Hyperuricosuria Information

Canine Hyperuricosuria


Hyperuricosuria means elevated levels of uric acid in the urine. This trait predisposes dogs to form stones in their bladders or sometimes kidneys. These stones often must be removed surgically and can be difficult to treat. Hyperuricosuria is inherited as a simple autosomal recessive trait. The trait can occur in any breed but is most commonly found in the Dalmatian, Bulldog and Black Russian Terrier.  Dalmatians are considered to be homozygous for hyperuricosuria. A mutation in exon 5 of the gene Solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9) has been found to be associated with hyperuricosuria in dogs.  A DNA test for this specific mutation can determine if dogs are normal or if they carry one or two copies of the mutation. Dogs that carry two copies of the mutation will be affected and susceptible to develop bladder/kidney stones.

Detailed Hyperuricosuria Information

The VGL offers a DNA test for hyperuricosuria to assist owners and breeders in identifying affected and carrier dogs. The test uses DNA collected from buccal swabs thus avoiding invasive blood collection. Breeders can use results from the test as a tool for selection of mating pairs to avoid producing affected dogs. The test is offered to all breeds, including Dalmatian, Bulldog, Black Russian Terrier, Weimaraner , Jack Russel/Parsons Terrier, Pitbull, American Staffordshire Terrier, Giant Schnauzer, South African Boerboel, German Shepherd, Large Munsterlander, and Australian Shepherd.

The following chart details the expected outcomes of matings for all possible combinations of hyperuricosuria genotypes.







100% N/N

50% N/N, 50% N/HU

100% N/HU


50% N/N, 50% N/HU

25% N/N, 50% N/HU, 25% HU/HU

50% N/HU, 50% HU/HU


100% N/HU

50% N/HU, 50% HU/HU

100% HU/HU

Results reported as:


no copies of hyperuricosuria mutation; dog is normal


1 copy of hyperurisosuria mutation; dog is normal but is a carrier


2 copies of hyperuricosuria mutation; dog is affected and susceptible to develop bladder/kidney stones.

Research Hyperuricosuria is ongoing to determine other breeds with this problem.  We recommend testing any dog that has formed kidney or bladder stones composed of urate or uric acid.

Clear By Parentage

Orthopedic Foundation for Animals  policy.

As a greater number of DNA based disease tests become available, a policy regarding the clearing of offspring out of DNA tested parents has become necessary.

For direct mutant gene tests only, the OFA will issue clearances to untested offspring:

  • If the sire and dam have both been DNA tested “Clear,”

  • If the sire and dam’s DNA disease test results have been OFA registered, and

  • If all three (sire/dam/offspring) have been DNA identity profiled and parentage verified.

The DNA profile paperwork must be submitted along with a completed OFA DNA-based disease test application. The resulting OFA certification will have a suffix of “CBP” (clear by parentage), indicating that the dog itself was not tested and that the clearance was based on the sire and dam’s test results, and known science at the time. Because of the possibility of new mutations or as of yet undiscovered gene mutations, only first generation offspring will be cleared.

For linkage or marker based tests where a margin of error including both false positives and negatives exists, the OFA will not issue any clearances to untested dogs.

DNA based disease screening is an evolving area. This policy is subject to change by action of the OFA Board of Directors as technology and science advance.

Black Russian Terriers Hyperuricosuria Database



UC Davis Veterinary Medicine.

Orthopedic Foundation for Animals.