat (§)

    • DateFormat provides the basic fields and methods for formatting date objects to localized strings and parsing date and time strings to date objects.

    • SimpleDateFormat (§)

    • SimpleDateFormat is a concrete class used to format date objects to localized strings and to parse date and time strings to date objects using a GregorianCalendar.

    • DateFormatSymbols (§)

    • DateFormatSymbols is a concrete class used to access localized date and time formatting strings, such as names of the months, days of the week, and the time zone.

Formatting Messages

    • MessageFormat (§)

    • MessageFormat is a concrete class used to produce a language-specific user message that contains numbers, currency, percentages, date, time, and string variables.

    • ChoiceFormat (§)

    • ChoiceFormat is a concrete class used to map strings to ranges of numbers and to handle plural words and name series in user messages.

C classes provide the same functionality as the C++ classes with the exception of subclassing.

Searching and Sorting

Sorting and searching non-English text presents a number of challenges that many English speakers are unaware of. The primary source of difficulty is accents, which have very different meanings in different languages, and sometimes even within the same language:

    • Many accented letters, such as the é in café, are treated as minor variants on the letter that is accented.

    • Sometimes the accented form of a letter is treated as a distinct letter for the purposes of comparison. For example, Å in Danish is treated as a separate letter that sorts just after Z.

    • In some cases, an accented letter is treated as if it were two letters. In traditional German, for example, ä is compared as if it were ae.

Searching and sorting is done through collation using the Collator class and its sub-classes RuleBasedCollator and CollationElementIterator as well as the CollationKey object. Collation determines the proper sort sequence for two or more natural language strings. It also can determine if two strings are equivalent for the purpose of searching.

The Collator class and its sub-class RuleBasedCollator perform locale-sensitive string comparisons to create sorting and searching routines for natural language text. Collator and RuleBasedCollator can distinguish between characters associated with base characters (such as 'a' and 'b'), accent marks (such as 'ò', 'ó'), and uppercase or lowercase properties (such as 'a' and 'A').

ICU provides the following collation classes for sorting and searching natural language text according to locale-specific rules:

    • Collator

    • Collator is the abstract base class of all classes that compare strings.

    • CollationElementIterator

    • CollationElementIterator is a concrete iterator class that provides an iterator for stepping through each character of a locale-specific string according to the rules of a specific collator object.

    • RuleBasedCollator

    • RuleBasedCollator is the only built-in implementation of the collator. It provides a sophisticated mechanism for comparing strings in a language-specific manner, and an interface that allows the user to specifically customize the sorting order.

    • CollationKey

    • CollationKey is an object that enables the fast sorting of strings by representing a string as a sort key under the rules of a specific collator object.

C classes provide the same functionality as the C++ classes with the exception of subclassing.

Text Analysis

The BreakIterator services can be used for formatting and handling text; locating the beginning and ending points of a word; counting words, sentences, and paragraphs; and listing unique words. Specifically, text operations can be done to locate the following linguistic boundaries:

    • Display text on the screen and locate places in the text where the BreakIterator can perform word-wrapping to fit the text within the margins

    • Locate the beginning and end of a word that the user has selected

    • Count graphemes (or characters), words, sentences, or paragraphs

    • Determine how far to move in the text store when the user hits an arrow key to move forward or backward one grapheme

    • Make a list of all the unique words in a document

    • Figure out whether or not a range of text contains only whole words

    • Capitalize the first letter of each word

    • Extract a particular unit from the text such as "find me the third grapheme in this document"

The BreakIterator services were designed and developed around an "iterator" or "cursor" style of interface. The object points to a particular place in the text. You can move the pointer forward or backward to search the text for boundaries.

The BreakIterator class makes it possible to iterate over user characters. A BreakIterator can find the location of a character, word, sentence or potential line-break boundary. This makes it possible for a software program to properly select characters for text operations such as highlighting a character, cutting a word, moving to the next sentence, or wrapping words at a line ending. BreakIterator performs these operations in a locale-sensitive manner, meaning that it recognizes text boundaries according to the particular locale ID.

ICU provides the following classes for iterating over locale-specific text:

    • BreakIterator

    • The abstract base class that defines the operations for finding and getting the positions of logical breaks in a string of text: characters, words, sentences, and potential line breaks.

    • CharacterIterator

    • The abstract base class for forward and backward iteration over a string of Unicode characters.

    • StringCharacterIterator

    • A concrete class for forward and backward iteration over a string of Unicode characters. StringCharacterIterator inherits from CharacterIterator.

Text Layout

Some scripts require rendering behavior that is more complicated than the Latin script. These scripts are called as "complex scripts" and while their text is called "complex text." Examples of complex scripts are the Indic scripts (Devanagari, Tamil, Telugu, and Gujarati), Thai scripts, and Arabic scripts.

Complex text has the following main characteristics:

In most cases, the contextual and ligature forms of characters have not been assigned Unicode codepoints and thus cannot be displayed directly using codepoints.

The ICU LayoutEngine provides a uniform interface for preparing complex text for display. The LayoutEngine code is independent of the font and rendering architecture of the underlying platform. All access to the LayoutEngine code is through an abstract base class. A concrete instance of this base class must be implemented for each platform.

The ICU LayoutEngine prepares complex text using the following procedures:

Locale-Dependent Operations

Many of the ICU classes are locale-sensitive, meaning that you have to create a different one for each locale.

Locale-Independent Operations

The following ICU services can be used in all locales as they provide locale-independent services and users do not need to specify a locale ID: