- Okay, so you want a job in computing. This is as good a time as any
to define the phrase "a job in computing." In the context of this
article, any job that involves spending most of your day working at
a computer is "a job in computing." If that sounds like something
you're keen on doing, here's how to increase your chances of
Survey the field. The first thing you need to think
about is exactly what kind of job in computing you want.
Each job has its own special requirements, so you should assess
your own skills and then decide which job might be best for you.
Supply and demand is important too. Remember that traditional
programming jobs are moving to India, China, etc. But new roles are
coming up like Business Analysis, Testing and Compliance. Please
see Types of Computing Jobs below for an overview of the
most common types of computer jobs.
- Play. Sit down in front of the computer and just play
and experiment. This is a great way to learn new programs, but
isn't the best way to learn how to configure an operating system or
write programs. At the very least, you'll become comfortable with
computers by doing this.
- Find a Mentor. You probably know someone who knows more
about computers than you do. Learn from them. Once their knowledge
is used up, find someone even more knowledgeable to learn from.
Soon, you'll be the expert, and people will start coming to
- Read a Book or a Website. These days, there are websites
that teach you just about anything to do with computers, from the
basics all the way through advanced programming.
- Get certified by reliable company. Same company that
offers software (Red Hat, Sun, Microsoft, Oracle and many others)
may offer the paid official exams, on success giving the written
confirmation about your competence.
As they do not teach you and
just test the existing knowledge, this is frequently very cheap in
comparison to the paid course. You will win against candidates that
do not know the technologies they say they understand and just list
the known names in their CV.
- Get On the Job Training. If you already have a
computer-related job (but want a better one), find someone at work
you can learn from, or take on new projects where you can learn as
you go along. It will be hard at first, but the more you learn, the
better your skills will become, and you'll become eligible for
promotions or for better jobs at other companies.
- Take a Course. This is the most obvious approach, and
yet many in the industry have long careers in computing in any of
the jobs above without any formal training. Still, not all computer
skills are easy to teach yourself, and as more and more students
graduate with degrees in computer science, the competition will
make it harder for the self-trained to land the best jobs. A
degree, certificate course, or specialized certification such as an
MCSE will greatly improve the odds.
- Get Your Foot in the Door. Once you have the skills you
need to get a job, you still have the hardest part ahead of you -
getting hired. Since your resume probably doesn't reflect computer
work experience, you'll need to add a "Skills" section that lists
all of the skills you've acquired. You might also want to mention
something about computers in an "Interests" or "Hobbies" section.
Make sure your resume looks extremely professional. You're
submitting it to folks who use a word processor to write their
grocery list - you don't want to give them something you threw
together on an old ribbon typewriter.
- Network. Find out where the computer guys (or girls)
hang out. You'll be surprised how much info you can get just
talking to people in the field. And you might also find that it's
not your cup of tea. Most people that WORK in computing don't fit
the stereotype. There are a lot of game players in the industry,
but there are very few high paying jobs that allow you to play all
day. It is a real career that requires a LOT of work and a lot of
Types of Computing Jobs
- Data Entry - This is a job just about anyone can get.
Basically, you take information from a piece of paper and use it to
fill out a form on the computer. Many old hands who started out in
this role are now heading up computer departments.
- Secretarial/Administrative - This position involves some
basic office skills. Not only must you understand the basics of
using your computer and a few applications, but you'll probably
also be expected to take dictation, answer phones, type letters,
and keep things organized. In terms of computer skills, you should
know how to use word processing, accounting, and spreadsheet
programs at the very least. People in this role often move into
other computing roles such as Managers, Meeting Organizers and
Human Resources. Naturally you can move into mainstream computing
areas, particularly QA and Testing.
- Power User - Not so much a position as a status of being
an extremely proficient user of (typically) Microsoft Office or
similar tools. Advanced users of these tools become familiar with
the basics of computer programming through starting with Excel
macros or Access database programming. One can become very valuable
to a small business by learning such skills, and even start to
consult with other small businesses at rates typically starting
around $50 an hour.
- Customer Service/Telesales - These positions usually
place a higher emphasis on phone skills than computer skills, but
you should know at least the basics of how to use your
- Technical Support (Production Support) - Most companies
consider technical support to be an entry-level computer job. You
are expected to know the operating systems on which the product
you'll support will run, and you'll also need to know the basics of
any programs that product might interact with. The good news is
that the company will teach you what you need to know about their
products - you just need to learn everything else. Success in
technical support requires good problem-solving skills and a great
deal of attention to detail. Technical Support and Problem
Management is a rapidly growing area. Users now rely heavily on
Help Lines, International Support Centers and the like.
- Software Quality Assurance (SQA) Engineer - You need to
know as much as the best technical support personnel. You need to
be a problem solver, a detective, and sometimes even a Customer
Service representative. You'll also need some basic programming
skills, since more and more companies are beginning to rely on
automated testing. The best SQA engineers understand a little (or a
lot) about every aspect of computers, from building them to using
them to programming them.
- Software Engineer (Developer or Programmer) - To get a
job at a top software shop such as Microsoft or Google, you'll need
a degree in computer science and detailed understanding of the
field. However getting a developer position in some small company
may be easier. What do you need to know is the language in which
you'll be programming. It is also important to know database
fundamentals and (if programming for Windows) the Windows API.
Knowing more than one programming language is very helpful.
Understanding many of the basic fundamentals of computer science
(e.g. linked lists, arrays, pointers, object oriented programming)
will be essential in demonstrating your proficiency.
- Business Analyst (Analyst or Systems Analyst or
Analyst/Programmer or User Analyst) - This is a relatively new
title, but the role is as "old as the hills". People can become a
BA with any mix of business and computing skills. It is really a
matter of looking at what the company is really after. A good BA
should know the process from end to end. The BA is primarily the
connection between the business and the developers. To get into
this job, and into computing, good knowledge of a business is
helpful. So, if you gain good knowledge through your job, and maybe
do a computer course, you can get your foot in the door.
- Tester (Test Manager) - This one may not seem glamorous,
but Testing is seen by the employers as being Number One in
importance. It is often an easy way to break into computing, and
you don't get many people say "Boy, I really want to be a Tester."
Once in this job, you really get to know the whole process, and can
easily get into Compliance or Management. Caution. Its usually the
Test Manager, who gets the blame if the implementation goes wrong.
But who cares. He can always get another job, as most know about
- Database Administrator/Programmer (DBA) - Database
specialists are often software engineers, but not all software
engineers work with databases, and some database specialists do not
have high formality software engineering or computer science
training, having come in via support-oriented career paths which
can lead into database administration. DBAs are highly compensated
and command considerable influence in typical corporate IT
settings. Some DBAs get started by programming Access databases,
move to SQL Server, and then to Oracle, through pursuing applied,
product-specific certifications. Once a DBA, one can then move into
data architecture and systems analysis.
- MIS/Network Administration/User Support - MIS
(Management of Information Systems) is responsible for making sure
that a company's network of computers is working properly at all
times. This includes everything from showing the users how to send
an e-mail to upgrading or repairing the computers to managing
network resources such as file servers, network printers, and
Internet firewalls. For user support positions, you need to be an
expert at the operating systems in use by computers on the network
and the network itself. You also need to know the fundamentals of
hardware repair, the Internet, and the applications in use on the
network. Network administrators need to know all of that plus how
to set up network hardware, cabling, and network resources. Larger
companies prefer their MIS personnel to have (or at least be
pursuing) special certifications that prove they know their
- Technical Writer (Technical Author, Documentation
Analyst) - To be a Technical Writer, you must understand
computer basics and the product about which you're writing. You
also need to know the programs you'll be using for your writing,
such as word processors, desktop publishing programs, web languages
such as HTML, and Windows Help-authoring tools. You'll also need to
be a good writer (or trick people into thinking you are). The best
Technical Authors tend to be ex or trained Journalists or English
Teachers, who have an obvious head start. Ex Teachers do have a
reputation of doing very well in the computer arena, possibly due
to their presentation and management skills.
- Compliance - This is a rapidly increasing area, due to
exposure of Companies to large payouts (can run into billions) to
Government Authorities due to breaking the rules. To get into this
area, you just need to show an interest in checking what others do,
and making rules. Employers are interested primarily in your
knowledge of computer processes, for example, how the Accounts
Receivable System works, end to end. Compliance sections generally
have large budgets too!
- Medicine/Diagnostic Imaging - There are lots of new jobs
for computer literate people in Medicine. CT, PET, and MRI scanners
all run complex software that should be operated by people with
good computer skills.
- Production Analyst - Another key position. This guy runs
the "real" system, and also is in charge of OKing the new systems
that the developers are writing. So, if you are into power, this is
the job for you.
- Medicine/Diagnostic Imaging - There are lots of new jobs
for computer literate people in Medicine. CT, PET, and MRI scanners
all run complex software that should be operated by people with
good computer skills.
- Computer Manager (Project Leader, Executive Director, Vice
President and others) - There are probably more of these jobs
in computing than anything else, so don't rule it out. The industry
is top heavy and full of titles, especially now that much of the
real work is being done in India! Remember that these guys can earn
very big money. The key job of a manager in computing is to
convince users to keep funding computer projects.
- Computer Contractor - Even though this role has been
around for a long time, there is still a demand. Computer
Contractors are usually experienced Professionals but not Managers.
Typical Contractor roles are Business Analyst, Tester and
Developer. Remember that many computer teams are made up
predominantly of Contractors, and that they can make good money, in
a booming economy.
- Onshore Consultant - Typically a Senior Position but
based in a foreign country. Onshore Consultants can be anything
from Senior Managers to Developers. An example of an Onshore
Consultant is a Professional from India working in Canada.
- Offshore Consultant - A growing industry. The Offshore
Consultant is based in his own country and gets his work from
overseas, for example, a Developer based in China getting
Specifications from Singapore.
- Business skills and communications skills are highly valued by
employers. Programmers who can communicate effectively both
verbally and in writing have an edge in the job market. Those who
have a business skills, especially an MBA, are also more desirable
- Learn as many operating systems as you can. With the growing
markets in Macintosh and Linux and an apparent shortage of
professionals in these areas, being knowledgable in multiple
operating systems in addition to Windows can give you an edge in
the technical job market.
- A good all-around computer tutorial is The Secret Guide to
Computers by Russ Walter. Like the "Dummies" series, it's good
for getting your feet wet, but rather than a fair amount about one
particular topic, it includes a smaller amount about just about any
computer topic, from buying a computer all the way through the
basics of programming in several different languages. If you're
teaching yourself how to be a software engineer, check out the
"Teach Yourself ____ in 21 Days" series by Sams Publishing, "___ -
How to Program" by Deitel & Deitel, or the "No Experience
Required" series by Sybex. There is also a book by O'Reilly
Publishing for just about every topic in computing, and that's what
the professionals have on their desks at work (even if they have a
secret stash of "Dummies" books at home).
- Most offices use Microsoft products like at least MS Office and
Outlook, plus other Microsoft applications. Most businesses use a
few special applications that are rare. Find out what they use at
the office in which you wish to work, and make sure you know how to
use that software. Knowing their special (or outdated) software can
make the difference.
- Right now the hot languages for programmers to know are Java,
C/C++, Visual Basic, PHP, Perl and C#. The languages of choice
change every so often, hence check the Tiobe index and other similar review sites for the
- It really helps to know someone on the inside. If a resume is
submitted by an employee for a friend, most companies will conduct
an interview as a courtesy, even if the resume doesn't quite meet
their qualification requirements. In the interview, you can show
them what you know. Be prepared, though - they may quiz you. Be
careful not to put something on your resume unless you're actually
competent in it.
- Nothing in this game beats experience. So that is why it is
important to get that experience. Read the previous point
carefully, as contacts are the easiest way to get a job.
- College is great for getting a job of any type. It's the best
investment you'll ever make.
- The best bet if you don't have a 4 year degree is to go to a
junior college. Most have certificate programs in PC Support/Help
Desk or Lan/Networking or Programming. The curriculum from these
programs are essentially what you would get if you attended a 4
year college and got a degree in computer science but the
certificate program leaves out the unrelated classes such as Math,
Science, English etc. This is a great way to get a good educational
background in IT and best part is, is that its cheaper than a
- Special computer software certifications are a good way to
prove industry standard knowledge and make you somewhat more
independent of a rock-solid IT background and long years of
experience. These certifications exist for Microsoft OS'es and
products, but also for the most common databases as well as UNIX
OS'es, and they are fortunately coming up for some of the Linux
distributions now. Contact a training center for the status on
certified Linux training and cost.
- You may lose a lot of money without use if the company where
you take courses or certifications does not count as reliable
itself. Usually only the owner / author of the technology can issue
a serious certificate.
- Once you're hired, it doesn't end there. Keep learning new
skills constantly. Once you think you've learned enough, you
might as well apply for unemployment. This industry is always
evolving. If you don't evolve with it, you'll be replaced by
someone who will.
- Most careers involving computers require that you use a PC, so
if you learn on a Mac, you may have a problem.
- Soft skills are also important in computing, and office
politics is present even in this field.
Why & how to make a cv (curriculum vitae)?
If you are looking for a job, then it is very important that you
understand how to offer yourself in the best way to an employer. This
is done by writing a 'CV' (curriculum vitae - Latin for 'life story'), Called in some countries a 'resume'.
Different countries may have different requirements and styles for CV
resumes. So you must follow the correct practice for your culture and
country. However, we will try to give you important principles and
advice. A CV resume is quite simply an 'advert' to sell your self to an
employer. You should send a CV to an employer when they ask for one in
a job advert, or when you are enquiring if any jobs are available. So
the purpose of your CV is to make you attractive, interesting, worth
considering to the company and so receive a job interview. An employer
may have several hundred enquiries about a single job; he or she will
only choose a few people who appear suitable for interview.
Our interactive curriculum vitae (cvs) Builder provides you with an opportunity to create and save your own cvs, View CV examples for other people and can choose HTML CV or flash CV.
our collection of free sample resumes, cover letters, curriculum vitae,
resignation letters, thank you letters, letters to accept, or decline a
new job, and more career-related letters you can use for your job
A CV or curriculum vitae is a marketing tool. With your CV
you will be able to promote yourself. Imagine the CV as being a
brochure that will list the benefits of a particular service. The
service being your time and skills! When writing a CV looks at it from
your employer's point of view. Would you stand out against the
competition (the other candidates) and would the manager want to talk
you for a possible job? You have to ask yourself these questions when writing your CV or curriculum vitae.
|Birth Birth of date:||:||8 / 6 / 1990 (DD/MM/YYYY)|
|Title of Job:||:||Retail Sales|
|2004-2006 Started at Nelson
College for Girls as a boarder and also got a Scholarship to go there.
The subjects i took were English, Maths, Social Studies, Japanesse,
Fabrics, Physical Education And Science. 2006-2007 Attented Hutt Valley
High, The subjects i took were English, Maths, Human Biology,
Geography, Physical Education And Home Econmics.|
|I just recently left working at
Burger King in Timaru to live in Lower Hutt, I worked there for about a
month and a half. Have also done baby sitting and delivering pamphlets|
|I am very good with computers, I
dont have any qualifications in computering or anything but have been
using them since a very young age and have developed alot of computer
| Im a good worker, very
responsible and dedicated to my job. Im a very open minded person with
a bubbly personality. I get along with strangers very easily and find i
can talk to almost anyone, any where. |
|Burger King, Timaru
Ph. 03 6848038
Baby Sat For,
|I love to play sports in my spare time and just being around my friends and family, having a good time.|
|Birth Birth of date:||:||30 / 10 / 1970 (DD/MM/YYYY)|
|Title of Job:||:||ACCOUNTANT|
|FEBRUARY -JUNE 2008 HATFIELD CLOSE COMMUNITY CENTRE
SAGE LINE 50 ACCOUNTING COURSES
SEPTEMBER 1986-JULY 1990 OSH STATE PEDAGOGICAL COLLEGE ,KYRGYZSTAN
DIPLOMA IN EARLY YEARS EDUCATION|
|MAY 2000-APRIL 2006 "BERBANG LTD"
PROPERTY LETTING AGENCY.POSITION-DIRECTOR.MAIN
RESPONSIBILITIES:MARKETING,DEALING WITH CLIENTS AND
CUSTOMERS,CO-OPERATING WITH LOCAL LETTING COMPANIES,PREPARING QUARTERLY
AND YEAR END REPORTS TO TAX OFFICCE AND SOCIAL SECURITY OFFICCE.|
|WORD,SAGE LINE 50,FOTOSHOP,COREL DRAW|
|AVAILABLE ON REQUEST|
|REGISTERED AS AN ACCA STUDET,ALSO OING MY ECL COURSES AT THE MOMENT.|
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Job Network is an Australian Government-funded
network of organisations (private and community, and originally also
government) that is contracted by the Australian Government, through
the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations
(DEEWR), to deliver employment services to unemployed job seekers on
Government income support payments and employers.
Job Network providers are initially selected for the network and
allocated business through a competitive public tender process, with
contract periods running for varying lengths of time determined by the
Australian Government. There are over 1000 sites across Australia
delivering Job Network services. These sites are managed by DEEWR.
To be eligible for support, people need to be in receipt of eligible income support payments, such as Newstart Allowance, Youth Allowance, the Disability Support Pension or Parenting Payment.
- 1 History
- 2 Services
- 3 Contracts and performance ratings
- 4 Major agencies
- 5 Industry-related organisations
- 6 External links
Job Network began in 1998 after the disolution of the Commonwealth
Employment Service (CES). In 1996/7 legislation was introduced into the
Australian Federal Parliament to combine the functions of the CES and
the Department of Social Security. As a result Centrelink was created
to provide monetary welfare support to people across Australia. The
delivery of employment services was tendered out to Job Network
organisations whose primary responsibility is to assist people into
Job Network is a competitive industry with organiations competing
for contracts through tenders. Job Network is currently in its 4th
The services provided by Job Network differ according to the length
of unemployment of the job seeker, their age, circumstances or the
allowance they are receiving from Centrelink. Services include:
- Job Search Support (0-3 months unemployed): Job Networks assist in
creating an online resume for the purpose of applying for jobs through
DEEWR's online Australian JobSearch (AJS) website , and automatically matching the job seeker's knowledge, skills and experience to new jobs that are available.
- Intensive Support (3+ months of unemployment): This part of the
employment services continuum includes Job Search Training (JST), where
job seekers receive training to develop their skills in resume
development, application writing, cold canvassing, goal setting, career
planning and interview techniques.
- Intensive Support Mutual obligation (at 6, 18, 30, 42, 54 etc
months of unemployment): Job seekers are required to participate for 6
months in a mutual obligation activity such as Work for the Dole,
Training or Community Work. Mutual obligation is a way of demanding job
seekers to "give something back" to their community. While receiving
unemployment benefits, all job seekers with a participation requirement
are to participate in a mutual obligation activity in a charitable or
community-based organisation for 6 months out of every 12. For job
seekers with a full time participation requirement, this equates to 390
hours of activity or 15 hours per week.
- Intensive Support Customised Assistance (at 12 and 24 months): Job
seekers are provided with one-on-one case management to address their
barriers to employment and provide intensive support to assist them
- Very Long Term Unemployed Review (at 30 months): Job seekers are
assessed as to how genuine they are in their job seeking and their Job
Network Agency may recommend referral to Full Time Work For The Dole.
Full-time Work for the Dole is an option when the job seeker in
question has demonstrated a pattern of work avoidance, such as
declining jobs, not attending interviews, or intentionally sabotaging
their job prospects.
 Contracts and performance ratings
- Contract 1 1998-2000
- Contract 2 2000-2003
- Contract 3 2003-2006
- Contract 3 Extension 2006-2009
Job Network agencies are rated by DEEWR every six months (or
milestone) on performance, based on placing clients onto work and
keeping them employed for 13 and/or 26 weeks. A Star Rating system is
used ranging from one to five stars, with half star increments; five
stars indicating the highest level of performance.
The ratings are calculated using a regression model that looks at
the number of jobs or outcomes that a site has achieved. As the details
of the model have not been released, agencies are often unsure what
their next rating will be. JN Solutions is currently the only organisation that provides a method for predicting star ratings.
On 1 August 2007 DEEWR closed most sites that got lower than 3 stars in the 31/12/2006 star ratings.
 Major agencies
Agencies contracted under the Job Network include MAXEmployment, Mission Australia, The Salvation Army and the Society of St Vincent de Paul.
 Industry-related organisations
The peak industry bodies for Job Network members are Jobs Australia and National Employment Services Association
(NESA). These bodies represent the needs and wishes of the employment
services sector to the Australian Government. Professional development
within the industry is provided by organisations such as Diversity@Work, Duality, Job Network Assistand Work Savvy Parents to ensure staff are current and up to date with policies and procedures.
JN Solutions is an organisation that provides a method for managing the performance of the Job Network contract.
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
An employer is a person or institution that hires employees or workers.
Employers offer hourly wages or a salary in exchange for the worker's labor power, depending upon whether the employee is
paid by the hour or a set rate per pay period. A salaried employee is typically
not paid more for more hours worked than the minimum, whereas wages are paid
for all hours worked, including overtime.
Employers include everything from individuals hiring a babysitter to governments and businesses which may
hire many thousands of employees. In most western societies, governments are
the largest single employers but most of the work force is employed in small
and medium businesses in the private sector.
Although employees may contribute to an enterprise, the employer maintains
control over the productive base of land and capital, and is the entity named
in contracts. The employer typically maintains ownership of intellectual
property created by an employee within the scope of employment and as a
function thereof. These inventions or creations become the property of the
employer based on a concept known as "works for
An employers’ relative level of power over employees is dependent upon
numerous factors; the most influential being the nature of the employment
relationship. The relationship employers share with employees is affected by
three significant factors – interests, control and motivation. It is up to
employers to effectively manage and balance these factors to ensure a
harmonious and productive working relationship.
Interests can be best described as monetary constraints and economic
pressures placed on organizations in their pursuit of profits. It covers facets
such as labour productivity, wages and the effect of financial markets on
Wood et al (2004, p 355) describe control as being either output focused,
focusing on desired targets with managers defining, and using, their own
methods for reaching targets, or process controls, which specify the manner in
which tasks will be achieved (Ibid, p. 357). Employer and managerial control
within an organization rests at many levels and has important implications for
staff and productivity alike, with control forming the fundamental link between
desired outcomes and actual processes. Employers must balance interests such as
decreasing wage constraints with a maximization of labour productivity in order
to achieve a profitable and productivec employment relationship.
Motivation is the third and most difficult of the factors for employers to
effectively manage in the employment relationship . Employee motivation can
often be in direct conflict with control mechanisms of employers, and can be
broadly defined as that which energizes, directs and sustains human behaviour (
Stone, 2005, p 412). Dubin (1958, p 213) further elaborates on this, noting
motivation as “something that moves a person to action, and continues him in
the course of action already initiated.”
The employment relationship is thus a difficult challenge for employers to
manage, as all three facets are often in direct competition with each other,
with interests, control and motivation often clashing in the equally important
quest for individual employee autonomy, employer command and control and
Look up employee in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
An employee contributes labour and expertise to an endeavour. Employees
perform the discrete activity of economic production. Of the three factors of
production, employees usually provide the labour.
Specifically, an employee is any person hired by an employer to do a
specific "job". In most modern economies, the term employee refers to
a specific defined relationship between an individual and a corporation, which
differs from those of customer, or client.
Becoming an employee
Most individuals attain the status of employee after a thorough process of
interviews with several departments within a company[citation
needed]. If the individual is determined to be a satisfactory
fit for the position, he is given an official offer of employment within that
company for a defined starting salary and position. This individual then has
all the rights and privileges of an employee, which may include medical
benefits and vacation days. The relationship between a corporation and its
employees is usually handled through the human resources department, which
handles the incorporation of new hires, and the disbursement of any benefits
which the employee may be entitled, or any grievances that employee may have.
There are differing classifications of workers within a company. Some are part-time and Some are full-time
and permanent and receive a guaranteed salary, while others are hired for short
term contracts or work as temps or consultants. These latter differ from
permanent employees in that the company where they work is not their employer,
but they may work through a temp-agency or consulting firm. In this respect, it
is important to distinguish independent contractors
from employees, since the two are treated differently both in law and in most taxation systems.
Many companies further classify employees as exempt or non-exempt.
This designation is used to separate employees that are eligible for overtime
from those that are not. An exempt employee is one that is typically
salaried and is not eligible to earn overtime. Non-exempt employees are
typically paid hourly and are eligible for overtime pay.
While the terms accountant, lawyer and photographer might refer to
professions, they are not employee titles, which may include Controller,
President, Vice President of Legal Affairs, Other Managers, and Head of Media
Corporate titles are titles conferred on individuals as a means of
identifying their function in the organization. Titles vary by the type of
organization, the sector that it is, whether it is for-profit
or non-profit, public or private, partnership or
sole proprietorship. Some sectors, such as educational
institutions, have particular titles. Titles are an important aspect of
Some of the most common titles are chief executive officer (CEO), Founders, chairman of the board of directors, Co-president are often used interchangeably.
Associate is a term used by some companies instead of employee. Big box and retailers
like Wal-Mart, Home Depot and Shaw's
Supermarkets, for example, use this term for non-management employees. Other
firms use terms such as teammate or team member instead of employee.
Employees can organize into trade unions or labor unions, who represent most
of the available work force in a single organization. They utilize their
representative power to collectively bargain with the management of companies
in order to advance concerns and demands of their membership.
An offer of employment, however, does not guarantee employment for any
length of time and each party may terminate the relationship at any time. This
is referred to as at-will employment. In some professions it is customary to
offer 2 weeks notice when resigning for a job. However, leaving two weeks
notice may not be legally enforceable.
In the United States, the standard employment contract is considered to be at-will meaning that the employer and employee are
both free to terminate the employment at any time and for any cause, or for no
cause at all. However, if a termination of employment by the employer is deemed
unjust by the employee, there can be legal recourse to challenge such a
termination. In unionised work environments in particular, employees who are
receiving discipline, up to and including termination of employment can ask for
assistance by their shop steward to advocate on behalf of the employee. If an
informal negotiation between the shop steward and the company does not resolve
the issue, the shop steward may file a grievance, which can result in a
resolution within the company, or mediation or arbitration, which are typically
funded equally both by the union and the company. In non-union work
environments, in the United States, unjust termination complaints can be
brought to the United States Department of Labor. In Australia there is the
highly controversial Australian Workplace Agreement. In the Canadian province
of Ontario, formal complaints can be brought to the Ministry of Labour
(Ontario). In the province of Quebec, grievances can be filed with the Commission des normes du travail.
India is having Contact Labour Act, Minimum Wages Act and Provident Funds
Act. The contract labour in India has to be paid minimum wages and a lot of
facilities are to be provided to labour. But a lot of work needs to be done to
fully implement the Acts.
Employment is almost universal in capitalist societies. Opponents of
capitalism such as Marxists oppose the capitalist employment system,
considering it to be unfair that the people who contribute the majority of work
to an organization do not receive a proportionate share of the profit.
The Surrealists and the Situationists were among the few groups to actually oppose
work, and during the partially surrealist-influenced events of May 1968 the walls of the Sorbonne were covered with
A developing model of employment, as practiced by such companies as Semco,
Google, DaVita, Freys Hotels and Linden Labs, seeks to set aside the
"master-servant relationship" implicit in the traditional employment
contract. The concommitant employment practices are often grouped under the
heading Workplace democracy, and are characterised by high levels of employee
engagement; principles-based rather than rules-based work relations; and a
problem-solving approach to workplace conflict. In this model management
(including its employment function) effectively becomes a domain shared between
managers and staff. The resurgent New Unionism movement promotes this
employment model, and seeks to extend it.
When an individual entirely owns the business for which he or she labours,
this is known as self-employment. Self-employment often leads to incorporation.
Incorporation offers certain protections of one's personal assets. Laws of
incorporation vary from state to state with Delaware having the most
incorporated businesses of any state in the U.S.
Workers who are not paid wages, such as volunteers, are generally not
considered as being employed. One exception to this is an internship, an employment situation in which the worker
receives training or experience (and possibly college credit) as the chief form
Those who work under obligation for the purpose of fulfilling a debt, such
as an indentured servant, or as property of the person or entity they work for,
such as a slave, do not receive pay for their services and are not considered
employed. Some historians suggest that slavery is older than employment, but
both arrangements have existed for all recorded history.
and employment relations
The balance of economic efficiency and social equity is the ultimate debate
in the field of employment relations. By meeting the needs of the employer;
generating profits to establish and maintain economic efficiency; whilst
maintaining a balance with the employee and creating social equity that
benefits the worker so that he/she can fund and enjoy healthy living; proves to
be a continuous revolving issue in westernised societies.
Globalisation has effected these issues by creating certain economic factors
that disallow or allow various employment issues. Economist Edward Lee (1996)
studies the effects of globalisation and summarizes the four major points of
concern that affect employment relations:
- International competition,
from the newly industrialized countries, will cause unemployment growth
and increased wage disparity for unskilled workers in industrialized
countries. Imports from low-wage countries exert pressure on the
manufacturing sector in industrialized countries and foreign direct
investment (FDI) is attracted away from the industrialized nations,
towards low-waged countries.
- Economic liberalization
will result in unemployment and wage inequality in developing countries.
This happens as job losses in un-competitive industries outstrip job opportunities
in new industries.
- Workers will be forced to
accept worsening wages and conditions, as a global labour market results
in a “race to the bottom”. Increased international competition creates a
pressure to reduce the wages and conditions of workers.
- Globalization reduces the
autonomy of the nation state. Capital is increasingly mobile and the
ability of the state to regulate economic activity is reduced.
What also results from Lee’s (1996) findings is that in industrialized
countries an average of almost 70 per cent of workers are employed in the
service sector, most of which consists of non-tradable activities. As a result
workers are either forced to become more skilled an develop sought after trades
or become of this sector. Ultimately this is a result of changes and trends of
employment, an evolving workforce and globalisation that is represented by a
more skilled and increasing highly diverse labour force, that are growing in
non standard forms of employment (Markey, R. et.al. 2006).
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employment)