The Hybrid Vehicle


Hybrid Vehicles use two or more distinct power sources

to move the vehicle. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors.
hybrid coup car














Hybrid electric-petroleum vehicles

The term hybrid vehicle is used, it most often refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These encompass such vehicles as the AHS2 (Chevrolet Tahoe, GMC Yukon, Chevrolet Silverado, Cadillac Escalade, and the Saturn Vue), Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid Lexus RX 400h and 450h and others. A petroleum-electric hybrid most commonly uses internal combustion diesel engines, powered by a variety of fuels) and electric batteries to power electric motors. There are many types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains, from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid, which offer varying advantages and disadvantages. engines (generally gasoline or

Ferdinand Porsche in 1900 developed the first gasoline-electric series-hybrid automobile in the world, setting speed records using two motor-in-wheel-hub arrangements with a combustion generator set proving the electric power. While liquid fuel/electric hybrids date back to the late 1800s, the braking regenerative hybrid was invented by David Arthurs, an electrical engineer from Springdale, Arkansas in 1978–79. His home-converted Opel GT was reported to return as much as 75MPG with plans still sold to this original design, and the "Mother Earth News" modified version on their website

Plug-in-electric-vehicle (PEV) is becoming more and more common. It has the range needed in locations where there are wide gaps with no services. The batteries can be plugged in to house electricity for charging, as well being charged while the engine is running.



                                   
Series-Hybrid
hybrid technology
Series or serial-hybrid have also been referred to as a Range-Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV);  range extension can be accomplished with either series or parallel hybrid layouts. The series-hybrid looks promising and looks to be the most common form of hybrid vehicle in the near future.

Series-hybrid vehicles are driven by the electric motor. Unlike piston internal combustion engines, electric motors are efficient with exceptionally high power/weight ratios providing adequate torque over a wide speed range. Unlike combustion engines electric motors matched to the vehicle do not require a transmission between the engine and wheels shifting torque ratios. Transmissions add weight, bulk and sap power from the engine. Mechanical automatic shifting transmissions can be complex. A series-hybrid system, the combustion engine drives an electric generator instead of directly driving the wheels. The generator provides power for the driving electric motors.

This arrangement is not new being common in diesel-electric locomotives and ships. Ferdinand Porsche used this set up in the early 20th century in racing cars, effectively inventing the series-hybrid arrangement. Porsche named the system, System Mixt. A wheel hub motor arrangement, with a motor in each of the two front wheels was used, setting speed records. This arrangement is referred to as an electric transmission, as the electric generator and driving motor replaced a mechanical transmission. The vehicle could not move unless the internal combustion engine was running. The setup was never proved to be suitable for production cars being unable to synchronise the electric driving motors with the generator set power, resulting in higher fuel consumption. Technology has caught up, with modern computer engine management systems optimizing generator set running to match the power needed for the electric traction. Electric motors have become smaller, lighter and efficient over the years. These advances have given the advantage to the in normal operating conditions, over a conventional internal combustion engine and mechanical automatic transmission.


Another subtype added to the hybrid market is the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The PHEV is a general fuel-electric (parallel or serial) hybrid with increased energy storage capacity (usually Li-ion batteries). It may be connected to mains electricity supply at the end of the journey to avoid charging using the on-board internal combustion engine. This concept is attractive to those seeking to minimize on-road emissions by avoiding, or at least minimizing – the use of ICE during daily driving. As with pure electric vehicles, the total emissions saving, for example in CO2 terms, is dependent upon the energy source of the electricity generating company. This type of vehicle may also be financially attractive so long as the electrical energy being used is cheaper than the petrol/diesel that they would have otherwise used. Current tax systems in many European countries use mineral oil taxation as a major income source. This is generally not the case for electricity, which is taxed uniformly for the domestic customer, however that person uses it. Some electricity suppliers offer price benefits for off-peak night users, which may further increase the attractiveness of the plug-in option for commuters and urban motorists.

hybrid prototype car

Fuel cell, electric hybrid

The fuel cell hybrid is generally an electric vehicle equipped with a fuel cell. The fuel cell as well as the electric battery are both power sources, making the vehicle a hybrid. Fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel and power the electric battery when it is depleted. The Chevrolet Equinox FCEV, Ford Edge Hyseries Drive and Honda FCX are examples of a fuel cell/electric hybrid.