"The End of the Frontier"
- 1891 Census Bureau says frontier doesn't exist
- we were beyond "Stony Mountains"
- explosive industrial economy
- 1890 U.S. surpassed England and Germany combined
- 70% farmers 1840 --> 1900 only 37%
- close of a historical moment= end of frontier
- would "new age of machinery" create an era of social disintegration and chaos?
- class conflict between Calibans and Prosperos
- distances had to be redefined to keep racial and class heirarchy
- 1890 Wovoka of Pyramid Lake in Nevada -Christ returns to Earth as Indian
- promised restoration of Indian ways
- "all white people die, get drowned"
- idea spreads through Indian population
- military needed to stop dancing
- police shoot and kill Chief for dance- arrest- anger
- * "They shot us like we were buffalo" (230)
- shot children and women- seen as "MEAN"
- end of frontier for Indians = VIOLENT
"The Father of the Reservation System"
- Francis Amasa Walker- commissioner of Indian affairs
- "Peace Policy" - buy off/ feed them so no violence
- American white males want to kill because of their dignity--> leads to brutality of Indians
- "I looked down and felt myself growing white" ( after eating meal with Indians)
- Indian ways taken down makes room for the important things whites want: "hut to mansion"
- whites were now moving west
- **what should be done to ensure the survival of the Plains Indians? (Indian question)
- safe transition= reservations
- "necessary adjustment for entering civilization" (232)
- outside reservation military can strike without warning
- **ultimate goal= assimilation of Indians
- required to learn industrial skills- why do they have to learn new skills when they are doing fine with the great agricultural skills they have?
- would we be where we are today if we didn't make them learn our way of life?
- "the white man's road"- they have to take white man's ways
"Allotment and Assimilation"
- the New Deal- many opposed it
- Navajos opposed because Collier was telling them "what was good for them"
- so can they ever live together- Indians will always think white are trying to control their life and Americans will always think they are the right ones and in charge
- **"last arrow" pageants (235)
- Century of Dishonor (235)
- Helen Hunt Jackson- "to remain as savages" 235
What is American identity?