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    Timeline - Coll. II


    YEAR

    HISTORY

    LITERATURE

    382 . . .

     

    The Vulgate Bible: Latin translation by Jerome, commissioned in 382 to revise older Latin translations; became known as the commonly used translation (hence, vulgate) and eventually the definitive version

    1301-21

    Rise of humanism in Europe

    Papacy leaves Rome for Avignon in Southern France until 1377

    Dante, The Inferno 

     1327-68 Petrarch's My Secret (1343/47-53); sonnets (1327-1368)  
    Mandeville "travels" (1322-1356/1332-1366) 
     1349-50 Black DeathBoccaccio writes Decameron  
     Boccaccio & Petrarch meet in Florence while Petrarch is en route to Rome for Jubilee; become friends
     c. 1375 Great Schism (1378)Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (c. 1375-1400)  
    c. 1372-3 Chaucer travels to Italy and may have met Petrarch & Boccaccio
     c. 1390 Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1387-1400)  

    1382 - 1395

     Lollard movement in England

    Wyclif's Bible: Middle English translations of several hands based on the Latin Vulgate; inspired Lollard movement (pre-Reformation critique of Catholic Church)

     1438  Margery Kempe, The Book of Margery Kempe

    c. 1450

    Guttenberg, movable type, printing press

    Bible is not the first book, but was first substantial book; early books were indulgences and Latin grammar book

    Gutenberg's Bible or the 42-line Bible

     1471  Ovid's (43 BCE - 18 CE) Metamorphoses published in Bologna

    1476

    William Caxton prints first text in England, Ovid; later prints Canterbury Tales

     

    1481

    Printing begins in Antwerp

     

     1485  Laura Cereta marries Pietro Serina at 15 or 16 years old

    1488-92

     Columbus lands in New World (Bahamas, 1492)

     Expulsion of the Jews in Spain (1492)

    Laura Cereta's Letters in circulation
    Everyman written (late 15th century)

     1504-8  Castiglione works for the Duke of Urbino (serves as inspiration for his Book of the Courtier, 1528)

    1511

     Spanish explorers begin colonizing the Americas

    Erasmus publishes The Praise of Folly in Latin

    1516

     

    More publishes Utopia in Latin

    Erasmus's Greek-Latin New Testament (textus receptus): not based on Vulgate; used older Greek manuscripts for a more "perfect" translation into Latin; dedicates to Pope Leo X

    1517

     Luther's 95 Theses (sent to Archbishop Albrecht & nailed to Wittenberg Castle Church door)


    1518 - 1521

    Henry VIII begins writing Defense of the Seven Sacraments in 1518 (Latin) as a reaction to Luther's Theses; Thomas More collaborates with him, and it is published in 1521. Henry is called the "Defender of the Faith" by Pope Leo X.


    Edict of Worms: trial of Martin Luther;  excommunicated by Pope Leo X (1521)

    Henry VIII's Assertio Septum Sacramentorum (Defense of the Seven Sacraments)

     

    Luther in Wartburg Castle, begins biblical translations (1521).

    1522

     

    Luther's New Testament in German translation; based on Erasmus's Greek-Latin New Testament

     1524     Peasant's War 

    1526-7

     Sack of Rome (1527): Pope Clement VII kept prisoner in Castel Sant'Angelo

    Tyndale's Bible: an English New Testament; based on Erasmus's Greek-Latin New Testament, Hebrew and Latin Vulgate and Luther's own German preface

    1528

     

    Castiglione's Book of the Courtier printed; 1513-1518 written

    1529

    Cardinal Wolsey dismissed from office & dies in 1530; Thomas More takes his place as Lord Chancellor; Henry VIII calls the so-called 'Reformation Parliament' to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon

     

    1533

    January 25 - Henry marries Anne Boleyn in a public ceremony (she is already pregnant with Elizabeth; she and Henry married secretly in the end of 1532)

     

    1534

    Henry VIII creates Act of Supremacy and Act of Succession 

    Luther's Bible: complete German vernacular translation

    1535

    Thomas More executed for not swearing Oath of Supremacy (allegiance to King over God)

    William Tyndale arrested in Antwerp for translating and planning to print the Bible in English (Tyndale already printed the New Testament; working on Old when captured); Tyndale had fled England

    Coverdale's Bible: Miles Coverdale worked under Tyndale in Antwerp; when Tyndale was captured in this year, he finished the Old Testament and printed it with Tyndale's New Testament, calling it a complete Bible. Dedicated to Henry VIII (despite the fact that Tyndale had to flee England for it).

    1536

    Tyndale executed, discovered hiding in Antwerp

     

    1536

    Henry VIII executes Anne Boleyn on May 19 & becomes engaged to Jane Seymour

     

    1537

    Jane Seymour dies in childbirth (Edward)

    Matthew's Bible: based on Tyndale's New Testament, all of what Tyndale translated of the Old Testament before he was executed (vs. Coverdale's Bible where Coverdale himself translated some of the Old Testament from German and Vulgate).

    1538

    Edict in England to have a bible in every church (in English?)

     

    1539

     

    The Great Bible: Cromwell commissions Coverdale; the one HVIII finally authorizes; by this time, though, we've already had the so-called "Matthew's Bible" and the unauthorized (though dedicated to H8) Coverdale. The bible was so-called b/c it was huge. This is the "Bible in Englyshe." Based on Matthew's Bible.

     1545 Council of Trent 
     1546     Anne Askew burned at stake (examined in 1545)  Accounts of her execution are later smuggled to Germany by John Bale (printer) where John Foxe (in exile) compiles them with others for his Book of Martyrs

    1547

    Henry VIII dies; Edward VI takes the throne (Jane Seymour's son)

     

     1549Cranmer oversees institution of Book of Common Prayer throughout England; rise of English services 
     1551          More's Utopia published in English, translated by Ralph Robynson
     de las Casas publishes The Destruction of the Indies (critique of Spanish treatment of natives in New World)

    1553

    Edward VI dies; Mary I takes the throne (Catherine of Aragon's daughter)

     Foxe flees to Germany; one of the Marian exiles; meets with John Bale and publishes Book of Martyrs in 1559

    1558

    Mary I dies; Elizabeth I takes the throne (Anne Boleyn's daughter)

    Cellini writes his Autobiography (1558-1566) (not published until 1728)

     1559  John Foxe's Acts and Monuments (Book of Martyrs), Latin edition (printed in the Continent)

    1560

     

    The Geneva Bible (with verses): the "study" Bible with reader aids, woodcuts, summaries, Calvinist/Puritan annotations, quarto size, etc. Used by Shakespeare, Cromwell, Milton. James replaces it in 1611. Coverdale and others collaborate; majority of language is Tyndale's; Old Testament translated entirely from Hebrew.

     1563  John Foxe's Acts and Monuments (Book of Martyrs), first English edition

    1564

    William Shakespeare is born

     

    1567-8

     First public theater erected in London (Red Lion, 1567)

    The Bishop's Bible (Elizabeth's attempt for a new authorized version, 1568)

     1571  Book of Martyrs is ordered to be placed in all churches in England (with  Bible and Book of Common Prayer)
     Montaigne retires; begins writing Essays one year later (1572)
     1580  Montaigne publishes Books I and II of Essays
     1585-86 Walter Raleigh and Thomas Hariot go to "Virginia" (present day Roanoke, NC) 
     1588  Montaigne publishes Book III of Essays
     1599 Globe Theater erected in suburbs of London 

    1603

    Elizabeth I dies; her cousin, James VI of Scotland, takes over the throne as James I (son of Mary, Queen of Scots)

    Plague in England & Spain

     James Florio publishes Montaigne's Essays in English

     Shakespeare is writing sonnets (1591-1604)

     1605      Cervantes publishes first part of Don Quixote
     1607 Jamestown colony established 

    1609

     

    William Shakespeare publishes Sonnets (written 1591-1604)

    1611

     

    King James Bible (James I's authorized version): New Testament of this version was based on Erasmus's Greek New Testament (1516)

     1615  Cervantes publishes second part of Don Quixote

    1616

    William Shakespeare dies; Cervantes dies.

     

     1620  Don Quixote (complete version) translated into English
     1640
     Laura Cereta's Letters first printed 
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