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Timeline - Coll. II




382 . . .


The Vulgate Bible: Latin translation by Jerome, commissioned in 382 to revise older Latin translations; became known as the commonly used translation (hence, vulgate) and eventually the definitive version


1290 - Jews expelled from England

Rise of humanism in Europe

Papacy leaves Rome for Avignon in Southern France until 1377

Dante, The Inferno 

 1327-68 The Hundred Years's War (1337-1453) - France vs. EnglandPetrarch's My Secret (1343/47-53); sonnets (1327-1368)  
Mandeville "travels" (1322-1356/1332-1366) 
 1349-50 Black DeathBoccaccio writes Decameron  
 Boccaccio & Petrarch meet in Florence while Petrarch is en route to Rome for Jubilee; become friends
 c. 1375 Great Schism (1378)Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (c. 1375-1400)  
c. 1372-3 Chaucer travels to Italy and may have met Petrarch & Boccaccio
 c. 1390 Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1387-1400)  

1382 - 1395

 Lollard movement in England

Wyclif's Bible: Middle English translations of several hands based on the Latin Vulgate; inspired Lollard movement (pre-Reformation critique of Catholic Church)

 1401 - x     War of Roses: 1401 - Richard II deposed by Henry Bolingbroke of Lancaster (Henry IV); 1413 - Henry V; 1422 - Henry IV (baby)  
 1430s Joan of Arc burned at the stake (19 yrs. old) Margery Kempe, The Book of Margery Kempe (1438)

c. 1450

Guttenberg, movable type, printing press

Bible is not the first book, but was first substantial book; early books were indulgences and Latin grammar book

Hundred Years' War ends (1453) - English expelled from France

Gutenberg's Bible or the 42-line Bible

 1471  Ovid's (43 BCE - 18 CE) Metamorphoses published in Bologna


William Caxton prints first text in England, Ovid; later prints Canterbury Tales



Printing begins in Antwerp


 1485  Laura Cereta marries Pietro Serina at 15 or 16 years old


 Columbus lands in New World (Bahamas, 1492)

 Expulsion of the Jews in Spain (1492)

Laura Cereta's Letters in circulation
Everyman written (late 15th century)

 1504-8  Castiglione works for the Duke of Urbino (serves as inspiration for his Book of the Courtier, 1528)


 Spanish explorers begin colonizing the Americas

Erasmus publishes The Praise of Folly in Latin



More publishes Utopia in Latin

Erasmus's Greek-Latin New Testament (textus receptus): not based on Vulgate; used older Greek manuscripts for a more "perfect" translation into Latin; dedicates to Pope Leo X


 Luther's 95 Theses (sent to Archbishop Albrecht & nailed to Wittenberg Castle Church door)

1518 - 1521

Henry VIII begins writing Defense of the Seven Sacraments in 1518 (Latin) as a reaction to Luther's Theses; Thomas More collaborates with him, and it is published in 1521. Henry is called the "Defender of the Faith" by Pope Leo X.

Edict of Worms: trial of Martin Luther;  excommunicated by Pope Leo X (1521)

Henry VIII's Assertio Septum Sacramentorum (Defense of the Seven Sacraments)


Luther in Wartburg Castle, begins biblical translations (1521).



Luther's New Testament in German translation; based on Erasmus's Greek-Latin New Testament

 1524     Peasant's War 


 Sack of Rome (1527): Pope Clement VII kept prisoner in Castel Sant'Angelo

Tyndale's Bible: an English New Testament; based on Erasmus's Greek-Latin New Testament, Hebrew and Latin Vulgate and Luther's own German preface



Castiglione's Book of the Courtier printed; 1513-1518 written


Cardinal Wolsey dismissed from office & dies in 1530; Thomas More takes his place as Lord Chancellor; Henry VIII calls the so-called 'Reformation Parliament' to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon



January 25 - Henry marries Anne Boleyn in a public ceremony (she is already pregnant with Elizabeth; she and Henry married secretly in the end of 1532)



Henry VIII creates Act of Supremacy and Act of Succession 

Luther's Bible: complete German vernacular translation


Thomas More executed for not swearing Oath of Supremacy (allegiance to King over God)

William Tyndale arrested in Antwerp for translating and planning to print the Bible in English (Tyndale already printed the New Testament; working on Old when captured); Tyndale had fled England

Coverdale's Bible: Miles Coverdale worked under Tyndale in Antwerp; when Tyndale was captured in this year, he finished the Old Testament and printed it with Tyndale's New Testament, calling it a complete Bible. Dedicated to Henry VIII (despite the fact that Tyndale had to flee England for it).


Tyndale executed, discovered hiding in Antwerp



Henry VIII executes Anne Boleyn on May 19 & becomes engaged to Jane Seymour



Jane Seymour dies in childbirth (Edward)

Matthew's Bible: based on Tyndale's New Testament, all of what Tyndale translated of the Old Testament before he was executed (vs. Coverdale's Bible where Coverdale himself translated some of the Old Testament from German and Vulgate).


Edict in England to have a bible in every church (in English?)




The Great Bible: Cromwell commissions Coverdale; the one HVIII finally authorizes; by this time, though, we've already had the so-called "Matthew's Bible" and the unauthorized (though dedicated to H8) Coverdale. The bible was so-called b/c it was huge. This is the "Bible in Englyshe." Based on Matthew's Bible.

 1545 Council of Trent 
 1546     Anne Askew burned at stake (examined in 1545)  Accounts of her execution are later smuggled to Germany by John Bale (printer) where John Foxe (in exile) compiles them with others for his Book of Martyrs


Henry VIII dies; Edward VI takes the throne (Jane Seymour's son)


 1549Cranmer oversees institution of Book of Common Prayer throughout England; rise of English services 
 1551          More's Utopia published in English, translated by Ralph Robynson
 de las Casas publishes The Destruction of the Indies (critique of Spanish treatment of natives in New World)


Edward VI dies; Mary I takes the throne (Catherine of Aragon's daughter)

 Foxe flees to Germany; one of the Marian exiles; meets with John Bale and publishes Book of Martyrs in 1559


Mary I dies; Elizabeth I takes the throne (Anne Boleyn's daughter)

Cellini writes his Autobiography (1558-1566) (not published until 1728)

 1559  John Foxe's Acts and Monuments (Book of Martyrs), Latin edition (printed in the Continent)



The Geneva Bible (with verses): the "study" Bible with reader aids, woodcuts, summaries, Calvinist/Puritan annotations, quarto size, etc. Used by Shakespeare, Cromwell, Milton. James replaces it in 1611. Coverdale and others collaborate; majority of language is Tyndale's; Old Testament translated entirely from Hebrew.

 1563  John Foxe's Acts and Monuments (Book of Martyrs), first English edition


William Shakespeare is born



 First public theater erected in London (Red Lion, 1567)

The Bishop's Bible (Elizabeth's attempt for a new authorized version, 1568)

 1571  Book of Martyrs is ordered to be placed in all churches in England (with  Bible and Book of Common Prayer)
 Montaigne retires; begins writing Essays one year later (1572)
 1580  Montaigne publishes Books I and II of Essays
 1585-86 Walter Raleigh and Thomas Hariot go to "Virginia" (present day Roanoke, NC) 
 1588  Montaigne publishes Book III of Essays
 1599 Globe Theater erected in suburbs of London 


Elizabeth I dies; her cousin, James VI of Scotland, takes over the throne as James I (son of Mary, Queen of Scots)

Plague in England & Spain

 James Florio publishes Montaigne's Essays in English

 Shakespeare is writing sonnets (1591-1604)

 1605      Cervantes publishes first part of Don Quixote
 1607 Jamestown colony established 



William Shakespeare publishes Sonnets (written 1591-1604)



King James Bible (James I's authorized version): New Testament of this version was based on Erasmus's Greek New Testament (1516)

 1615  Cervantes publishes second part of Don Quixote


William Shakespeare dies; Cervantes dies.


 1620  Don Quixote (complete version) translated into English
 Laura Cereta's Letters first printed