ICA Trends 
June 2015 

The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations 
by Ori Brafman (Author), Rod A. Beckstrom (Book Jacket summary) 2006 

If you cut off a spider's leg, it's crippled; if you cut off its head, it dies. But if you cut off a starfish's leg it grows a new one, and the old leg can grow into an entirely new starfish.

What's the Hidden power Behind the success of Wikipedi a , craigslist, and Skype? What do eBay and General Electric have in common with the Abol itionist and Women's Rights movements? What Fundamental Choice put General Motors and Toyota on vastly Different Paths? How could winning a Supreme Court case be the biggest mistake MGM could have made?

... Ori Brafman and Rod Beckstrom in The Starfish and the Spider That argue Organizations are either Traditional "Spiders," Which have a Rigid Hierarchy Leadership and Top-down, or Revolutionary "Starfish," Which RELY on the power of peer Relationships .

The Starfish and the Spider Explores What happens When Starfish Take on Spiders (SUCH as the Music Industry vs. Napster, Kazaa, and the P2P Services That Followed). It Reveals How ESTABLISHED companies and Institutions, from IBM to Intuit to the US Government, are also learning how to incorporate starfish principles to achieve success The book explores.: 
* How the Apaches fended off the powerful Spanish army for 200 years
* The power of a simple circle
* The importance of catalysts who have an "amazing" ability to bring people together
* How the Internet has become a breeding ground for leaderless organizations
* How Alcoholics Anonymous has reached untold millions with only a shared ideology and without a leader

The starfish Represents the Starfish decentralized "Organizations" while the Spider describes hierarchical command-and-Control Structures. By Patrick Meier / irevolution.net

The Starfish and the Spider is about "what happens when there's no one in charge, when there's no hierarchy. You'd think there would be disorder, even chaos. But in many arenas, a lack of traditional leadership is giving rise to powerful groups that are turning industry and society upside down. "The book lists 8 Principles of Decentralization.
    1. When more skillful, a decentralized Organization tends to even Managing Director More Open and decentralized : Not only did the Apache Indians Survive the Spanish Attacks, BUT amazingly, the Attacks Them served to make even more skillful Them Stronger When the Spanish, the Apaches Became even. more decentralized and even more difficult to conquer (21). 
    2. It's Easy to Starfish for Spiders Mistake : When WE first Encounter a Collection of File-swapping Teenagers, or a Native Tribe in the Arizona desert, Their power is Easy to Overlook (36). 
    3. An Open system does not have Central Intelligence; the Intelligence is spread Throughout the system : It's not necessarily make Better That Open Systems Systems That THEY It's just're Able to respond More Quickly Because each Member has and the Access to Knowledge. ability to make direct use of it (39). 
    4. Open Systems CAN Easily mutate : The Apaches could not Plan Ahead about How to Deal with the European Invaders, BUT once the Spanish Those older up, Apache Society Easily mutated THEY went from Living in Villages to being nomads The Decision did not.. have to be approved by headquarters (40). 
    5. The decentralized Organization sneaks up on you : For a century, the Recording Industry was owned by a Handful of Corporations, and then a Bunch of Hackers Altered the face of the Industry (41).. 
    6. As Managing Director decentralized industries, Overall Profits Decrease : ? The Combined Revenues of the Remaining four [Music Industry Giants] Were 25 percent less than THEY HAD Been in 2001. Where did the Revenues Go Not to P2P players [Napster] The Revenue. disappeared (50). 
    7. Put People into an Open system and THEY Automatically'll want to Contribute : People Take Care in making the great Articles Objective, Accurate, and Easy to Understand [on Wikipedia] (74). 
    8. When more skillful, even Centralized Organizations tend to Managing Director More Centralized : (139). 



Spiders and starfish may look alike, but starfish have a miraculous quality to them Cut off the leg of a spider, and you have a seven-legged creature on your hands;. Cut off its head and you have a dead spider But cut off. the arm of a starfish and it will grow a new one and the severed arm can grow an entirely new body Starfish can achieve this feat because, unlike spiders, they are decentralized;. every major organ is replicated across each arm.

Starfish organizations are taking society and the business world by storm, and are changing the rules of strategy and competition. Like starfish in the sea, spider organizations are centralized and have clear organs and structure. You know who is in charge. You see them coming .

Starfish organizations tend to organize around a shared ideology or a simple platform for communication- around ideologies like al Qaeda or Alcoholics Anonymous. They arise rapidly around the simplest ideas or platforms that can be easily duplicated. Once they arrive they can be massively disruptive and are here to stay.

How can Toyota leverage starfish principles to crush their spider-like rivals, GM and Ford? How did tiny Napster cripple the global music industry? Why is free, community based Wikipedia crushing Encyclopedia Britannica overnight? Why is tiny Craigslist crippling the global newspaper industry? Why is Al Qaeda flourishing and even growing stronger

The Starfish and the Spider by Ori Brafman and Rod A. Beckstrom , Explores the phenomenal power of the new and Unstoppable Starfish Organizations and Will change the Way you look at the World.


The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations 

by Ori Brafman (Author), Rod A. Beckstrom (book jacket summary) 2006 



隱藏於維基百科、克雷格列表(craigslist)、Skype內的成功因素是什麼?eBay和GE與廢奴主義者、女權運動的共同點又是什麼?通用汽車(General Motors)和豐田汽車在根本決策上有什麼不同,導致兩方有了不同的前景?為什麼贏得美國最高法院判決卻是MGM所做出的最大的錯誤?

在歐瑞.布萊夫曼(Ori Brafman)與羅德.貝克斯壯(Rod Becktrom)合著的《海星與蜘蛛》一書中,認為組織有兩種,一種是傳統的「蜘蛛」,特色為僵硬的階級、由上往下的領導機制,另一種則為「海星」,倚賴的是同儕關係衍生出的力量。






* 匿名戒酒協會如何僅在一個共有的理念卻沒有領袖的情況下,連結了數百萬的參與者

The starfish represents decentralized “organizations” while the spider describes hierarchical command-and-control structures. By Patrick Meier / irevolution.net  

    1. 受到攻擊時,原本分權的組織通常更開放、更分權:美國阿帕契原住民部落不僅打敗了西班牙人,而且更神奇的是,被打擊之後他們反而變得更強壯。西班牙人攻擊他們時,阿帕契族人變得更分散,更難打倒(21)。 
    2. 很容易錯把海星想成蜘蛛:當我們第一次遇見一群忙著將檔案存檔的青少年,或是亞利桑納沙漠的原住民部落時,很容易忽略他們的力量(36)。 
    3. 一個開放的系統裡並沒有中央情報系統,情報是分布於整個系統內:並不是說開放的系統就是比較好的,只是在這樣的系統下,每個人都可以掌握知識,可以直接運用,因此比較容易做反應。 
    4. 開放的系統會快速變化:阿帕契族人並無法事先規劃怎麼對抗歐洲的入侵者,不過西班牙人一出現,他們的社會就快速應變。他們從居住在部落的習性轉為游牧族。這個決定並不需要總部事先批准(40)。 
    5. 分權的組織會趁你不注意時偷偷現身:在過去的一整個世紀以來,音樂錄製產業僅把持於少數企業的手中,接著卻有一些駭客完全顛覆這個產業的生態(41)。 
    6. 隨著產業權力擴散,整體的利潤下降:[音樂界大廠牌]所剩的四家去年營收總合僅有2001年的四分之一。剩下的到哪裡去了?這收入並沒有進入P2P的口袋(Napster),直接蒸發(50)。 
    7. 將人們帶入開放的系統,他們就會自動自發地投入:他們會自己將這些東西以客觀、正確、容易理解的方式來呈現[如維基百科](74)。 
    8. 受到攻擊時,集權的組織通常會變得更集權:(139)。 





海星型組織則通常是聚焦於共有的理念或是以相同的想法為中心而規範出簡單的溝通平台,像是阿蓋達基地組織(al Qaeda)或匿名戒酒會這樣的理念,通常是一些很簡單的想法或平台,可以很快速複製。但是形成之後,就會很有爆發力,而且會歷久不衰。

豐田汽車是如何發揮海星原則來打倒GM、福特這些競爭對手?弱小的Napster如何打垮音樂產業?為什麼免費、社區為導向的維基百科一夕間打垮大英百科?為什麼克雷格列表(Craigslist)可以讓全球的新聞產業跛腳?為什麼阿蓋達基地組織(al Qaeda)組織越來越強壯?

由歐瑞.布萊夫曼(Ori Brafman)與羅德.貝克斯壯(Rod Becktrom)合著的《海星與蜘蛛》一書探索海星組織顛覆性且無法抵擋的力量,將會挑戰我們看待世界的方式。