RESEARCH GUIDE ARCHIVE : ORIGINAL GUIDE : Site Map of Research Paper Guide Sections and Related Content






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RESEARCH GUIDE ARCHIVE : ORIGINAL GUIDE   :   

Site Map of Research Paper Guide Sections and Related Content




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RESEARCH GUIDES : WRITING SKILLS, RESEARCH SKILLS :
DATABASE SEARCHING SKILLS :
LIFE AND EMPLOYMENT TOOLS AND SKILLS
FROM RESEARCH GUIDES AND MORE 









How to Write a Research Paper 




  • A Research Guide for Students

    Writing Guides

    How to Write a Research Paper
    Research, writing and style guides
    Using search engines
    Presentation Tips for Public Speaking
    Format for a Research Paper
    Quoting Passages Using MLA Style
    Plagiarism: How to Avoid It
    Footnotes and Endnotes
    First Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style
    Sample Footnotes
    Sample Endnotes

    Parenthetical References
    Parenthetical references - examples in MLA style
    Works cites, References or Bibliography?
    How to write a bibliography or works cited page
    How to Write a Bibliography
    Sample Bibliography or Works Cited
    Month, Day Abbreviations
    Common Abbreviations
    Bible Abbreviations
    ISO Country Codes
    Countries, Cities & Flags

  • Chapter 1. How to Write an A+ Research Paper

    STEP 1. CHOOSE A TOPIC
    STEP 2. FIND INFORMATION
    STEP 3. STATE YOUR THESIS
    STEP 4. MAKE A TENTATIVE OUTLINE
    STEP 5. ORGANIZE YOUR NOTES
    STEP 6. WRITE YOUR FIRST DRAFT
    STEP 7. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT
    Checklist One
    Checklist Two
    STEP 8. TYPE FINAL PAPER

  • Writing a Research Paper

    Writing a Research Paper
    Genre and the Research Paper
    Choosing a Topic
    Identifying Audiences
    Where do I Begin?
    Exploratory Papers
    Annotated Bibliographies
    Book Report
    Definitions
    Essays for Exams
    Book Review


    Suggested Resources
    -MLA Guide
    -APA Guide
    -How to Navigate the New OWL
    -Media File Index
    -OWL Exercises
  • A+ Research & Writing IPL2

    Table of Contents
    What this site offers

    Guide to researching and writing a paper

    Finding information in cyberspace and in your library
    Great online resource

    Step by Step Research and Writing
    Why the Step by Step Approach?
    Step 1 - Getting Started - preparing for the assignment and getting ready 
    to choose a topic
    Step 2 - Discovering and Choosing a Topic - reading to become informed
    Step 3 - Looking for and Forming a Focus - exploring your topic
    Step 4 - Gathering Information - which clarifies and supports your focus
    Step 5 - Preparing to Write - analyzing and organizing your information and forming a thesis statement
    Step 6 - Writing the Paper - writing, revising and finalizing

    Click More Information ICON to see Info Search Contents and a link to the much more detailed Table of Contents.


  • Writing Research Papers (Experimental Biosciences)


    Title page
    Abstract
    Introduction
    Materials & Methods
    Results
    Discussion
    Literature Cited

    Other resources

    Common errors in student research papers
    Selected writing rules

    Laboratory Studies

    Overview
    Microscope studies
    Flagella experiment
    Laboratory math
    Blood fractionation
    Gel electrophoresis
    Protein gel analysis
    Mitochondria
    Concepts/ theory

    Record keeping, Writing, and Data Analysis

    Overview
    Keeping a lab notebook
    Writing research papers
    Dimensions & units
    Using figures (graphs)
    Examples of graphs
    Experimental error
    Representing error
    Applying statistics

    Laboratory Methods

    Overview
    Principles of microscopy
    Solutions & dilutions
    Protein assays
    Spectrophotometry
    Fractionation and centrifugation
    Radioisotopes and detection

  • The Writer's Handbook: Writing A Research Paper


    Discovering, Narrowing, and Focusing a Researchable Topic
    Finding, Selecting, and Reading Sources
    Grouping, Sequencing, and Documenting Information
    Writing an Outline and a Prospectus for Yourself
    Writing the Introduction
    Writing the Body
    Writing the Conclusion
    Revising the Final Draft

  • A Guide for Writing Research Papers based on Styles Recommended by The American Psychological Association Prepared by the Humanities Department as part of The Guide to Grammar and Writing and the Arthur C. Banks Jr. Library CAPITAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE Hartf

    What does a reference look like for a SINGLE-AUTHOR BOOK? 
    What about a book written by MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR? 
    What if I'm not using a first edition? 
    How do I list an EDITED VOLUME 
    What happens if my book has NO AUTHOR OR EDITOR listed? 
    I have a SEVERAL-VOLUME WORK here. How do I list that? 
    What if I'm using a quote that I discover in a SECONDARY RESOURCE? 
    DOCTORAL DISSERTATION. How would create a reference for that? 
    What's the proper format for a Magazine or Periodical? 
    SCHOLARLY JOURNAL. How would I cite that? 
    How would I handle a NEWSPAPER ARTICLE ? 
    how to handle NON-PRINT MATERIALS? 
    PERSONAL INTERVIEWS and PHONE CONVERSATIONS. How do I document those resources? 
    CLASSROOM LECTURE. Can I use that? 
    GOVERNMENT and ERIC to list. What's the proper format? 
    INTERNET and CD-ROM RESOURCES. How do I document that material? 
    ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. How do I go about that? 


  • GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS IN THE APA STYLE
    Basic APA Facts
    Avoiding Plagiarism
    In-text Citations
    The Reference Page
    Books
    Periodicals
    Computer Sources
    Online document
    Book
    Article in an electronic magazine (ezine)
    Newspaper article
    Government publication
    CD-ROM
    Software
    Abstract

    Academic Writing Topics:
    Miscellaneous Grammar Woes
    Grammar and Punctuation
    The Sentence
    Troublesome Pairs
    Transitional Words
    Guidelines for a Critical Book Review
    Researching On-line
    The Annotated Bibliography
    Finding Your Thesis
    The Outline
    The Research Paper
    Plagiarism and How To Avoid It
    Writing Research Papers in the MLA Style
    Writing Research Papers in the APA Style

    Business Writing Topics:
    Ten Commandments of Business Writing
    Bibliography of Business and Professional Writing
    Nominal Writing In Business
    Personality Choices in Business Writing
    Persuasive Business Writing
    Writing a Business Memo
    Using Evidence to Prove Your Point
    Seven Deadly Sins of Business Writing

    Online Resources
    Writer's Complex
    MLA
    APA
    Various Other On-line Writing Centers
    Web Resources
    Professional Communications Study

    Source: 
    The Writing Center at
    Empire State College
    Genesee Valley Center
    Rochester, NY

    GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS
    IN THE APA STYLE
  • Types of APA Papers APA Formatting and Style Guide

    Contents of This Website 

    Research and Citation
    APA Style
    APA Overview and Workshop
    APA Formatting and Style Guide
    General Format
    In-Text Citations: The Basics
    In-Text Citations: Author/Authors
    Footnotes and Endnotes
    Reference List: Basic Rules
    Reference List: Author/Authors
    Reference List: Articles in Periodicals
    Reference List: Books
    Reference List: Other Print Sources
    Reference List: Electronic Sources
    Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources
    Additional Resources
    Types of APA Papers
    APA Stylistics: Avoiding Bias
    APA Stylistics: Basics
    APA Headings and Seriation
    APA PowerPoint Slide Presentation
    APA Sample Paper
    APA Tables and Figures 1
    APA Tables and Figures 2
    APA Abbreviations
    Statistics in APA
    APA Classroom Poster
    APA Changes 6th Edition


  • WRITING A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ARTICLE

    Website Table of Contents

    Title
    Authors
    Introduction
    Materials and Methods
    Results (with Tables and Figures)
    Discussion
    Acknowledgments
    Literature Cited

  • How to Write a Research Paper

    "Most university courses involve
    some sort of extended writing assignment,
    usually in the form of a research paper.
    Papers normally require that a
    student identify a broad area of research
    related to the course, focus the
    topic through some general background
    reading, identify a clear research
    question, marshal primary and secondary
    resources to answer the question,
    and present the argument in a clear and
    creative manner, with proper
    citations.

    That is the theory, at least. But how do
    you go about doing it all? This
    brief guide provides some answers."
  • Research Paper FAQ

    Topics Covered

    What Is a Research Paper and
    Why Am I Writing One?

    How Do I Start a Research Paper?

    How Do I Decide on a Topic?

    Are There Topics I Should Avoid?

    OK, My Topic Has Been Approved. Now What?

    I'm Having Trouble with My Introduction!

    What Kind of Sources Do I Use and
    Where Do I Find Them?

    How Do I Use Sources in My Paper?

    What Happens When the Sources
    Seem to be Writing My Paper For Me?

    I've Finished My Rough Draft, Now What Do I Do?


  • Write a Research Paper A Guide on How to Write Academic Papers

    Contents 

    How to Write Academic Papers

    1Write a Research Paper
    2Writing a Paper
    3Outline
    3.1Write an Outline
    3.2Outline Examples
    4Research Question
    4.1Thesis Statement
    4.2Write a Hypothesis
    5Parts of a Paper
    5.1Title
    5.2Abstract
    5.3Introduction
    5.4Methods
    5.5Results
    5.6Discussion
    5.7Conclusion
    5.8Bibliography
    6Optional Parts
    6.1Table of Contents
    6.2Acknowledgements
    6.3Appendix


    This list continued by clicking on the MORE ICON. 


  • Seven Steps to Effective Library Research

    Library Research at Cornell 
    Seven Steps to Effective Library Research

    STEP 1: IDENTIFY AND DEVELOP YOUR TOPIC
    STEP 2: FIND BACKGROUND INFORMATION
    STEP 3: USE CATALOGS TO FIND BOOKS AND MEDIA
    STEP 4: USE INDEXES TO FIND PERIODICAL ARTICLES
    STEP 5: FIND INTERNET RESOURCES
    STEP 6: EVALUATE WHAT YOU FIND
    STEP 7: CITE WHAT YOU FIND USING A STANDARD FORMAT
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Writing Center. Sociology

    What this handout is about
    Key assumptions and characteristics of sociological writing
    Argument
    Evidence
    Quantitative data 
    Qualitative data
    Units of analysis
    Typical writing assignments in sociology
    Application or testing of a theory or concept
    Research paper
    Works consulted

  • Writing Within Sociology: A Guide for Undergraduates Department of Sociology Oregon State University

    Contents

    Introduction
    Writing that Matters
    Tips on Writing Theory and Content Papers
    Overview for Writing a Quantitative Research Paper
    Writing Quantitative Research Papers
    The Introduction
    The Literature Review
    The Methods Section
    Presenting Quantitative Results
    Discussions and Conclusions
    Literature Reviews for Applied Research
    What’s Really Happening When I Write a Literature Review?
    Some Guidelines for Writing Book Reviews
    The Internship Journal

    MORE ICON TO CONTINUE

  • Writing for Sociology
    Writing for Sociology Guide - 2nd Edition 
    University of California Berkeley
    Sociology Department

    Contents
    Introduction 11
    1 Thinking and Reading for College 13
    1.1 Bloom's Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
    1.2 Reading for College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    1.2.1 Guidelines for Critical Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    1.2.2 Get Messy! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    Click the MORE ICON to continue.

  • Writing Sociology A Guide for Junior Papers and Senior Theses

    Table of Contents

    Introduction
    Chapter 1: The Research Question
    Chapter 2: Defining the Importance of Your Research
    Chapter 3: The Literature Review
    Chapter 4: Finding Data
    Chapter 5: Methods
    Chapter 6: Data Analysis
    Chapter 7: Discussing Your Findings and Drawing Conclusions
    Chapter 8: Bibliography
    Chapter 9: Other Helpful Information
    Appendix: Other Resources

  • Writing a Research Paper in Mathematics

    "Good mathematical writing, like good mathematics thinking, is a skill which must be practiced and developed for optimal performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide assistance for young mathematicians writing their first paper. The aim is not only to aid in the development of a well written paper, but also to help students begin to think about mathematical writing.

    I am greatly indebted to a wonderful booklet, "How to Write Mathematics," which provided much of the substance of this essay."

  • How to Write Mathematics
    Author: Norman Earl Steenrod; et al
    Publisher: [Providence] American Mathematical Society [1973]
    Edition/Format: Book : EnglishView all editions and formats
    Database: WorldCat
    Summary:
    Contains four essays on expository writing of books and papers at the research level and at the level of graduate texts.

    Title How to write mathematics by Norman E. Steenrod and others
    Publisher [Providence] American Mathematical Society [1973]

    ITEM LOCATION CALL NUMBER ITEM IS:
    Paley Stacks QA41.H6 LIB USE ONLY
    Paley Stacks QA41.H6 MISSING

    Physical Description 64 p. 23 cm.
    Subject(s) Mathematics -- Authorship.
    Bibliography Includes bibliographies.
    Other Author(s) Steenrod, Norman Earl, 1910-1971.
    ISBN 0821800550
  • MLA Citation Style

    "Four good reasons why you should learn how to cite correctly:


    To avoid plagiarism

    To give credibility and authenticity to your work

    To let the readers of your work locate your information sources

    To get a good grade


  • The Research Paper Dr. Bindon Anthropology Arts and Sciences University of Alabama

    The Research Paper
    Dr. Bindon Anthropology Arts & Sciences University of Alabama
    ANT 475 ANT 476 ANT 570 
    Paper Topics Bibliographic Resources Formatting rules Rules for Writing Citations Suggested Outline

  • THE RESEARCH PAPER

    "There is a standard format for all research reports, whether they be of the natural or social sciences. The ultimate goal is to test hypotheses, the predictions derived from one's theory and built upon the findings of others.

    The structure of the research paper reflects the profound relationship between theory and fact. Facts do not speak for themselves. As Marvin Harris (Cultural Materialism 1979:7) observed, "facts are always unreliable without theories that guide their collection and that distinguish between superficial and significant appearances." On the other hand, theories without facts are meaningless. The premise of science (and what distinguishes it from dogma and armchair philosophizing) is the authority of experiment and observation over reason, ideology, and intuition."

    Click More ICON to see more discussion.

  • The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

    The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
    From Wikipedia

  • APA Style from the Wikipedia

    Contents

    1 Early editions
    2 Sixth edition of the Publication Manual
    3 Errors in the first printing of the sixth edition
    4 See also
    5 Notes
    6 References
    7 External links


  • How to Write a History Research Paper
    How to Write a History Research Paper

    1. How do I pick a topic?
    2. But I can't find any material...
    3. Help! How do I put this together? Research Guide and Writing Guide

    See also Robert Pearce's How to Write a Good History Essay
  • How to Write a Research Paper Wiki How

    Five Methods:
    Choosing Your Topic
    Researching
    Making an Outline
    Writing Your Paper
    Sample Research Papers

  • UNCFSU. Research Paper

    Introduction | Choosing a Topic | Getting Information | Writing an Outline | Writing and Rewriting the Paper Citing Sources | How I Grade a Research Paper

  • Research Paper Writing and Citation Guide

    Website Contents

    START HERE!
    WRITING GUIDES
    APA
    ASA
    CHICAGO
    MLA
    TURABIAN
    OTHER STYLES
    REFWORKS
    OTHER CITE TOOLS

  • A Brief Bibliography of Selected Book Titles Regarding How to Write a Research Paper

    WRITING AND WRITERS: RESEARCH PAPERS : 
    HOW TO : 
    BIBLIOGRAPHIES : 
    GUIDES : 
    BOOKS: 
    A Brief Bibliography of Selected Book Titles Regarding How to Write a Research Paper

    WEBBIB1314 


  • Style Manual and Writers Guide for Intelligence Publications011. It is entitled Style Manual and Writers Guide for Intelligence Publications.
    This guide is designed to be helpful and convenient, sensible in organization, and logical in content. Directorate of Intelligence Style Manual, Eighth Edition, 2011. It is entitled Style Manual & Writers Guide for Intelligence Publications. It contains, among other changes, a revised list 
    of accepted acronyms and new tips on word usage. The world is not static. Nor is the language we employ to assess it.
  • RESEARCH METHODS : LEARNING : EDUCATION: COLLEGE : RESEARCH SKILLS: A Selection of Sources Regarding Process Oriented Research
    RESEARCH METHODS :
    LEARNING :
    EDUCATION: COLLEGE :
    RESEARCH SKILLS:
    A Selection of Sources Regarding Process Oriented Research
  • HISTORY : HUMANITIES : WRITERS AND WRITING : COMMUNICATION SKILLS : RESEARCH : SCHOLARSHIP: Habits of Mind
    Habits of Mind
    Why college students who do serious historical research become
    independent, analytical thinkers
    By Anthony Grafton and James Grossman
    DECEMBER 10, 2014
    ARTICLE - WINTER 2015
    The American Scholar
  • BOOK: A Beginner's Guide to Critical Thinking and Writing in Health and Social Care
    A Beginner's Guide To Critical Thinking And Writing In Health And Social Care
    Open University Press
    Authors Aveyard, Helen, Sharp , Pam, Woolliams, Mary
    Edition illustrated
    Publisher McGraw-Hill International, 2011
    ISBN 0335243665, 9780335243662
    Length 157 pages
  • WRITING AND WRITERS : WORDS : VOCABULARY: Lake Superior State University's 40th Annual List of Banished Words
    Sample Entry

    SKILL SET

    "Why use two words when one will do? We already have a perfectly good word in 'skills' (ending with an s, not a z)." – Chip Lupo, Columbia, S.C.

    "A skill is a skill -- that is it. Phrases such as 'I have the skill set to do that properly' or anything resembling that phrase, shows the speaker is seriously lacking skills in the art of conversation. Please try this, 'I have the skill... do you have the skills... this requires certain skills... he is very skilled... that was a skillful maneuver... See? No need for a skill set." – Stephanie Hamm-Wieczkiewicz, Litfield Park, Ariz.
  • EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE : BOOKS : WRITERS AND WRITING : HOW TO : PUBLIC HEALTH : HEALTH EDUCATION : HEALTH PROMOTION: Writing Health Communication: An Evidence-Based Guide
    Writing Health Communication: An Evidence-Based Guide
    Author(s): Abraham, Charles.
    Kools, Marieke,; 1978-
    Publication: London : SAGE,
    Year: 2012
    Description: 1 online resource (xv, 175 p., [4] p. plates) : ill. (some
    col.).
    Language: English
    Standard No: ISBN: 9781446254172 (electronic bk.); 1446254178 (electronic
    bk.); 9781847871855; 1847871852; 9781847871862; 1847871860; 1299657605
    (ebk); 9781299657601 (ebk)
  • Sage Research Methods Online
    A search of the phrase "research papers" in this database finds 251 sources that discuss various aspects of the research and writing process for producing research papers.
  • DISABILITIES: SOCIAL ISSUES INTERACTION AND ETIQUETTE : WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS: National Center on Disability and Journalism. Style Guide
    DISABILITIES: SOCIAL ISSUES INTERACTION AND ETIQUETTE :
    WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS:
    National Center on Disability and Journalism.
    Style Guide
  • [DigitalScholarship] WRITERS AND WRITING: CITING SOURCES : BOOKS : REFERENCE TOOLS: Cite Right: A Quick Guide to Citation Styles
    WRITERS AND WRITING: CITING SOURCES :
    BOOKS :
    REFERENCE TOOLS:
    Cite Right: A Quick Guide to Citation Styles
    Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and
    Author Charles Lipson
    Publisher University of Chicago Press, 2008
    ISBN 0226484807, 9780226484808
    Length 208 pages

    "Thousands of students have turned to Lipson for no-nonsense advice on how to cite sources properlyand avoid plagiarismwhen writing their research papers. With his latest book, Cite Right, Lipson once again provides much-needed counsel in a concise and affordable handbook for students and researchers. Building on Doing Honest Work in College, Lipsons new book offers a wealth of information on an even greater range of citation styles and details the intricacies of many additional kinds of sources."
  • [DigitalScholarship] STATISTICS : RESEARCH GUIDES : INSTRUCTIONS: How to Use the United States Government Agency Section of the Statistics Resources Research Guide for Statistical Data Sources on Specific Topic Searches
    STATISTICS :
    RESEARCH GUIDES :
    How to Use the United States Government Agency Section
    of the Statistics Resources Research Guide for Statistical Data Sources
    for Specific Topic Searches

    Finding and using statistical sources is a challenge for most students and many researchers. Finding government statistical sources are even more of a befuddlement. Requests for govenment information, let alone statistics, have dwindled in recent years in live reference situations. Providing a tool that shows, agency by agency, where government statistics hide in a group of links to database search results contributes to statistical literacy and to information literacy for government statistical sources and to the uses for government statistics.

    Even though the actual publications found in these searches are not free, all of the databases used are. Over fifty government agencies of the United States federal government are now included and this is a work in progress as is the entire statistics resource guide. United States government agencies do provide statistical data for other countries.

    Many teachers tell students not to use Google for serious research as I religiously did until October 2014 when I saw one web address on the MedLib-L discussion group. I have no idea what the post was about, I just noticed one web address and as the lesson evolved, I started joining the students rather than trying to change them in regards to using Google Web Search as part of my database searching research tool.
Jun 19, 2016

Google Scholar Access by Link to Web of Science Article Citation Searches 
  ×

[Edit mode is disabled for mapped boxes]

.

Google Scholar Now Links to WEB OF SCIENCE 
Citation Searches for many individual 
sources 
found in Google Scholar search results for colleges 
and institutions that 
are subscribers to 
WEB OF SCIENCE.


.

This happens automatically on campus at Temple University.  
Off campus, to have 
access to this feature, one CANNOT go 
directly to Google Scholar and use it. 
One must go to 
Temple University Library's list of databases and select 

Google Scholar from that list.  It will facilitate matters if on 
the same internet 
browser, one has already logged into a 
Temple proprietary database already. 
Once one has gone to 
Google Scholar via the library database list, 
the 
WEB OF SCIENCE link should appear in Google Scholar 
search results.


.

Three Examples of Web of Science Links 
in Google Scholar search results

.

Concussions in hockey: There is cause for concern
D GOODMAN, M GAETZ… - Medicine and science in …, 
2001 - cat.inist.fr

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to document various 
aspects of concussion in 
Canadian Amateur hockey including 
demographics, causes, treatment, and prevention in 
order to 
guide future recommendations on how to reduce injury. 
Methods: A detailed ...

Cited by 134 Related articles All 5 versions Web of Science: 66 Cite Save

.


Effect of mouthguards on dental injuries and concussions 
in college basketball. 
CR Labella, BW Smith, A Sigurdsson -

Medicine and science in …, 2002 - europepmc.org
PURPOSE: Dental injuries can be permanent and disfiguring. 
They are also universally 
expensive to treat. Many dentists, 
sports physicians, and athletic trainers recommend 
mouthguards 
for athletes participating in certain competitive sports, including men's ...

Cited by 125 Related articles All 6 versions Web of Science: 65 Cite Save More

.

Concussions among United States high school and collegiate athletes
LM Gessel, SK Fields, CL Collins, RW Dick… - Journal of athletic …, 
2007 - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Abstract Context: An estimated 300 000 sport-related traumatic brain 
injuries, predominantly 
concussions, occur annually in the United States. 
Sports are second only to motor vehicle 
crashes as the leading cause of 
traumatic brain injury among people aged 15 to 24 years. ...

Cited by 259 Related articles All 10 versions Web of Science: 149 Cite Save More

.

Jun 30, 2016

BOOKS: How to Write a Research Paper 
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Jun 19, 2016

How to Select a Research Paper Topic 
  ×

[Edit mode is disabled for mapped boxes]

Evaluating News Report Accuracy Credibility and Reliability 







Database Search Results for How to Write a Research Paper 







Search Technique Resources and Finding Tools to Get From Found Source Citations to those Sources 







Research Paper Skills Guides and Articles by David Dillard Regarding Database Searching






Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling and Other Writing Skills




  • Guide to Grammar and Writing FROM Capital Community College 
    GUIDE TO GRAMMAR AND WRITING

    Sentence Level
    Sentence Parts and Word Functions
    Skip to Verbs and Verbals
    Clauses
    The Garden of Phrases
    Diagramming Sentences
    Sentence Fragments
    Run-on Sentences
    Rules for Comma Usage
    Punctuation Marks Besides the Comma
    Punctuation Between Two Independent Clauses
    Notorious Confusables: words we get mixed up
    or A Confusables Menu (use pop-up or random selector)
    Plague Words and Phrases we should avoid

    Articles and Determiners
    Noun Forms: Plurals and Possessives
    Pronouns and Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
    Placement of Modifiers
    Subject-Verb Agreement
    Tense Sequence among Verbs, Infinitives
    and Participles
    Compound Nouns and Modifiers
    Capitalization
    Abbreviations
    Using Italics and Underlining
    Using Numbers, Making Lists
    Writing Concise Sentences
    Parallel Structures
    Confusion: Sources and Remedies
    Vocabulary Builders: Suggestions, Quizzes, Pop-Up Lexicon
    Spelling: Rules, Suggestions, Quizzes

    Paragraph Level
    Sentence Variety
    Consistency of Tense and Pronoun Reference
    Avoiding Primer Language
    Sentence-Combining Skills
    Coherence and Transitions
    Paragraph Development 
    Essay Level

    PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION

    An entire Web site for writers in English composition courses — featuring handouts on Getting Started, Structure, Tone, Transitions, Editing, Logic, Formats, Rhetorical Patterns, Argumentative Essays, Research Papers, and more — accompanied by an abundance of successful sample essays 

    Forms of Communication
    Samples (in .pdf format) for business letters, memos, application letters, thank-you letters, resumes, meeting minutes and agendas, and the research paper. 
    PowerPoint Presentations
    If you have PowerPoint on your computer, you can take advantage of the several PowerPoint presentations available with the Guide. Click HERE for a list and for additional information.
    Finding Grammar Topics 
    on These Pages 
    First, we recommend the hyperlinked INDEX. The index does not reference the quizzes or the Grammar Logs (see below). See also the FAQ File, frequently asked questions.
    You can also try the new Search Engine
    Interactive Quizzes 
    Over 150 challenging computer-graded quizzes to test your knowledge of grammar! Take the quizzes as a challenge or just for fun, or read the digital handouts listed above first. Many of the quizzes are also listed at the end of the appropriate sections 

    Ask Grammar! 
    Click here to get a form that will allow you to submit a question about English usage or grammar. It's a good idea to check the FAQ File first to see if your question has already been answered. Also, look in the Index and consult the Search Engine to make sure the answer is not already part of the Guide. Answers are posted in the Grammar Logs (below) — sometimes within hours, almost always within a day or two. Full responses are sometimes sent through e-mail, or you will be notified that answers have been posted in the Grammar Logs (listed below) 

    GRAMMAR LOGS 
    This is where Grammar keeps track of questions and answers. Once filled, each volume contains 100 questions, ten "logs" of ten questions each. We suggest you look through these volumes to see if your question has been asked and answered before; in the process, you will surely find many interesting questions from other users around the world. There is also an FAQ File, a list of Frequently Asked Questions, hyperlinked to appropriate answers within the Guide. So far, questions have been submitted from 123 countries — for a list — and all fifty states of the U.S.A. 

    Grammar English’s Bookshelf 
    When Grammar English needs help, what books does she grab first? 
    Other Online Resources for Writing 
    Grammar English thinks she has the best online resource for writing 
    but there are others. See also the Academic Weblist for English.

    Eminent Quotables 
    Over 200 quotations from famous writers and thinkers — from William Shakespeare to Steve Martin, from Yeats to Eeyore — about the craft and passion of writing.
    Anomalous Anonymies 
    Grammar Goofs and uproarious misspellings harvested from college essays, 
    high school papers, and other sources over the years. Just for fun! 

    Caveat Lector 
    A brief but important caution about the uses of this Guide.

    Grammar’s Trophy Cabinet 
    Grammar English is proud of the awards bestowed upon this page. The award icons (that take you to the pages of the kind bestowers of such awards) have been put away in this digital cabinet, where they are kept well shined. Click HERE, please, to see them.
  • Grammarly Handbook | English Grammar Rules 
    Grammar
    Adjectives and Adverbs
    Articles
    Conjunctions
    Interjections
    Nouns
    Prepositions
    Pronouns
    Verbs

    Punctuation
    Comma
    Colon
    Semicolon
    Apostrophe
    Quotation Marks
    Dash
    Hyphen
    End of sentence punctuation
    Other punctuation marks

    Mechanics
    Spelling
    Capitalization
    Abbreviations
    Numbers
    Italics and Underlining
    Phrasal Verb and Idioms
    Compound Words

    Sentence style and sentence clarity
    Comparison
    Conditional Sentences
    Qualifiers and Quantifier
    Mixed Constructions
    Negatives
    Modifiers
    Parallelism
    Shifts in Writing
    Sentence style
    Transitions and Transitional Devices

    Improve Your Writing
    Basics of Writing (Composition)
    Planning
    Writing a Draft
    Revising and Editing the Draft
    Writing Paragraphs
    Document Design Issues

    Academic Writing – Specific Requirements 
    Argumentative Writing (Persuasive Writing)
    Essay Writing
    How to Write a Research Paper

    Organization and Development

    Logic In Argumentative Writing
    Writing Concisely
    Patterns Of Organization For Academic Texts
    Organizing And Developing Your Ideas
    Text-level Measurements Of Adequate Writing

    Revising and Editing
    Basic Mechanics
    Spelling and Grammar
    Organization
    Scrubbing (Writing Style)
    Appearance

    Research and Documentation
    Research
    Evaluating Resources
    Documentation
    Documentation Styles
  • Grammar FROM Purdue University Online Writing Lab 
    Contents 

    Spelling
    This resource covers common spelling errors including accept/except, ei/ie, noun plurals, and –ible/able.

    Numbers
    This section discusses numbers, how to write them correctly, and when to use numerical expressions instead.

    Adjective or Adverb
    This worksheet discusses the differences between adjectives and adverbs. It defines adjectives and adverbs, shows what each can do, and offers several examples of each in use. Click here for some examples.

    How to Use Adjectives and Adverbs
    This resource provides basic guidelines of adjective and adverb use.

    Appositives
    This handout defines appositives and explains how they are used.

    Articles: A versus An
    This short handout deals with which article to use before a noun -- "a" or "an."

    How to Use Articles (a/an/the)
    This handout discusses the differences between indefinite articles (a/an) and definite articles (the).

    Prepositions
    This section deals with prepositions and their standard uses.

    Pronouns
    This section has information about how to use pronouns correctly.

    Relative Pronouns
    This handout provides detailed rules and examples for the usage of relative pronouns (that, who, whom, whose, which, where, when, and why).

    Count and Noncount Nouns
    This handout discusses the differences between count nouns and noncount nouns. Count nouns can be pluralized; noncount nouns cannot.

    Subject/Verb Agreement
    Ever get "subject/verb agreement" as an error on a paper? This handout will help you understand this common grammar problem.

    Verb Tenses
    This handout explains and describes the sequence of verb tenses in English.

    Active Verb Tenses
    This handout gives some examples of the different tenses verbs can have.

    Irregular Verbs
    This handout contains a list and discussion of common irregular verbs.
  • Grammar Handbook FROM The Center for Writing Studies : Writers Workshop: Writer Resources 
    Parts of Speech
    Phrases
    Clauses
    Sentences and Sentence Elements
    Common Usage Problems

    Parts of Speech
    Nouns

    Nouns
    Common and Proper Nouns
    Mass and Count Nouns
    Pronouns
    Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement
    Noun and Pronoun Case

    Verbs

    Principal Tenses of Verbs
    Auxiliary Verbs
    Perfect and Progressive Verb Forms
    Regular and Irregular Verbs
    Verb Mood

    Adjectives and Adverbs

    Adjectives
    Adverbs
    Comparatives and Superlatives

    Conjunctions

    Conjunctions
    Conjunctive Adverbs

    Other Parts of Speech

    Prepositions
    Interjections

    Phrases

    Noun and Verb Phrases
    Prepositional Phrases
    Verbals and Verbal Phrases

    Clauses

    Independent and Dependent Clauses
    Adjective, Adverb, and Noun Clauses
    Relative Clauses
    Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses

    Sentences and Sentence Elements

    Sentence Types
    Subjects and Predicates
    Active and Passive Voice
    Complements
    Direct and Indirect Objects
    Appositives

    Common Usage Problems

    Homophones
    Parallelism
    Misplaced Modifiers
    Dangling Modifiers
    Sentence Fragments
    Fused Sentences, Run-ons, and Comma Splices


BOOKS: How to Write a Research Paper 








Paragraphing, Sentence Structure, Spelling, Grammar Format and Punctuation in Writing Papers and Publications




  • DATABASE: Sage Research Methods Online 
    Database
    Sage Research Methods Online

    Over 10,781 results for a Search of the Word Writing Including Full Text Publications like:
    Writing Up
    How Do I Write the Chapters of My Thesis, Dissertation, or Journal Article?
    How Do I Write Academically?
    Essay Writing
    How Do I Write and Publish a Book?
    Literary Devices in Social Science Writing
    Writing Up the Analysis
    Creative Writing
    Writing Up and Writer's Block
    How Do I Write My Introduction and Conclusion?
    How Do You Write up Your Findings?
    Data Representation and Writing
    How Do I Write About Mixed Methods and Mixed Data?
    How Do I Write My Bibliography?
    How Do I Write My Methodology Section?
    Finishing Off: Writing, Presenting and Publishing

    ("RESEARCH PAPERS" OR PUBLICATION OR PUBLICATIONS OR "RESEARCH PAPER" OR "RESEARCH WRITING") AND (GRAMMAR OR SENTENCES OR PARAGRAPHS OR PUNCTUATION OR FORMAT OR SENTENCE OR PARAGRAPH)
  • BOOKS: Oxford Guide to Plain English 
    Oxford Guide to Plain English
    Author Martin Cutts
    Edition 4
    Publisher OUP Oxford, 2013
    ISBN 0191649120, 9780191649127
    Length 320 pages

    Table of Contents

    1 Writing short sentences and clear paragraphs
    2 Preferring plain words
    3 Writing tight
    4 Favouring active voice verbs
    5 Using vigorous verbs and untying noun strings
    6 Using vertical lists
    7 Converting negative to positive
    8 Cross references cross readers
    9 Using good punctuation
    10 Pitching your writing at the right level
    11 Six writing myths explored and exploded
    12 Clearly nonsexist
    13 Conquering grammarphobia
    14 Sound starts and excellent endings
    15 Planning well
    16 Using reader centred structure
    17 Using alternatives to words words words
    18 Management of colleagues writing
    19 Good practice with email
    20 Writing better instructions
    21 Clarity for the Web
    22 Lucid legal language
    23 Writing low literacy plain English
    24 Basics of clear layout

    its time to Proof read
    commonest words
    Sources and notes
    Index
  • BOOKS: Grammar in Plain English 
    Grammar in Plain English
    Authors Harriet Diamond, Phyllis Dutwin
    Edition illustrated
    Publisher Barron's Educational Series, 1997
    ISBN 0812096487, 9780812096484
    Length 358 pages

    Table of Contents

    Understanding Time and Number
    Adding Descriptive Words
    Using Descriptive Words Correctly
    Adding Descriptive Phrases
    Cumulative Review
    Linking Words
    Special Problems
    Special Problems
    Cumulative Review
    SUMMARY OF RESULTS
    More Punctuation
    Capitalization
    Spelling
    Word Usage
    Cumulative Review
    SUMMARY OF RESULTS
    Pronouns
    Cumulative Re view
    SUMMARY OF RESULTS
    Punctuation
    Practice Examination
    Guide to Grammatical Terms
  • BOOKS: The Plain English Approach to Business Writing 
    The Plain English Approach to Business Writing
    Oxford Paperbacks
    Author Edward P. Bailey
    Edition illustrated, revised
    Publisher Oxford University Press, USA, 1997
    ISBN 0195115651, 9780195115659
    Length 132 pages

    Table of Contents

    What is Plain English?
    Writing a Readable Sentence
    Getting to the Point
    Adding Visual Impact
    A Model for Writing
    More about Style
    Passive Voice
    Abstractness
    Executive Summary
    More about Layout
    Typefaces
    Headings
    Bullets
    Final Words
    The Writing Process
    Supervising Writers
    Punctuation
    More about Organization
    Blueprint
    Simpler Words and Phrases
    Index
  • A Guide for Writing Research Papers based on Styles Recommended by The American Psychological Association Prepared by the Humanities Department as part of The Guide to Grammar and Writing and the Arthur C. Banks Jr. Library CAPITAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE Hartf 

    What does a reference look like for a SINGLE-AUTHOR BOOK? 
    What about a book written by MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR? 
    What if I'm not using a first edition? 
    How do I list an EDITED VOLUME 
    What happens if my book has NO AUTHOR OR EDITOR listed? 
    I have a SEVERAL-VOLUME WORK here. How do I list that? 
    What if I'm using a quote that I discover in a SECONDARY RESOURCE? 
    DOCTORAL DISSERTATION. How would create a reference for that? 
    What's the proper format for a Magazine or Periodical? 
    SCHOLARLY JOURNAL. How would I cite that? 
    How would I handle a NEWSPAPER ARTICLE ? 
    how to handle NON-PRINT MATERIALS? 
    PERSONAL INTERVIEWS and PHONE CONVERSATIONS. How do I document those resources? 
    CLASSROOM LECTURE. Can I use that? 
    GOVERNMENT and ERIC to list. What's the proper format? 
    INTERNET and CD-ROM RESOURCES. How do I document that material? 
    ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. How do I go about that? 


  • WRITING AND WRITERS: GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: Federal Plain Language Guidelines, March 2011 
    http://tinyurl.com/o684wda

    OR 

    http://web.archive.org/web/20161223080506/http://www.plainlanguage.gov/howto/guidelines/


    Federal Plain Language Guidelines, March 2011

    Plain Language.gov

    Improving communications from the Federal Government to the public

    Table of Contents

    Think about your audience
    Identify and write for your audience
    Address separate audiences separately
    Organize
    Organize to meet your readers' needs
    Address one person, not a group
    Use lots of useful headings
    Write short sections
    Write your document
    Words
    Verbs
    Use active voice
    Use the simplest form of a verb
    Avoid hidden verbs
    Use "must" to indicate requirements
    Use contractions when appropriate
    Nouns and pronouns
    Don't turn verbs into nouns
    Use pronouns to speak directly to readers
    Minimize abbreviations
    Other word issues
    Use short, simple words
    Omit unnecessary words
    Dealing with definitions
    Use the same term consistently for a specific thought or
    object
    Avoid legal, foreign, and technical jargon
    Don't use slashes
    Sentences
    Write short sentences
    Keep subject, verb, and object close together
    Avoid double negatives and exceptions to exceptions
    Place the main idea before exceptions and conditions
    Place words carefully
    Paragraphs
    Have a topic sentence
    Use transition words
    Write short paragraphs
    Cover only one topic in each paragraph
    Other aids to clarity
    Use examples
    Use lists
    Use tables to make complex material easier to understand
    Consider using illustrations
    Use emphasis to highlight important concepts
    Minimize cross-references
    Design your document for easy reading
    Write for the web
    How do people use the web?
    Write for your users
    Identify your users and their top tasks
    Write web content
    Repurpose print material for the web
    Avoid PDF overload
    Use plain-language techniques on the web
    Avoid meaningless formal language
    Write effective links
    Test
    Paraphrase Testing
    Usability Testing
    Controlled Comparative Studies
    Testing Successes
    Paraphrase Testing from the Veterans Benefits Administration
    Usability Testing from the National Cancer Institute

    One may download the Word or PDF version of the full Guidelines.
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION: NARA Style Guide 
    National Archives and Records Administration
    NARA Style Guide

    Preface

    Clear writing conveys clear thought. NARA writers in all offices must strive for clear communication to explain their increasingly complex work. They write letters, memorandums, finding aids, web pages, blogs, leaflets, reports, articles, exhibit scripts, brochures, budget requests, speeches, forms, and email messages. This style guide establishes agency standards of punctuation, word usage, and grammar that will answer writers‘ most common questions and will, we hope, promote clear and effective writing 
    throughout NARA.

    Style changes over time and even from place to place, depending on the intended audience. These differences do not necessarily make one choice 
    ―wrong.‖ What is ―right‖ is consistency within your own work and using the appropriate language and usage for your audience.

    The NARA Style Guide fills two needs. First, the section ―Writing for Plain Language ‖ will help us comply with the Plain Writing Act of 2010. Second, it addresses many of the questions and issues unanswered by the Government Printing Office Style Manual (GPO manual). This guide is based on the GPO manual but includes modifications that reflect current usage.

    The most notable difference from the GPO manual concerns the treatment of numbers. This style guide simplifies the rules. In most cases, writers will spell out numbers under 10 and use numerals for numbers 10 and over. 
    (See section 4.10.)

    The GPO manual is still NARA‘s primary reference for style. For issues not covered in the NARA guide, continue to consult the GPO manual.

    The appendix, ―Quick Reference,‖ may be particularly helpful to NARA writers. This list of words and phrases provides quick answers to common questions about capitalization, spelling, compound words, and plurals.

    The NARA Style Guide took shape from the agency‘s specific language needs and will continue to change to reflect the needs and concerns of NARA writers. Use the NARA Style Guide for all NARA communications.

    If you have questions about spelling, grammar, or usage that are not addressed by this guide, contact the Strategy and Communications staff 

    Helpful References

    PlainLanguage.gov 

    http://www.plainlanguage.gov

    Bremner, John B. 
    Words on Words. 
    New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.

    The Chicago Manual of Style. 
    16th ed. 
    Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

    Cormier, Robin. 
    Error-Free Writing: 
    A Lifetime Guide to Flawless Business Writing. 
    Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995.

    Editors of EEI Press, 
    E-What?: 
    A Guide to the Quirks of New Media Style and Usage. 
    Alexandria, VA: EEI Press, 2000.

    General Services Administration, 
    Standard and Optional Forms Procedural Handbook. 
    Washington, DC: GSA, July 2009. 

    http://www.gsa.gov/portal/forms/type/SF

    Gunning, Robert. 
    The Technique of Clear Writing. 
    New York: McGraw-Hill, rev. 1983.

    Lauchman, Richard. 
    Plain Style: 
    Techniques for Simple, Concise, Emphatic Business Writing. 
    New York: AMACOM, 1993.

    National Archives and Records Administration, 
    Guide for Preparing NARA Correspondence: 
    A Supplement to NARA 201 (June 13, 2005). 

    http://tinyurl.com/p9zmaol

    National Archives and Records Administration, 
    Office of the Federal Register, 
    Plain Language Tools. 

    http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/write/plain-language/

    National Archives and Records Administration, 
    Office of the Federal Register, 
    Drafting Legal Documents

    http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/write/legal-docs/index.html

    The New York Public Library 
    Writer’s Guide to Style and Usage. 
    New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

    Redish, Janice (Ginny). 
    Letting Go of the Words: Writing Web Content that Works. 
    San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman, 2007.

    Strunk, William, Jr. 
    The Elements of Style. With revisions, an introduction, 
    and a chapter on writing 
    by E. B. White. 
    4th ed. 
    Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999. 
    (commonly known as ―Strunk and White‖)

    United States Government Printing Office 
    Style Manual. 
    Washington, DC: GPO, 2008. 

    http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/browse.html

    Contents

    1. Writing in Plain Language

    1.1 Think about your audience

    1.2 Organize your material

    1.2.1 Use headings and subheadings

    1.2.2 Limit heading levels to three or fewer

    1.2.3 Write short sections

    1.3 Verbs

    1.3.1 Use the active voice (unless passive makes more sense)

    1.3.2 Use the simplest form of the verb

    1.3.3 Don‘t hide the verb

    1.3.4 Don‘t use ―shall‖

    1.3.5 Avoid the false subjects It is and There are

    1.3.6 Use contractions when appropriate

    1.4 Nouns and pronouns

    1.4.1 Use everyday words

    1.4.2 Avoid ―noun strings‖

    1.4.3 Use pronouns

    1.5 Omit unnecessary words

    1.5.1 Write with a word, not a phrase

    1.5.2 Avoid redundancy

    1.5.3 Avoid intruding words

    1.5.4 Don‘t ―double‖ terms

    1.5.5 Beware basis, manner, fashion, and way

    1.6 Sentences

    1.6.1 Write short sentences

    1.6.2 Place words carefully

    1.6.3 Use idioms

    1.6.4 Minimize the use of ―not‖

    2. Formatting for Readability

    2.1 Understand that isolation is emphasis

    2.2 Don‘t hesitate to use headings in any document

    2.3 Isolate lead sentences

    2.4 Feel free to write one-sentence paragraphs

    2.5 Use standard typefaces for the text

    2.6 Leave the right margin ragged

    2.7 Leave plenty of white space

    2.8 Use discretion with graphics

    2.9 Use tables to present comparisons

    2.10 Use vertical lists

    2.11 Use footnotes and endnotes for explanatory or peripheral information iv

    2.12 Adjust established formats when necessary

    3. Writing and Formatting Email

    3.1 Think before sending

    3.2 Use the subject field

    3.3 Be cautious about using special type styles

    3.4 Be judicious when capitalizing words

    3.5 Keep paragraphs short

    3.6 Maintain a businesslike tone

    4. Usage and Style

    4.1 Abbreviations and Symbols

    4.1.1 Geographic locations

    4.1.2 United States / U.S.

    4.1.3 Personal titles

    4.1.4 Citations

    4.1.5 Typographic symbols

    4.2 Acronyms

    4.3 Addresses

    4.4 Capitalization

    4.4.1 Geographic terms

    4.4.2 Military terms

    4.4.3 NARA forms, directives, and notices

    4.4.4 Organizations

    4.4.5 Personal titles

    4.5 Compounds

    4.5.1 Prefixes

    4.5.2 Compound adjectives

    4.5.3 Compound nouns

    4.5.4 Suspended compounds

    4.5.5 References to ethnicity

    4.6 Computer-related terms

    4.7 Dates

    4.8 Grammar reminders

    4.8.1 Subject/verb agreement

    4.8.2 Prepositions and pronouns

    4.9 Gender-neutral language

    4.10 Numbers

    4.11 Plurals

    4.12 Possessives

    4.13 Problem words and phrases

    4.14 Punctuation

    4.14.1 Apostrophe

    4.14.2 Colons and semicolons

    4.14.3 Comma

    4.14.4 Dash

    4.14.5 Ellipses

    4.14.6 Parentheses

    4.14.7 Quotation marks

    4.15 References to NARA

    4.16 Titles of works: italics or quotation marks

    Appendix: Quick Reference

    Content Sample: 

    1. Writing in Plain Language

    Writing in plain language means writing clearly. It means writing so that readers can
    find what they need, understand what they find, and use what they find to meet their needs. The more clearly you communicate, the more likely your readers will grasp what you want them to grasp and do what you want them to do, from filling out a form correctly to complying with a regulation. 
    And the less likely it is that your readers will 
    call or write you to ask questions or express 
    frustration.

    Ultimately, your job will be easier and more pleasant if you take the time to communicate clearly.
  • BOOKS: Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students 
    Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students
    Author Stephen Bailey
    Edition revised
    Publisher Routledge, 2014
    ISBN 1317668022, 9781317668022
    Length 304 pages
  • BOOKS: Academic Writing for International Students of Business 
    Academic Writing for International Students of Business
    Author Stephen Bailey
    Edition 2, revised
    Publisher Routledge, 2015
    ISBN 1317666429, 9781317666424
    Length 320 pages
  • BOOKS: Science Research Writing for Non-native Speakers of English 
    Science Research Writing for Non-native Speakers of English
    Author Hilary Glasman-Deal
    Publisher World Scientific, 2010
    ISBN 1848163118, 9781848163119
    Length 257 pages
  • BOOKS: Academic Skills for International Students 
    Academic Skills for International Students
    Authors Rosalind McCulloch, Andrea Reid
    Publisher Pearson Higher Education AU, 2013
    ISBN 1442564822, 9781442564824
    Length 169 pages
  • Grammar, Puncuation, Spelling and Other Writing Skills 
    Grammar, Puncuation, Spelling and Other Writing Skills
  • BOOKS: MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing 
    MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing
    MLA Style Manual
    Editor Modern Language Association of America
    Edition 3, revised, large print
    Publisher Modern Language Association of America, 2008
    ISBN 0873522982, 9780873522984
    Length 336 pages
  • BOOKS: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 
    Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
    Authors American Psychological Association, Of Editors Council of Editors
    Edition illustrated, reprint
    Publisher American Psychological Association, 2006
    ISBN 9562912663, 9789562912662
    Length 70 pages
  • BOOKS: The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation: An Easy-to-Use Guide with Clear Rules, Real-World Examples, and Reproducible Quizzes 
    The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation: An Easy-to-Use Guide with Clear Rules, Real-World Examples, and Reproducible Quizzes
    Author Jane Straus
    Contributor Mignon Fogarty
    Edition 10
    Publisher John Wiley & Sons, 2011
    ISBN 1118039432, 9781118039434
    Length 176 pages
  • BOOKS: The Chicago Manual of Style 
    The Chicago Manual of Style
    Author University of Chicago. Press
    Contributor University of Chicago
    Publisher University of Chicago Press, 2003
    ISBN 0226104036, 9780226104034
  • BOOKS: Plain English Punctuation 
    Plain English Punctuation
    Author Frank Schaffer Publications
    Publisher Frank Schaffer Publications, 2000
    ISBN 0867348038, 9780867348033
  • BOOKS: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 
    MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
    Author Joseph Gibaldi
    Contributor Modern Language Association of America
    Edition 6, revised
    Publisher Modern Language Association of America, 2003
    ISBN 0613684532, 9780613684538
    Length 361 pages
  • BOOKS: Publication Design Workbook: A Real-World Guide to Designing Magazines, Newspapers, and Newsletters 
    Publication Design Workbook: A Real-World Guide to Designing Magazines, Newspapers, and Newsletters
    Workbook series
    Author Timothy Samara
    Publisher Rockport Publishers, 2005
    ISBN 1616735902, 9781616735906
    Length 240 pages
  • BOOKS: Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers 
    Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers
    C B E STYLE MANUAL
    Author CBE Style Manual Committee
    Edition illustrated, reprint, annotated
    Publisher Cambridge University Press, 1994
    ISBN 0521471540, 9780521471541
    Length 825 pages
  • BOOKS: Grammar Essentials: A Reference Dictionary 
    Grammar Essentials: A Reference Dictionary
    Publisher R.I.C. Publications, 2008
    ISBN 1741267978, 9781741267976
    Length 95 pages
  • BOOKS: The Elements of Style 
    The Elements of Style
    Coyote Canyon Press language series
    Author William Strunk
    Edition unabridged
    Publisher Filiquarian Publishing, LLC., 2007
    ISBN 1599869330, 9781599869339
    Length 70 pages
  • BOOKS: Introduction to Research in the Health Sciences 
    Introduction to Research in the Health Sciences
    Authors Stephen Polgar, Shane A. Thomas
    Edition 5, revised
    Publisher Elsevier Health Sciences, 2011
    ISBN 0702050164, 9780702050169
    Length 344 pages
  • DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS FOR RESEARCH RESULTS FOR RESEARCH REPORTS AND GRAMMAR PUNCTUATION AND FORMATS FROM Google Web Search 
    Content Sample

    Introductions, Body Paragraphs, and Conclusions for an Argument Paper FROM Purdue Owl
    Scientific Style and Format Online - Citation Quick Guide
    Formatting a Research Paper – The MLA Style Center
    How to Format Your Research Paper - Science Buddies
    Research Paper Format - Electrical and Computer Engineering
    Research Paper Format, Template for Research Paper
    How to Write Guide: How to Cite Other Papers in Your Paper
    APA STYLE – RESEARCH PAPER FORMAT
    Grammarly Handbook | How to Write a Research Paper Grammar Rules
    Format Publications - Wikipedia
    Term Paper: Format of Citations and References - UC Davis
    Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Common Grammar Mistakes
    MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays
  • DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS FOR RESEARCH RESULTS FOR RESEARCH REPORTS AND GRAMMAR PUNCTUATION AND FORMATS FROM PENN STATE SUMMON SEARCH 
    6,397,891 results

    SOURCE TYPES

    Album (10) Include Exclude
    Architectural Drawing (1) Include Exclude
    Archival Material (5,819) Include Exclude
    Archival Material/Manuscripts (2) Include Exclude
    Art (8) Include Exclude
    Article (2) Include Exclude
    Artifact (1) Include Exclude
    Audio Recording (488) Include Exclude
    Book / eBook (2,102,498) Include Exclude
    Book Chapter (87,531) Include Exclude
    Book Review (252,152) Include Exclude
    Case (11) Include Exclude
    Catalog (58) Include Exclude
    Computer File (5) Include Exclude
    Conference Proceeding (40,167) Include Exclude
    Course Reading (8) Include Exclude
    Data Set (9,024) Include Exclude
    Database (9) Include Exclude
    Dissertation/Thesis (288,990) Include Exclude
    Drawing (130) Include Exclude
    DVD (3) Include Exclude
    Electronic Resource (207) Include Exclude
    Finding Aid (1) Include Exclude
    Government Document (181,282) Include Exclude
    Image (199) Include Exclude
    Journal / eJournal (9,850) Include Exclude
    Journal Article (1,493,449) Include Exclude
    Kit (15) Include Exclude
    Library Holding (119) Include Exclude
    Magazine (33) Include Exclude
    Magazine Article (156,235) Include Exclude
    Manuscript (458) Include Exclude
    Map (9) Include Exclude
    Market Research (138,328) Include Exclude
    Microform (354) Include Exclude
    Music Score (10) Include Exclude
    Newsletter (44,974) Include Exclude
    Newspaper (5,384) Include Exclude
    Newspaper Article (1,362,591) Include Exclude
    Pamphlet (326) Include Exclude
    Paper (3,972) Include Exclude
    Patent (818) Include Exclude
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    Poem (72) Include Exclude
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    Reference (68,433) Include Exclude
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    Streaming Audio (23) Include Exclude
    Streaming Video (616) Include Exclude
    Student Thesis (73) Include Exclude
    Technical Report (498) Include Exclude
    Trade Publication Article (25,597) Include Exclude
    Transcript (40,041) Include Exclude
    Video Recording (1,276) Include Exclude
    Web Resource (16,523) Include Exclude
  • DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS FOR RESEARCH RESULTS FOR RESEARCH REPORTS AND GRAMMAR PUNCTUATION AND FORMATS FROM POGOFROG 
    CONTENT SAMPLE

    Samples of Formatted References for Authors of Journal Articles
    MEDLINE/PubMed Data Element (Field) Descriptions
    Journals - Citing Medicine - NCBI Bookshelf
    Formatting Guide to Authors : For authors and referees : Nature
    Guide for authors - Osteoarthritis and Cartilage - ISSN 1063-4584
    11 steps to structuring a science paper editors will take seriously
    Conference Publications - Citing Medicine - NCBI Bookshelf
    Does presentation format at the Pediatric Academic Societies' annual meeting predict subsequent publication?
    Papers and Poster Sessions Presented at Meetings - Citing Medicine
    Writing an effective academic CV
    How to create a curriculum vitae that is compelling, well-organized and easy to read



How to Select a Research Paper Topic 






Database Search Results for How to Write a Research Paper





Tools That Help with Writing and Research Papers






Government Writing Manuals Guides and Handbooks




  • WRITING AND WRITERS: GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: Federal Plain Language Guidelines, March 2011 
    http://tinyurl.com/o684wda

    OR 

    http://web.archive.org/web/20161223080506/http://www.plainlanguage.gov/howto/guidelines/


    Federal Plain Language Guidelines, March 2011

    Plain Language.gov

    Improving communications from the Federal Government to the public

    Table of Contents

    Think about your audience
    Identify and write for your audience
    Address separate audiences separately
    Organize
    Organize to meet your readers' needs
    Address one person, not a group
    Use lots of useful headings
    Write short sections
    Write your document
    Words
    Verbs
    Use active voice
    Use the simplest form of a verb
    Avoid hidden verbs
    Use "must" to indicate requirements
    Use contractions when appropriate
    Nouns and pronouns
    Don't turn verbs into nouns
    Use pronouns to speak directly to readers
    Minimize abbreviations
    Other word issues
    Use short, simple words
    Omit unnecessary words
    Dealing with definitions
    Use the same term consistently for a specific thought or
    object
    Avoid legal, foreign, and technical jargon
    Don't use slashes
    Sentences
    Write short sentences
    Keep subject, verb, and object close together
    Avoid double negatives and exceptions to exceptions
    Place the main idea before exceptions and conditions
    Place words carefully
    Paragraphs
    Have a topic sentence
    Use transition words
    Write short paragraphs
    Cover only one topic in each paragraph
    Other aids to clarity
    Use examples
    Use lists
    Use tables to make complex material easier to understand
    Consider using illustrations
    Use emphasis to highlight important concepts
    Minimize cross-references
    Design your document for easy reading
    Write for the web
    How do people use the web?
    Write for your users
    Identify your users and their top tasks
    Write web content
    Repurpose print material for the web
    Avoid PDF overload
    Use plain-language techniques on the web
    Avoid meaningless formal language
    Write effective links
    Test
    Paraphrase Testing
    Usability Testing
    Controlled Comparative Studies
    Testing Successes
    Paraphrase Testing from the Veterans Benefits Administration
    Usability Testing from the National Cancer Institute

    One may download the Word or PDF version of the full Guidelines.
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT : WRITING AND WRITERS: PLAGIARISM: Avoiding Plagiarism, Self-Plagiarism, and Other Questionable Writing Practices: A Guide to Ethical Writing 
    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Download PDF of this Module

    26 Guidelines at a Glance

    Introduction

    On ethical writing

    Plagiarism

    . Plagiarism of ideas
    . Acknowledging the source of our ideas
    . Plagiarism of text
    . Inappropriate paraphrasing
    . Paraphrasing and plagiarism: What the writing guides say
    . Examples of paraphrasing: Good and bad
    . Paraphrasing highly technical language
    . Plagiarism and common knowledge
    . Plagiarism and authorship disputes

    Self plagiarism

    . Redundant and Duplicate (i.e., dual) Publications
    . Academic self plagiarism
    . Salami Slicing (i.e., data fragmentation)
    . Copyright Law
    . Copyright Infringement, Fair Use, and Plagiarism
    . Text recycling
    . Forms of acceptable text recycling
    . Borderline/unacceptable cases of text recycling

    The Lesser Crimes of Writing

    . Carelessness in citing sources
    . Relying on an abstract or a preliminary version of a paper while
    citing the published version
    . Citing sources that were not read or thoroughly understood
    . Borrowing extensively from a source but only acknowledging a small
    portion of what is borrowed
    . Ethically inappropriate writing practices
    . Selective reporting of literature
    . Selective reporting of methodology
    . Selective reporting of results
    . Authorship issues and conflicts of interest
    . Deciding on authorship
    . Establishing authorship
    . Authorship in faculty-student collaborations
    . A brief overview on conflicts of interest

    References
  • DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS: Employee Handbooks 
    WRITING AND WRITERS: GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS :
    UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT :
    EMPLOYMENT: HUMAN RESOURCES AND PERSONNEL: EMPLOYEE HANDBOOKS:
    Employee Handbooks
    United States. Small Business Administration
  • GRANTS AND GRANT WRITING : WRITING AND WRITERS SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: National Institutes of Health. Grants and Grant Writing. Writing Your Application 
    National Institutes of Health. 
    Grants and Grant Writing. 
    Writing Your Application 

    Website Contents
    Introduction

    Get Prepared

    What to Know Before You Start Writing the Research Proposal

    Developing Your Research Plan

    Additional Elements Required in a Grant Application

    Important Writing Tips
  • LAW : COURTS : WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : UNITED STATES: STATES: OHIO: GOVERNMENT: COURTS: SUPREME COURT: WRITING MANUAL: Published for the Supreme Court of Ohio A Guide to Citations, Style, and Judicial Opinion Writing 
    LAW : COURTS :
    WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :
    UNITED STATES: STATES: OHIO: GOVERNMENT: COURTS: SUPREME COURT:
    WRITING MANUAL:
    Published for the Supreme Court of Ohio
    A Guide to Citations, Style, and Judicial Opinion Writing
    MAUREEN OCONNOR
    Chief Justice
    PAUL E. PFEIFER
    TERRENCE ODONNELL
    JUDITH ANN LANZINGER
    SHARON L. KENNEDY
    JUDITH L. FRENCH
    WILLIAM M. ONEILL
    Justices
    STEVEN C. HOLLON
    Administrative Director

    [Table of Contents found in More Information below]
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : INVESTMENT SECURITIES DOCUMENTS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION: A Plain English Handbook: How to Create Clear SEC Disclosure Documents 
    WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :
    UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION:
    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
    A Plain English Handbook:
    How to Create Clear SEC Disclosure Documents
    .
    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
    Office of Investor Education and Assistance
    A Plain English Handbook:
    How to Create Clear SEC Disclosure Documents

    "This handbook shows how you can use well-established techniques for
    writing in plain English to create clearer and more informative
    disclosure documents. We are publishing this handbook only for your
    general information. Of course, when drafting a document for filing with
    the SEC, you must make sure it meets all legal requirements."

    Table of Contents

    Preface by Warren E. Buffett 1
    Introduction by Arthur Levitt, Chairman 3
    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
    Chapter 1
    What Is a Plain English Document? 5
    Chapter 2
    Getting Started 7
    Chapter 3
    Knowing Your Audience 9
    Chapter 4
    Knowing the Information You Need to Disclose 11
    Chapter 5
    Reorganizing the Document 15
    Chapter 6
    Writing in Plain English 17
    Chapter 7
    Designing the Document 37
    Chapter 8
    Time-Saving Tips 55
    Chapter 9
    Using Readability Formulas and Style Checkers 57
    Chapter 10
    Evaluating the Document 59
    Chapter 11
    Reading List 61
    Chapter 12
    Keeping in Touch with Us 63
    Appendix A Plain English at a Glance 65
    The SECs Plain English Rulesan Excerpt 66
    Appendix B Plain English Examples 69
    Before and After Filings with Notes 70
    a plain

    From the Preface

    "There are several possible explanations as to why I and others sometimes
    stumble over an accounting note or indenture description. Maybe we simply
    dont have the technical knowledge to grasp what the writer wishes to
    convey. Or perhaps the writer doesnt understand what he or she is talking
    about. In some cases, moreover, I suspect that a less-thanscrupulous
    issuer doesnt want us to understand a subject it feels legally obligated
    to touch upon.

    Perhaps the most common problem, however, is that a well-intentioned and
    informed writer simply fails to get the message across to an intelligent,
    interested reader. In that case, stilted jargon and complex constructions
    are usually the villains.

    This handbook tells you how to free yourself of those impediments to
    effective communication. Write as this handbook instructs you and you
    will be amazed at how much smarter your readers will think you have
    become."

    "One unoriginal but useful tip: Write with a specific person in mind.
    When writing Berkshire Hathaways annual report, I pretend that Im talking
    to my sisters. I have no trouble picturing them: Though highly
    intelligent, they are not experts in accounting or finance. They will
    understand plain English, but jargon may puzzle them. My goal is simply
    to give them the information I would wish them to supply me if our
    positions were reversed. To succeed, I dont need to be Shakespeare; I
    must, though, have a sincere desire to inform.

    No siblings to write to? Borrow mine: Just begin with Dear Doris and
    Bertie."

    by Warren E. Buffett

    Introduction

    Investors need to read and understand disclosure documents to benefit
    fully from the protections offered by our federal securities laws. Because
    many investors are neither lawyers, accountants, nor investment bankers,
    we need to start writing disclosure documents in a language investors can
    understand: plain English.

    The shift to plain English requires a new style of thinking and writing,
    whether you work at a company, a law firm, or the U.S. Securities and
    Exchange Commission. We must question whether the documents we are used to
    writing highlight the important information investors need to make
    informed decisions. The legalese and jargon of the past must give way to
    everyday words that communicate complex information clearly.

    The good news is that more and more companies and lawyers are using plain
    English and filing documents with the SEC that others can study, use, and
    improve upon. With the SECs plain English rules in place, every prospectus
    will have its cover page, summary, and risk factors in plain English.

    The benefits of plain English abound. Investors will be more likely to
    understand what they are buying and to make informed judgments about
    whether they should hold or sell their investments. Brokers and investment
    advisers can make better recommendations to their clients if they can read and understand these documents quickly and easily.

    Companies that communicate successfully with their investors form stronger
    relationships with them. These companies save the costs of explaining
    legalese and dealing with confused and sometimes angry investors. Lawyers
    reviewing plain English documents catch and correct mistakes more easily.
    Many companies have switched to plain English because its a good business
    decision. They see the value of communicating with their investors rather
    than sending them impenetrable documents. And as we depend more and more on the Internet and electronic delivery of documents, plain English
    versions will be easier to read electronically than legalese.

    The SECs staff has created this handbook to help speed and smooth the
    transition to plain English. It includes proven tips from those in the
    private sector who have already created plain English disclosure
    documents. This handbook reflects their substantial contributions and
    those of highly regarded experts in the field who were our consultants on
    this project, Dr. William Lutz at Rutgers University and the firm of Siegel and Gale in New York City.

    But I hasten to add that the SEC has not cornered the market on plain
    English advice. Our rules and communications need as strong a dose of
    plain English as any disclosure document. This handbook gives you some
    ideas on what has worked for others, but use whatever works for you.
    No matter what route you take to plain English, we want you to produce
    documents that fulfill the promise of our securities laws. I urge you in
    long and short documents, in prospectuses and shareholder reportsto speak
    to investors in words they can understand. Tell them plainly what they
    need to know to make intelligent investment decisions."

    What Is a Plain English Document?

    "Well start by dispelling a common misconception about plain English
    writing. It does not mean deleting complex information to make the
    document easier to understand. For investors to make informed decisions,
    disclosure documents must impart complex information. Using plain English
    assures the orderly and clear presentation of complex information so that
    investors have the best possible chance of understanding it.

    Plain English means analyzing and deciding what information investors need
    to make informed decisions, before words, sentences, or paragraphs are
    considered. A plain English document uses words economically and at a
    level the audience can understand. Its sentence structure is tight. Its
    tone is welcoming and direct. Its design is visually appealing. A plain
    English document is easy to read and looks like its meant to be read."

    This handbooks purpose

    "This handbook gives you practical tips on how to create plain English
    documents. All of these were born of experience. They come from experts
    and those who have already written or rewritten their documents in plain
    English.

    As with all the advice in this handbook, feel free to tailor these tips to
    your schedule, your document, and your budget. Not all of the tips will
    apply to everyone or to every document. Pick and choose the ones that make
    sense for you.

    Some of our tips cover very basic mechanical issues, like how to photocopy
    your working draft. Weve included them because they were learned the hard
    way and have saved people time, money, and aggravation. Youll see them
    listed in Chapter 8, titled Time-Saving Tips.

    This handbook is by no means the last word on plain English. We expect to
    change it and add more tips as we learn more about writing securities
    documents in plain English. So please keep notes on your experiences and
    copies of your original and rewritten language. We want to hear from you
    and include your tips and rewrites in the next edition.

    Finally, we encourage you to give this handbook out freely. It is not
    copyrighted, so you can photocopy it without fear of penalty."
  • 47576 WRITING AND WRITERS: SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES : WEBSITE DESIGN AND PROMOTION: TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION : HEALTH : MEDICAL : EDUCATION : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: Health Literacy Online: A Guide to Writing and Designing Easy-to-Use Health Web Sites 
    WRITING AND WRITERS: SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES :
    WEBSITE DESIGN AND PROMOTION: TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION :
    HEALTH :
    MEDICAL :
    EDUCATION :
    UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:
    Health Literacy Online:
    A Guide to Writing and Designing Easy-to-Use Health Web Sites
    A Guide to Writing and Designing Easy-to-Use Health Web Sites
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
    (2010)
    Health literacy online:
    A guide to writing and designing easy-to-use health Web sites.
    Washington, DC:

    Strategies
    Actions
    Testing Methods
    Resources

    Contents

    About This Guide
    Why Design Easy-to-Use Web Sites?
    Building On the Principles of Usability
    Terminology: Literacy and Health Literacy
    A Note on the Research
    What We Know About Web Users With Limited Literacy Skills
    A Brief Introduction to User-Centered Design
    Summary of Iterative Design and Testing Methods
    Individual Interviews
    Focus Groups Task Analysis
    Personas and Scenarios
    Card Sorting Prototypes
    Usability Testing
    Six Strategies for Writing and Designing
    Easy-to-Use Health Web Sites
    1. Learn About Your Users and Their Goals
    The Basics
    Actions
    1.1. Identify your users. Who are they?
    1.2. Understand their motivations. Why are they here?
    1.3. Understand their goals. What are they trying to do?
    Iterative Design Methods and Tips
    2. Write Actionable Content
    The Basics
    Actions
    2.1. Put the most important information first
    2.2. Describe the health behaviorjust the basics
    2.3. Stay positive and realistic. Include the benefits of taking action
    2.4. Provide specific action steps
    2.5. Write in plain language
    2.6. Check content for accuracy
    Iterative Design Methods and Tips
    3. Display Content Clearly on the Page
    The Basics
    Actions
    3.1. Limit paragraph size. Use bullets and short lists
    3.2. Use meaningful headings
    3.3. Use a familiar font in at least 12-point type
    3.4. Use white space and avoid clutter
    3.5. Keep content in the center of the screen and above the fold
    3.6. Label links clearly
    3.7. Use images that facilitate learning
    3.8. Use bold colors with contrast. Avoid dark backgrounds
    3.9. Make your site accessible to people with disabilities
    Iterative Design Methods and Tips
    4. Organize Content and Simplify Navigation
    The Basics
    Actions
    4.1. Create a simple and engaging home page
    4.2. Use labels that reflect words your users know
    4.3. Enable easy access to home and menu pages
    4.4. Make sure the Back button works
    4.5. Use linear information paths
    4.6. Include simple search and browse options
    Iterative Design Methods and Tips
    5. Engage Users With Interactive Content
    The Basics
    Actions
    5.1. Include printer-friendly tools and resources
    5.2. Simplify screen-based controls and enlarge buttons
    5.3. Include interactive content that users can tailor but not too much
    5.4. Incorporate audio and visual features
    5.5. Explore new media such as Twitter or text messaging
    Iterative Design Methods and Tips
    6. Evaluate and Revise Your Site
    The Basics
    Actions
    6.1. Recruit users with limited literacy
    and limited health literacy skills
    6.2. Choose experienced moderators
    6.3. Test comprehension in multiple ways
    6.4. Consider user engagement and self-efficacy
    6.5. Create plain language testing documents
    Iterative Design Methods and Tips
    References
    Appendixes
    Appendix A: Reviewers
    Appendix B: Sample Measures
    Appendix C: Sample Testing Documents
    Appendix D: Overview of ODPHP Original Research
    Appendix E: Resources for Creating Easy-to-Use Web Sites
    Appendix F: Annotated Bibliography
    "Why Design Easy-to-Use Web Sites?
    Although the problem remains largely
    invisible, millions of Americans
    have a hard time reading. As many as half of U.S. adults have limited
    literacy skills.2 Even more
    Americansas many as 9 out of 10
    have limited health literacy skills.
    This means they have trouble
    understanding complex health
    information.2 As more health
    information and services
    move online, Web developers and
    professionals must find new
    and better ways to communicate
    health information to the public.
    The number of older adults using
    the Internet continues to grow.
    A significant number of older Web users are searching for health
    information. However, age-related changes in vision, hearing, and cognition affect older adults use of
    the Internet.
    Taken individually, each of these factors presents a challenge for Web
    developers and health professionals.
    Taken together, they represent an
    urgent need for innovative designand
    redesignof health content on the Web.
    Several factors affect how well users
    can find, understand, and use
    information on the Web, including:
    Access to computers and experience onlineAbility to read and understand printed text
    Complexity of information on the Web
    Usability of the Web in general and Websites specifically.
    Clearly written content, uncluttered Websites, and simple navigation dramatically improve the performance and experience of Web users, including those with limited literacy skills.
    Studies show that simplifying your Web site improves the experience of all users, not just those with limited literacy skills.
    Clean layouts and familiar language are more usable for everyone"
    The complete online publication may be read at the URL above.
  • Writing for GOV.UK: How to Write Well for Your Audience, Including Specialists
    Content Design: Planning, Writing and Managing Content
    From Government Digital Service

    Contents:

    Writing well for the web
    Writing well for specialists
    Know your audience
    How people read
    Titles and summaries
    Structuring your content
    Writing to GOV.UK style
    After publication
    Change notes

    Excerpt 

    Writing well for the web

    People read differently on the web than they do on paper. This means that the best approach when writing for the web is different from writing for print.

    Our guidance on writing for GOV.UK is based on research into how people read online and how people use GOV.UK. It explains what each rule is based on.

    When you write for GOV.UK you should:
    use writing for the web best practice
    follow the Government Digital Service (GDS) style guide and writing guidance
    Meet the user need
    Don’t publish everything you can online. Publish only what someone needs to know so they can complete their task. Nothing more.
    People don’t usually read text unless they want information. When you write for the web, start with the same question every time: what does the user want to know?
    Meeting that need means being:
    specific
    informative
    clear and to the point

    Finding information on the web

    An individual’s process of finding and absorbing information on the web should follow these steps.

    I have a question

    I can find the page with the answer easily – I can see it’s the right page from the search results listing

    I have understood the information

    I have my answer

    I trust the information

    I know what to do next/my fears are allayed/I don’t need anything else

    A website only works if people can find what they need quickly, complete their task and leave without having to think about it too much.

    Good content is easy to read

    Good online content is easy to read and understand.

    It uses:
    short sentences
    sub-headed sections
    simple vocabulary

    This helps people find what they need quickly and absorb it effortlessly.

    The main purpose of GOV.UK is to provide information - there’s no excuse for putting unnecessarily complicated writing in the way of people’s understanding.

    Click this link to continue reading.
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : COUNTRIES: GREAT BRITAIN: GOVERNMENT: Content Design: Planning, Writing and Managing Content 
    Content Design: Planning, Writing and Managing Content
    From Government Digital Service

    Contents

    Planning and managing digital content to meet the needs the public has of government.

    What is content design? Introduction to content design.

    User needs How to write and record a user need for GOV.UK.

    Planning content Find out how to decide if something is suitable for GOV.UK, what the content lifecycle is and why accessibility must be planned for.

    Content types When and how to use the GOV.UK formats.

    Writing for GOV.UK How to write well for your audience, including specialists.

    Content maintenance How to manage your content.

    GOV.UK content retention and withdrawal ('archiving') policy When content should be withdrawn ('archived') and when it should be taken down.

    Research and evidence Tools and evidence to back up content design decisions.

    Welsh language on GOV.UK The policy governing use of Welsh language on GOV.UK.

    Links Adding links to content, making them accessible and GOV.UK's external linking policy.

    URL standards for GOV.UK How URLs are used on GOV.UK, their
    formatting requirements and why short URLs are sometimes created for promotional purposes.

    Data and analytics How to use tools, such as Google Analytics, to improve your content's search engine optimisation (SEO) and get data on how users are interacting with your content.

    Images How to choose images, and copyright standards for GOV.UK.

    Campaigns on GOV.UK: standards and guidelines Options to support promotions and marketing campaigns, from short URLs to dedicated landing pages.

    Use of government logos on GOV.UK When government logos can be used on GOV.UK.

    Blogging How and when to publish a blog.

    Tables When to use tables and how to make them accessible.

    Feedback How to send the Government Digital Service
    comments and suggestions about this manual.

    The complete document may be read at the URL above.
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: EIA Writing Style Guide 
    EIA Writing Style Guide
    November 2012
    U.S. Energy Information Administration

    Contents

    Introduction

    Quick Tips-Style, Writing, and Grammar Tips

    1. Editorial Voice and Words and Phrases to Avoid

    Chapter 2: Policy-Neutral Writing

    Chapter 3: Advice for Good Writing

    Chapter 4: Grammar

    Chapter 5: Commonly Misused Words

    Chapter 6: Capitalization

    Chapter 7: Numbers

    Chapter 8: Commas

    Chapter 9: Hyphens and Dashes

    Chapter 10: Colons and Semicolons

    Chapter 11: Periods

    Chapter 12: Symbols

    Chapter 13: Punctuating and Formatting Quoted Text

    Chapter 14: Abbreviations and Units

    Chapter 15: Itemized Lists and Bullets

    Chapter 16: Footnotes, Sources, and Notes

    Chapter 17: Hypertext Links

    Chapter 18: British versus American English

    Excerpt:

    Quick Tips-Style, Writing, and Grammar Tips

    EIA Style Use the serial comma: red, white, and blue.

    Website and homepage and email: one word, no hyphens.

    Spell out United States as a noun: U.S. oil is produced in the United
    States.

    Do not capitalize state, federal, or nation unless it's a proper name
    (Federal Register).

    U.S. Energy Information Administration and EIA; not U.S.

    EIA and not the EIA. Write Washington, DC, not Washington, D.C.

    Don't use postal codes except in addresses and footnotes: Cushing, Oklahoma, not Cushing, OK (except for Washington, DC
    where the postal code is part of the city name).

    Writing time: Correct-3:00 p.m.; Incorrect-3:00 pm; 3:00pm; 3:00 PM.

    Writing dates: Correct-January 2012; Jan 5. Incorrect-Jan 2012; January, 2012; January '12; January 5th.

    Write 1990s, not 1990's. Don't CAPITALIZE or underline for emphasis.

    Use bold or italics. American vs. British English: gray (A) vs. grey (B); traveled (A) vs. travelled (B); forward (A) vs. forwards (B).

    EIA style uses American spelling and usage.

    Punctuating bullets: No ending punctuation (no commas or semicolons) unless they are all complete sentences (then end each sentence with a period).

    Don't link click here or here. Link to the subject: See the full report;
    Register now.

    Writing Be consistent with % (informal and education content)
    and percent (formal content) within a document.

    Title case capitalization: Natural Gas Consumption Increasing. Sentence case: Natural gas consumption increasing.

    Be consistent for headers and titles within a document.

    Spell out (or define or link to a full spelling) acronyms the first time used and repeatedly in separate sections of a long document.

    Avoid overuse of due to-try because, as a result of, or following.

    Use since with time (Since 2005, natural gas use has grown.) and because when you want to show cause (Because it was raining, we got wet.).

    Be policy neutral. Avoid words like plummeted, skyrocketed, slashed, spiked, huge.

    Use simple words: additionally ? also; utilize ? use; in order to ? to; numerous ? many.

    Don't use impact as a verb:
    The weather affected (not impacted) electricity demand.

    Don't begin a sentence with a numeral or a year. Incorrect: 2012 stocks are increasing.

    Correct: Stocks in 2012 are increasing.

    Also correct: The year 2012 shows increasing stocks.

    Grammar Which or that? Which nearly always has a comma before it.

    If you can use that, use that. These two words are not interchangeable.

    Which is not a more formal word for that.

    Make bullets consistent: start with verb, verb, verb; noun, noun, noun; adjective, adjective, adjective.

    A person is a who, and a thing is a that. Correct: He is the person who
    said yes.

    Incorrect: He is the person that said yes.

    Use an en-dash to mean through or to: the temperature was 70-80 degrees.

    Use the word minus in an arithmetic phrase.

    Correct: Net imports = imports minus exports. Incorrect: Net imports =
    imports-exports. An em-dash is the length of two hyphens.

    It's used to show a break in thought and is almost always used in pairs.

    Correct: My sister Amy-who is two years younger than I am-
    graduated from college before I did.

    Hyphens with adjectives: short-term forecast, end-use technology.

    No hyphens with nouns: in the short term, three end uses. i.e. and e.g. must be followed by a comma.

    It is better to spell out i.e. ? in other words and e.g. ? for example.
    "Punctuation goes inside the quote marks."

    The complete document may be read at the URL above.
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: Style Manual: An Official Guide to the Form and Style of Federal Government Printing 
    Table of Contents

    About This Manual

    GPO's Online Initiatives

    1. Advice to Authors and Editors

    2. General Instructions

    3. Capitalization Rules

    4. Capitalization Examples

    5. Spelling

    6. Compounding Rules

    7. Compounding Examples

    8. Punctuation

    9. Abbreviations and Letter Symbols

    Standard word abbreviations

    Standard letter symbols for units of measure

    Standard Latin abbreviations

    Information technology acronyms and Initialisms

    10. Signs and Symbols

    11. Italic

    12. Numerals

    13. Tabular Work

    14. Leaderwork

    15. Footnotes, Indexes, Contents, and Outlines

    16. Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures

    17. Useful Tables

    U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents

    Most Populous U.S. Cities by State

    Principal Foreign Countries

    Demonyms: Names of Nationalities

    Currency

    Metric and U.S. Measures

    Common Measures and Th eir Metric Equivalents

    Measurement Conversion

    18. Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions

    19. Congressional Record

    Congressional Record Index

    20. Reports and Hearings

    Index
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION: NARA Style Guide 
    National Archives and Records Administration
    NARA Style Guide

    Preface

    Clear writing conveys clear thought. NARA writers in all offices must strive for clear communication to explain their increasingly complex work. They write letters, memorandums, finding aids, web pages, blogs, leaflets, reports, articles, exhibit scripts, brochures, budget requests, speeches, forms, and email messages. This style guide establishes agency standards of punctuation, word usage, and grammar that will answer writers‘ most common questions and will, we hope, promote clear and effective writing 
    throughout NARA.

    Style changes over time and even from place to place, depending on the intended audience. These differences do not necessarily make one choice 
    ―wrong.‖ What is ―right‖ is consistency within your own work and using the appropriate language and usage for your audience.

    The NARA Style Guide fills two needs. First, the section ―Writing for Plain Language ‖ will help us comply with the Plain Writing Act of 2010. Second, it addresses many of the questions and issues unanswered by the Government Printing Office Style Manual (GPO manual). This guide is based on the GPO manual but includes modifications that reflect current usage.

    The most notable difference from the GPO manual concerns the treatment of numbers. This style guide simplifies the rules. In most cases, writers will spell out numbers under 10 and use numerals for numbers 10 and over. 
    (See section 4.10.)

    The GPO manual is still NARA‘s primary reference for style. For issues not covered in the NARA guide, continue to consult the GPO manual.

    The appendix, ―Quick Reference,‖ may be particularly helpful to NARA writers. This list of words and phrases provides quick answers to common questions about capitalization, spelling, compound words, and plurals.

    The NARA Style Guide took shape from the agency‘s specific language needs and will continue to change to reflect the needs and concerns of NARA writers. Use the NARA Style Guide for all NARA communications.

    If you have questions about spelling, grammar, or usage that are not addressed by this guide, contact the Strategy and Communications staff 

    Helpful References

    PlainLanguage.gov 

    http://www.plainlanguage.gov

    Bremner, John B. 
    Words on Words. 
    New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.

    The Chicago Manual of Style. 
    16th ed. 
    Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

    Cormier, Robin. 
    Error-Free Writing: 
    A Lifetime Guide to Flawless Business Writing. 
    Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995.

    Editors of EEI Press, 
    E-What?: 
    A Guide to the Quirks of New Media Style and Usage. 
    Alexandria, VA: EEI Press, 2000.

    General Services Administration, 
    Standard and Optional Forms Procedural Handbook. 
    Washington, DC: GSA, July 2009. 

    http://www.gsa.gov/portal/forms/type/SF

    Gunning, Robert. 
    The Technique of Clear Writing. 
    New York: McGraw-Hill, rev. 1983.

    Lauchman, Richard. 
    Plain Style: 
    Techniques for Simple, Concise, Emphatic Business Writing. 
    New York: AMACOM, 1993.

    National Archives and Records Administration, 
    Guide for Preparing NARA Correspondence: 
    A Supplement to NARA 201 (June 13, 2005). 

    http://tinyurl.com/p9zmaol

    National Archives and Records Administration, 
    Office of the Federal Register, 
    Plain Language Tools. 

    http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/write/plain-language/

    National Archives and Records Administration, 
    Office of the Federal Register, 
    Drafting Legal Documents

    http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/write/legal-docs/index.html

    The New York Public Library 
    Writer’s Guide to Style and Usage. 
    New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

    Redish, Janice (Ginny). 
    Letting Go of the Words: Writing Web Content that Works. 
    San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman, 2007.

    Strunk, William, Jr. 
    The Elements of Style. With revisions, an introduction, 
    and a chapter on writing 
    by E. B. White. 
    4th ed. 
    Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999. 
    (commonly known as ―Strunk and White‖)

    United States Government Printing Office 
    Style Manual. 
    Washington, DC: GPO, 2008. 

    http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/browse.html

    Contents

    1. Writing in Plain Language

    1.1 Think about your audience

    1.2 Organize your material

    1.2.1 Use headings and subheadings

    1.2.2 Limit heading levels to three or fewer

    1.2.3 Write short sections

    1.3 Verbs

    1.3.1 Use the active voice (unless passive makes more sense)

    1.3.2 Use the simplest form of the verb

    1.3.3 Don‘t hide the verb

    1.3.4 Don‘t use ―shall‖

    1.3.5 Avoid the false subjects It is and There are

    1.3.6 Use contractions when appropriate

    1.4 Nouns and pronouns

    1.4.1 Use everyday words

    1.4.2 Avoid ―noun strings‖

    1.4.3 Use pronouns

    1.5 Omit unnecessary words

    1.5.1 Write with a word, not a phrase

    1.5.2 Avoid redundancy

    1.5.3 Avoid intruding words

    1.5.4 Don‘t ―double‖ terms

    1.5.5 Beware basis, manner, fashion, and way

    1.6 Sentences

    1.6.1 Write short sentences

    1.6.2 Place words carefully

    1.6.3 Use idioms

    1.6.4 Minimize the use of ―not‖

    2. Formatting for Readability

    2.1 Understand that isolation is emphasis

    2.2 Don‘t hesitate to use headings in any document

    2.3 Isolate lead sentences

    2.4 Feel free to write one-sentence paragraphs

    2.5 Use standard typefaces for the text

    2.6 Leave the right margin ragged

    2.7 Leave plenty of white space

    2.8 Use discretion with graphics

    2.9 Use tables to present comparisons

    2.10 Use vertical lists

    2.11 Use footnotes and endnotes for explanatory or peripheral information iv

    2.12 Adjust established formats when necessary

    3. Writing and Formatting Email

    3.1 Think before sending

    3.2 Use the subject field

    3.3 Be cautious about using special type styles

    3.4 Be judicious when capitalizing words

    3.5 Keep paragraphs short

    3.6 Maintain a businesslike tone

    4. Usage and Style

    4.1 Abbreviations and Symbols

    4.1.1 Geographic locations

    4.1.2 United States / U.S.

    4.1.3 Personal titles

    4.1.4 Citations

    4.1.5 Typographic symbols

    4.2 Acronyms

    4.3 Addresses

    4.4 Capitalization

    4.4.1 Geographic terms

    4.4.2 Military terms

    4.4.3 NARA forms, directives, and notices

    4.4.4 Organizations

    4.4.5 Personal titles

    4.5 Compounds

    4.5.1 Prefixes

    4.5.2 Compound adjectives

    4.5.3 Compound nouns

    4.5.4 Suspended compounds

    4.5.5 References to ethnicity

    4.6 Computer-related terms

    4.7 Dates

    4.8 Grammar reminders

    4.8.1 Subject/verb agreement

    4.8.2 Prepositions and pronouns

    4.9 Gender-neutral language

    4.10 Numbers

    4.11 Plurals

    4.12 Possessives

    4.13 Problem words and phrases

    4.14 Punctuation

    4.14.1 Apostrophe

    4.14.2 Colons and semicolons

    4.14.3 Comma

    4.14.4 Dash

    4.14.5 Ellipses

    4.14.6 Parentheses

    4.14.7 Quotation marks

    4.15 References to NARA

    4.16 Titles of works: italics or quotation marks

    Appendix: Quick Reference

    Content Sample: 

    1. Writing in Plain Language

    Writing in plain language means writing clearly. It means writing so that readers can
    find what they need, understand what they find, and use what they find to meet their needs. The more clearly you communicate, the more likely your readers will grasp what you want them to grasp and do what you want them to do, from filling out a form correctly to complying with a regulation. 
    And the less likely it is that your readers will 
    call or write you to ask questions or express 
    frustration.

    Ultimately, your job will be easier and more pleasant if you take the time to communicate clearly.
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : MEDICINE : HEALTH : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICE. CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC): Plain Writing at CDC 
    Plain language improves communication. Decide who you are trying to communicate with and decide on your key message. Be clear.

    Dr. Thomas Frieden, CDC Director, 2012

    Our Promise to the Public: Writing You Can Understand

    CDC is committed to using plain writing in information for the public.

    Our information is relevant to many groups, and plain writing makes the information even more useful. The Plain Writing Act of 2010 requires all federal agencies to write plainly when they communicate with the public, and CDC is taking many steps to use plain writing.
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : MEDICINE : HEALTH : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY: United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Communications Stylebook 
    United States Environmental Protection Agency.
    EPA Communications Stylebook

    Contents Include 
    Nine steps to publication
    Graphics Guide
    EPA Communications Stylebook: Graphics Guide
    Color Printing vs. Black and White
    Writing Guide
    Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling, Vocabulary, Syntax and Usage
    Introduction - Writing Style in General
    and much more
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : MEDICINE : HEALTH : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION : SOCIAL MEDIA : SOCIAL NETWORKING: CDC's Guide to Writing for Social Media 
    Table of Contents

    ..

    Acknowledgements
    Table of Contents
    Chapter 1: Introduction
    What Is Social Media?
    What Is This Guide For? How Should It Be Used?
    Social Media and Communication Strategy
    Chapter 2: Before You Start
    Target Audiences, Health Literacy and Plain Language, and Social Marketing
    Chapter 3: Principles of Effective Social Media Writing
    Creating Content
    Examples of Relevant, Useful, and Interesting Messages
    Chapter 4: How to Write for Facebook
    Profiles and Pages
    Best Practices for Writing CDC Facebook Posts
    Sample CDC Facebook Posts
    Chapter 5: How to Write for Twitter
    Twitter Syntax
    Anatomy of a Tweet
    Best Practices for Writing CDC Tweets
    Sample CDC Tweets
    Chapter 6: How to Write Text Messages
    Best Practices for Writing CDC Text Messages
    Sample CDC Text Messages
    Chapter 7: How to Use Your Web Content as Source Material for Social Media
    Content
    Make Social Media Writing Easier by Repurposing Web Content
    Plan to Rewrite Your Web Content for Use in Social Media
    Chapter 8: Hands-On Practice in Revising Social Media Content
    Improve These Draft Facebook Posts
    Improve These Draft Tweets
    Improve These Draft Text Messages
    Improved Facebook Posts
    Improved Tweets
    Improved Text Messages
    Chapter 9: Checklist for Writing for Social Media
    Chapter 10: Glossary
    Facebook Terms
    Twitter Terms
    Texting Terms
    Chapter 11: Social Media Writing Resources
    CDC's Social Media and Writing Resources
    Federal Agencies' Social Media and Writing Resources
    State Government Social Media and Writing Resources
    Other Social Media and Writing Resources
    Appendix A: Audience Segmentation
    Audience Information, by Age
    Audience Information, by Role
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT : PROPOSALS : WRITING AND WRITERS: PROPOSAL WRITING: A Guide for Proposal Writing. FROM National Science Foundation. Directorate for Education and Human Resources 
    A Guide for Proposal Writing.
    FROM National Science Foundation.
    Directorate for Education and Human Resources
    Division of Undergraduate Education

    Table of Contents
    Introduction
    Program Information
    Review Process
    Criteria for Evaluation
    I. Intellectual Merit
    II. Broader Impacts
    ADVICE TO PROPOSAL WRITERS
    Step 1 - Before You Write
    Getting Started
    Gathering Background Information
    Looking at the Program Solicitation or Announcement
    Thinking About the Target Audience
    Building Coalitions
    Other Considerations
    Step 2 - Writing the Proposal
    Writing the Proposal Narrative
    Including Budget Information
    Writing the Credentials of the PI and Other Staff
    Including Evaluation and Dissemination Information
    Letters of Endorsement
    Project Summary and Project Data Form
    Step 3 - Before Sending Your Proposal to NSF
    Learning More About the Review Process
    Getting Advice
    Before Finishing the Proposal
    Little Things That Can Make a Difference
    Step 4 - Awards and Declinations
    If The Grant is Awarded
    If Your Proposal is Not Funded
    A Final Note
  • Plain Writing FROM The United States Agriculture Department (USDA). 
    "On July 19, 2012, the Center for Plain Language issued the first report cardThis is an external link or third-party site outside of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) website. of federal agencies' efforts to comply with the Plain Writing Act. The report card grades agencies on their efforts to comply with the Plain Writing Act and each agency's plain writing supporting activities. USDA received the highest grades among federal agencies in both categories. We are honored by this success, but there is more work to do and we need your help. Please let us know if you have trouble understanding any of our documents."

    As a measure of our success, the Center for Plain Language awarded USDA its second "A" for compliance and a "B" for how well our documents adhered to plain language principles. We are proud of our continued success - and will strive to further improve how well we communicate with you.

    Our pledge is in keeping with our long-standing commitment to provide you with the information you need from us. President Obama emphasized the importance of establishing "a system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration" in his January 21, 2009, Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government.

    The Plain Language Action and Information Network (PLAIN) is the official interagency working group designated to assist in issuing plain writing guidance. The PLAIN web site includes guidelines on plain language and tools for writing in plain language.

    Federal Plain Language Web Site
    Federal Plain Language Guidelines
    Federal Plain Language Tips and Tools
    Plain Writing Act of 2010 (PDF)

    In addition to the Federal Plain Language website tools and resources available, USDA has developed its own materials to assist employees with Plain Language training and compliance, and guide you through the process of integrating plain writing into covered documents.

    Plain Language Writer's Checklist (DOC, 15KB)
    Plain Language Reviewer's Checklist (DOC, 13KB)
    Plain Language Training Resources (DOC, 23KB)
    USDA Plain Writing AgLearn Training (updated course)

    Some other good resources developed by other Federal agencies that discuss how to write using Plain Language in technical writing can be found using the links listed below. These include guides on how to write Federal Register notices, legal documents, short rules, and more.

    Federal Register Tools for Plain Language
    SEC Plain Writing Handbook (PDF)
  • Guidelines FROM Usability.GOV 
    Guideline Chapters

    Chapter 1: Design Process and Evaluation
    Chapter 2: Optimizing the User Experience
    Chapter 3: Accessibility
    Chapter 4: Hardware and Software
    Chapter 5: The Home Page
    Chapter 6: Page Layout
    Chapter 7: Navigation
    Chapter 8: Scrolling and Paging
    Chapter 9: Headings, Titles, and Labels
    Chapter 10: Links
    Chapter 11: Text Appearance
    Chapter 12: Lists
    Chapter 13: Screen-Based Controls (Widgets)
    Chapter 14: Graphics, Images, and Multimedia
    Chapter 15: Writing Web Content
    Chapter 16: Content Organization
    Chapter 17: Search
    Chapter 18: Usability Testing

    The Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines 
    is also available as a PDF (21MB) for downloading convenience. 

    It includes the:

    Background and methodology
    Glossary
    Appendices
    Sources
    Author index
  • United States Government Printing Office Style Manual. Washington, DC: GPO, 2008. 
    Title Page, Style Board, Extract from Title 44, U.S.C., 
    About This Manual, GPO's Online Initiatives 
    PDF | Text | More

    Contents PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 1 - Advice to Authors and Editors PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 2 - General Instructions PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 3 - Capitalization Rules PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 4 - Capitalization Examples PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 5 - Spelling PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 6 - Compounding Rules PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 7 - Compounding Examples PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 8 - Punctuation PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 9 - Abbreviations and Letter Symbols PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 10 - Signs and Symbols PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 11 - Italic PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 12 - Numerals PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 13 - Tabular Work PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 14 - Leaderwork PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 15 - Footnotes, Indexes, Contents, and Outlines PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 16 - Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 17 - Useful Tables PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 18 - Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 19 - Congressional Record, Congressional Record Index PDF | Text | More

    Chapter 20 - Reports and Hearings PDF | Text | More

    Index
 Sort Link Group  
 Add / Reorder  
Jan 21, 2017

Plain English Writing 
  ×

  • Federal Plain Language Guidelines 
    Federal Plain Language Guidelines March 2011 - Rev. 1, May 2011
    Plain-Language Training
    Training Resources
    Examples Database (beta)
    Plain Language – It's the Law
    Agency Requirements
    Agency PL Webpage
    PL in Federal Agencies
    Tips and Tools
    Starting a Plain-Language Program
    Planning a Plain-Language Website
    Examples
  • Plain Writing FROM The United States Agriculture Department (USDA). 
    "On July 19, 2012, the Center for Plain Language issued the first report cardThis is an external link or third-party site outside of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) website. of federal agencies' efforts to comply with the Plain Writing Act. The report card grades agencies on their efforts to comply with the Plain Writing Act and each agency's plain writing supporting activities. USDA received the highest grades among federal agencies in both categories. We are honored by this success, but there is more work to do and we need your help. Please let us know if you have trouble understanding any of our documents."

    As a measure of our success, the Center for Plain Language awarded USDA its second "A" for compliance and a "B" for how well our documents adhered to plain language principles. We are proud of our continued success - and will strive to further improve how well we communicate with you.

    Our pledge is in keeping with our long-standing commitment to provide you with the information you need from us. President Obama emphasized the importance of establishing "a system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration" in his January 21, 2009, Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government.

    The Plain Language Action and Information Network (PLAIN) is the official interagency working group designated to assist in issuing plain writing guidance. The PLAIN web site includes guidelines on plain language and tools for writing in plain language.

    Federal Plain Language Web Site
    Federal Plain Language Guidelines
    Federal Plain Language Tips and Tools
    Plain Writing Act of 2010 (PDF)

    In addition to the Federal Plain Language website tools and resources available, USDA has developed its own materials to assist employees with Plain Language training and compliance, and guide you through the process of integrating plain writing into covered documents.

    Plain Language Writer's Checklist (DOC, 15KB)
    Plain Language Reviewer's Checklist (DOC, 13KB)
    Plain Language Training Resources (DOC, 23KB)
    USDA Plain Writing AgLearn Training (updated course)

    Some other good resources developed by other Federal agencies that discuss how to write using Plain Language in technical writing can be found using the links listed below. These include guides on how to write Federal Register notices, legal documents, short rules, and more.

    Federal Register Tools for Plain Language
    SEC Plain Writing Handbook (PDF)
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: Federal Plain Language Guidelines, March 2011 
    http://tinyurl.com/o684wda

    OR 

    http://web.archive.org/web/20161223080506/http://www.plainlanguage.gov/howto/guidelines/


    Federal Plain Language Guidelines, March 2011

    Plain Language.gov

    Improving communications from the Federal Government to the public

    Table of Contents

    Think about your audience
    Identify and write for your audience
    Address separate audiences separately
    Organize
    Organize to meet your readers' needs
    Address one person, not a group
    Use lots of useful headings
    Write short sections
    Write your document
    Words
    Verbs
    Use active voice
    Use the simplest form of a verb
    Avoid hidden verbs
    Use "must" to indicate requirements
    Use contractions when appropriate
    Nouns and pronouns
    Don't turn verbs into nouns
    Use pronouns to speak directly to readers
    Minimize abbreviations
    Other word issues
    Use short, simple words
    Omit unnecessary words
    Dealing with definitions
    Use the same term consistently for a specific thought or
    object
    Avoid legal, foreign, and technical jargon
    Don't use slashes
    Sentences
    Write short sentences
    Keep subject, verb, and object close together
    Avoid double negatives and exceptions to exceptions
    Place the main idea before exceptions and conditions
    Place words carefully
    Paragraphs
    Have a topic sentence
    Use transition words
    Write short paragraphs
    Cover only one topic in each paragraph
    Other aids to clarity
    Use examples
    Use lists
    Use tables to make complex material easier to understand
    Consider using illustrations
    Use emphasis to highlight important concepts
    Minimize cross-references
    Design your document for easy reading
    Write for the web
    How do people use the web?
    Write for your users
    Identify your users and their top tasks
    Write web content
    Repurpose print material for the web
    Avoid PDF overload
    Use plain-language techniques on the web
    Avoid meaningless formal language
    Write effective links
    Test
    Paraphrase Testing
    Usability Testing
    Controlled Comparative Studies
    Testing Successes
    Paraphrase Testing from the Veterans Benefits Administration
    Usability Testing from the National Cancer Institute

    One may download the Word or PDF version of the full Guidelines.
  • SOCIAL ISSUES : POVERTY : ECONOMIC DISCRIMINATION: Explaining White Privilege to a Broke White Person 
    Explaining White Privilege to a Broke White Person
    Posted: 05/08/2014 12:57 pm EDT
    Updated: 09/03/2014 11:59 am EDT
    Gina Crosley-Corcoran
    Huffington Post
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : INVESTMENT SECURITIES DOCUMENTS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION: A Plain English Handbook: How to Create Clear SEC Disclosure Documents 
    WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :
    UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION:
    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
    A Plain English Handbook:
    How to Create Clear SEC Disclosure Documents
    .
    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
    Office of Investor Education and Assistance
    A Plain English Handbook:
    How to Create Clear SEC Disclosure Documents

    "This handbook shows how you can use well-established techniques for
    writing in plain English to create clearer and more informative
    disclosure documents. We are publishing this handbook only for your
    general information. Of course, when drafting a document for filing with
    the SEC, you must make sure it meets all legal requirements."

    Table of Contents

    Preface by Warren E. Buffett 1
    Introduction by Arthur Levitt, Chairman 3
    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
    Chapter 1
    What Is a Plain English Document? 5
    Chapter 2
    Getting Started 7
    Chapter 3
    Knowing Your Audience 9
    Chapter 4
    Knowing the Information You Need to Disclose 11
    Chapter 5
    Reorganizing the Document 15
    Chapter 6
    Writing in Plain English 17
    Chapter 7
    Designing the Document 37
    Chapter 8
    Time-Saving Tips 55
    Chapter 9
    Using Readability Formulas and Style Checkers 57
    Chapter 10
    Evaluating the Document 59
    Chapter 11
    Reading List 61
    Chapter 12
    Keeping in Touch with Us 63
    Appendix A Plain English at a Glance 65
    The SECs Plain English Rulesan Excerpt 66
    Appendix B Plain English Examples 69
    Before and After Filings with Notes 70
    a plain

    From the Preface

    "There are several possible explanations as to why I and others sometimes
    stumble over an accounting note or indenture description. Maybe we simply
    dont have the technical knowledge to grasp what the writer wishes to
    convey. Or perhaps the writer doesnt understand what he or she is talking
    about. In some cases, moreover, I suspect that a less-thanscrupulous
    issuer doesnt want us to understand a subject it feels legally obligated
    to touch upon.

    Perhaps the most common problem, however, is that a well-intentioned and
    informed writer simply fails to get the message across to an intelligent,
    interested reader. In that case, stilted jargon and complex constructions
    are usually the villains.

    This handbook tells you how to free yourself of those impediments to
    effective communication. Write as this handbook instructs you and you
    will be amazed at how much smarter your readers will think you have
    become."

    "One unoriginal but useful tip: Write with a specific person in mind.
    When writing Berkshire Hathaways annual report, I pretend that Im talking
    to my sisters. I have no trouble picturing them: Though highly
    intelligent, they are not experts in accounting or finance. They will
    understand plain English, but jargon may puzzle them. My goal is simply
    to give them the information I would wish them to supply me if our
    positions were reversed. To succeed, I dont need to be Shakespeare; I
    must, though, have a sincere desire to inform.

    No siblings to write to? Borrow mine: Just begin with Dear Doris and
    Bertie."

    by Warren E. Buffett

    Introduction

    Investors need to read and understand disclosure documents to benefit
    fully from the protections offered by our federal securities laws. Because
    many investors are neither lawyers, accountants, nor investment bankers,
    we need to start writing disclosure documents in a language investors can
    understand: plain English.

    The shift to plain English requires a new style of thinking and writing,
    whether you work at a company, a law firm, or the U.S. Securities and
    Exchange Commission. We must question whether the documents we are used to
    writing highlight the important information investors need to make
    informed decisions. The legalese and jargon of the past must give way to
    everyday words that communicate complex information clearly.

    The good news is that more and more companies and lawyers are using plain
    English and filing documents with the SEC that others can study, use, and
    improve upon. With the SECs plain English rules in place, every prospectus
    will have its cover page, summary, and risk factors in plain English.

    The benefits of plain English abound. Investors will be more likely to
    understand what they are buying and to make informed judgments about
    whether they should hold or sell their investments. Brokers and investment
    advisers can make better recommendations to their clients if they can read and understand these documents quickly and easily.

    Companies that communicate successfully with their investors form stronger
    relationships with them. These companies save the costs of explaining
    legalese and dealing with confused and sometimes angry investors. Lawyers
    reviewing plain English documents catch and correct mistakes more easily.
    Many companies have switched to plain English because its a good business
    decision. They see the value of communicating with their investors rather
    than sending them impenetrable documents. And as we depend more and more on the Internet and electronic delivery of documents, plain English
    versions will be easier to read electronically than legalese.

    The SECs staff has created this handbook to help speed and smooth the
    transition to plain English. It includes proven tips from those in the
    private sector who have already created plain English disclosure
    documents. This handbook reflects their substantial contributions and
    those of highly regarded experts in the field who were our consultants on
    this project, Dr. William Lutz at Rutgers University and the firm of Siegel and Gale in New York City.

    But I hasten to add that the SEC has not cornered the market on plain
    English advice. Our rules and communications need as strong a dose of
    plain English as any disclosure document. This handbook gives you some
    ideas on what has worked for others, but use whatever works for you.
    No matter what route you take to plain English, we want you to produce
    documents that fulfill the promise of our securities laws. I urge you in
    long and short documents, in prospectuses and shareholder reportsto speak
    to investors in words they can understand. Tell them plainly what they
    need to know to make intelligent investment decisions."

    What Is a Plain English Document?

    "Well start by dispelling a common misconception about plain English
    writing. It does not mean deleting complex information to make the
    document easier to understand. For investors to make informed decisions,
    disclosure documents must impart complex information. Using plain English
    assures the orderly and clear presentation of complex information so that
    investors have the best possible chance of understanding it.

    Plain English means analyzing and deciding what information investors need
    to make informed decisions, before words, sentences, or paragraphs are
    considered. A plain English document uses words economically and at a
    level the audience can understand. Its sentence structure is tight. Its
    tone is welcoming and direct. Its design is visually appealing. A plain
    English document is easy to read and looks like its meant to be read."

    This handbooks purpose

    "This handbook gives you practical tips on how to create plain English
    documents. All of these were born of experience. They come from experts
    and those who have already written or rewritten their documents in plain
    English.

    As with all the advice in this handbook, feel free to tailor these tips to
    your schedule, your document, and your budget. Not all of the tips will
    apply to everyone or to every document. Pick and choose the ones that make
    sense for you.

    Some of our tips cover very basic mechanical issues, like how to photocopy
    your working draft. Weve included them because they were learned the hard
    way and have saved people time, money, and aggravation. Youll see them
    listed in Chapter 8, titled Time-Saving Tips.

    This handbook is by no means the last word on plain English. We expect to
    change it and add more tips as we learn more about writing securities
    documents in plain English. So please keep notes on your experiences and
    copies of your original and rewritten language. We want to hear from you
    and include your tips and rewrites in the next edition.

    Finally, we encourage you to give this handbook out freely. It is not
    copyrighted, so you can photocopy it without fear of penalty."
  • WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : MEDICINE : HEALTH : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICE. CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC): Plain Writing at CDC 
    Plain language improves communication. Decide who you are trying to communicate with and decide on your key message. Be clear.

    Dr. Thomas Frieden, CDC Director, 2012

    Our Promise to the Public: Writing You Can Understand

    CDC is committed to using plain writing in information for the public.

    Our information is relevant to many groups, and plain writing makes the information even more useful. The Plain Writing Act of 2010 requires all federal agencies to write plainly when they communicate with the public, and CDC is taking many steps to use plain writing.
  • BOOKS: Oxford Guide to Plain English 
    Oxford Guide to Plain English
    Author Martin Cutts
    Edition 4
    Publisher OUP Oxford, 2013
    ISBN 0191649120, 9780191649127
    Length 320 pages

    Table of Contents

    1 Writing short sentences and clear paragraphs
    2 Preferring plain words
    3 Writing tight
    4 Favouring active voice verbs
    5 Using vigorous verbs and untying noun strings
    6 Using vertical lists
    7 Converting negative to positive
    8 Cross references cross readers
    9 Using good punctuation
    10 Pitching your writing at the right level
    11 Six writing myths explored and exploded
    12 Clearly nonsexist
    13 Conquering grammarphobia
    14 Sound starts and excellent endings
    15 Planning well
    16 Using reader centred structure
    17 Using alternatives to words words words
    18 Management of colleagues writing
    19 Good practice with email
    20 Writing better instructions
    21 Clarity for the Web
    22 Lucid legal language
    23 Writing low literacy plain English
    24 Basics of clear layout

    its time to Proof read
    commonest words
    Sources and notes
    Index
  • BOOKS: Legal Writing in Plain English, Second Edition: A Text with Exercises 
    Legal Writing in Plain English, Second Edition: A Text with Exercises
    Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing

    Table of Contents

    Introduction
    Principles for All Legal Writing
    Principles Mainly for Analytical and Persuasive Writing
    Principles Mainly for Legal Drafting
    Principles of Document Design
    Methods for Continued Improvement
    How to Punctuate
    Four Model Documents
    Key to Basic Exercises
    Bibliography
    Index
  • BOOKS: How to Write Plain English: A Book for Lawyers and Consumers 
    How to write plain English: a book for lawyers and consumers
    Author Rudolf Franz Flesch
    Publisher Harper & Row, 1979
    ISBN 0060112786, 9780060112783
    Length 126 pages
  • BOOKS: Grammar in Plain English 
    Grammar in Plain English
    Authors Harriet Diamond, Phyllis Dutwin
    Edition illustrated
    Publisher Barron's Educational Series, 1997
    ISBN 0812096487, 9780812096484
    Length 358 pages

    Table of Contents

    Understanding Time and Number
    Adding Descriptive Words
    Using Descriptive Words Correctly
    Adding Descriptive Phrases
    Cumulative Review
    Linking Words
    Special Problems
    Special Problems
    Cumulative Review
    SUMMARY OF RESULTS
    More Punctuation
    Capitalization
    Spelling
    Word Usage
    Cumulative Review
    SUMMARY OF RESULTS
    Pronouns
    Cumulative Re view
    SUMMARY OF RESULTS
    Punctuation
    Practice Examination
    Guide to Grammatical Terms
  • BOOKS: CARs in Plain English 
    CARs in Plain English
    Author Phil Croucher
    Publisher Lulu.com, 2001
    ISBN 096819284X, 9780968192849
    Length 256 pages

    Canadian Aviation Regulations Translated

    Table of Contents

    About the Author
    Aircraft Identification
    Operation of Leased Aircraft by a Nonregistered Owner
    Personnel Licensing and Training
    402
    Airworthiness
    General Operating Flight Rules
    Preflight and Fuel Requirements
    Technical Records
    Commercial Air Services
    Air Taxi
    Operational Support Services Eqpt
    Right Seat Conversion Training
    Air Navigation Services
  • BOOKS: The Plain English Approach to Business Writing 
    The Plain English Approach to Business Writing
    Oxford Paperbacks
    Author Edward P. Bailey
    Edition illustrated, revised
    Publisher Oxford University Press, USA, 1997
    ISBN 0195115651, 9780195115659
    Length 132 pages

    Table of Contents

    What is Plain English?
    Writing a Readable Sentence
    Getting to the Point
    Adding Visual Impact
    A Model for Writing
    More about Style
    Passive Voice
    Abstractness
    Executive Summary
    More about Layout
    Typefaces
    Headings
    Bullets
    Final Words
    The Writing Process
    Supervising Writers
    Punctuation
    More about Organization
    Blueprint
    Simpler Words and Phrases
    Index
  • BOOKS: Statistics in Plain English 
    Statistics in Plain English, Third Edition
    Author Timothy C. Urdan
    Edition 3, revised
    Publisher Taylor & Francis, 2010
    ISBN 020385117X, 9780203851173
    Length 223 pages

    Table of Contents

    Preface; 
    Chapter 1 Introduction to Social Science Research Principles and Terminology; 
    Chapter 2 Measures of Central Tendency; 
    Chapter 3 Measures of Variability; 
    Chapter 4 The Normal Distribution; 
    Chapter 5 Standardization and z Scores; 
    Chapter 6 Standard Errors; 
    Chapter 7 Statistical Significance, Effect Size, and Confidence Intervals; 
    Chapter 8 Correlation; 
    Chapter 9 t Tests; 
    Chapter 10 One-Way Analysis of Variance; 
    Chapter 11 Factorial Analysis of Variance; 
    Chapter 12 Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance; 
    Chapter 13 Regression. 
    Chapter 14 The Chi-Square Test of Independence
    Chapter 15 Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis: Data Reduction Techniques; 
    Appendices; 
    Appendix A; 
    Appendix B; 
    Appendix C; 
    Appendix D; 
    Appendix E; 
    References; 
    Glossary of Symbols; 
    Index.
  • BOOKS: Plain English at Work : A Guide to Writing and Speaking 
    Plain English at Work : A Guide to Writing and Speaking
    Author Edward P. Bailey Jr. Professor of Business 
    Communications Marymount University
    Publisher Oxford University Press, USA, 1996
    ISBN 0198026447, 9780198026440
    Length 304 pages

    Table of Contents

    What is Plain English Writing?
    Writing a Readable Sentence
    Getting to the Point
    Adding Visual Impact
    A Model for Writing
    More about Style
    Passive Voice
    Abstractness
    Designing a Successful Presentation
    Organizing Your Presentation
    Using Examples
    Remembering What to Say
    Choosing Visual Aids
    Designing Visual Aids
    Designing Visual Aids Further Tips
    Designing Computer Presentations
    Punctuation
    More about Organization
    Blueprint
    Executive Summary
    More about Layout
    Typefaces
    Headings
    Bullets
    Graphics
    Final Words on Writing
    The Writing Process
    Supervising Writers
    Speaking Clearly Easily
    Designing Your Presentation
    Involving Your Audience and Using Humor
    Rehearsing
    Giving Your Presentation
    Setting up the Room
    Using Effective Techniques of Delivery
    Presenting Visual Aids
    Handling Questions and Answers
    Final Words on Speaking
    Helping Others Speak Better
    Simpler Words and Phrases
    Checklist for Speakers
    Checklist for Setting up the Room
    Index
  • BOOKS : LAW : DICTIONARIES: Nolo's Plain-English Law Dictionary 
    Nolo's Plain-English Law Dictionary
    Author Gerald Hill Attorney
    Publisher Nolo, 2009
    ISBN 1413315496, 9781413315493
    Length 477 pages
  • BOOKS: A+ Style Manual for Legal Writing in Plain English 
    A+ Style Manual for Legal Writing in Plain English
    Language Learning
    REA's quick & easy guide

    Table of Contents

    Rules of Citatlon
    Abbreviations
    Compound Words
    Footnotes
    Punctuation
    Quotations Omissions
    Italicizing
    Career as a Lawyer or Judge
    Proofreading Symbols

    Author Staff of Research Education Association
    Editors Carl Fuchs, Research and Education Association
    Edition illustrated
    Publisher Research & Education Assoc., 2001
    ISBN 0878913653, 9780878913657
    Length 106 pages
  • BOOKS: The Law (in Plain English) for Writers 
    The Law (in Plain English) for Writers
    Law in Plain English Series
    Authors Leonard D. DuBoff, Bert P. Krages
    Publisher SphinxLegal, 2005
    ISBN 1572484764, 9781572484764
    Length 280 pages

    Table of Contents

    The Freedom to Write
    Privacy Defamation and Other Content Issues
    Copyright
    Copyright Protection
    Copyright Infringement
    Access to Information
    The Writers Relationship
    Publishers
    Magazine Contracts
    The World Wide Web
    The Writers Business
    Writing as a Business
    Keeping Taxes Low
    The Writers Estate
    Avoiding and Resolving Disputes
    Glossary
    Literary Agents
    Alternatives to Mainstream Publishers
    Working with Other People
    Contracts
    Book Contracts
    Internet Resources
    Index
  • BOOKS: Celestial Navigation in Plain English 
    Celestial Navigation in Plain English
    Author Bill Heinlen
    Publisher ProStar Publications, 1990
    ISBN 0930030699, 9780930030698
    Length 72 pages

    Table of Contents

    Introduction 
    Why Pencil and Paper Celestial
    What You Need
    Basic Concepts
    The Navigation Triangle
    Talking That Talk
    Hawaii Bound
    Two Easy Sights for Latitude
    Fixes
    Using a Sextant
  • BOOKS: The Law (in Plain English) for Galleries 
    The Law (in Plain English) for Galleries
    Author Leonard D. Duboff
    Publisher Skyhorse Publishing, Inc., 1999
    ISBN 158115982X, 9781581159820
    Length 224 pages

    Table of Contents

    Foreword
    Preface
    Acknowledgments
    Introduction
    Organizing Your Business
    Business Organization Checklist
    The Business Plan
    Borrowing from Banks
    People Who Work for You
    Copyright
    Trademarks
    Advertising
    Web Sites in Cyberspace 
    Customer Relations
    Liquor and Controlled Substance Liability 
    Business Insurance
    Product Liability
    Renting Commercial Space
    Getting Paid
    Franchises
    Contracts
    Dealing with Artists Craftspeople and Other Suppliers
    Catalog Sales
    Estate Planning
    How to Find a Lawyer and an Accountant
    APPENDIX A Gallery Consignment Agreement
  • BOOKS: In Defence of Plain English: The Decline and Fall of Literacy in Canada
    In Defence of Plain English: The Decline and Fall of Literacy in Canada
    Author Victoria Branden

    Table of Contents

    Talking Classy
    Dats a Good Woid
    Some Too Frequently Utilized Good Woids
    Oh Say CBC
    As It Lays Dyeing
    From Whence These Apotheoses and Epiphanies?
    Lost Words and Losing Battles
    Redundancy and Related Absurdities
    Mad Metaphors
    Politically Correct?
    Jargon Gobbledegook and Bafflegab
    The Naughty Bits
    The Ed Biz
    Words and Music
    In a Fine Frenzy
    Coolspeak and Other Intalk
    Prepositions Pronouns and Other Boobytraps
    Odd Couples
    Spelling Bee
    Casualties of Pronunciation
    Mind the Stop Developing Comma Sense
    Foreign Classy
    Lying Language
    Patriotism and Propaganda
    Conclusion
    Bibliography
    Acknowledgements
    Publisher Dundurn, 1992
    ISBN 0888821433, 9780888821430
    Length 200 pages
  • BOOKS: Math Made a Bit Easier: Basic Math Explained in Plain English 
    Math Made a Bit Easier: Basic Math Explained in Plain English
    Author Larry Zafran
    Publisher Larry Zafran, 2009
    ISBN 1449565107, 9781449565107
    Length 200 pages
  • BOOKS: Writing Science in Plain English 
    Writing Science in Plain English
    Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing
    Author Anne E. Greene
    Publisher University of Chicago Press, 2013
    ISBN 022602640X, 9780226026404
    Length 128 pages

    Table of Contents

    1 Why Write Science in Plain English?
    2 Before You Write
    3 Tell a Story
    4 Favor the Active Voice
    5 Choose Your Words with Care
    6 Omit Needless Words
    7 Old Information and New Information
    8 Make Lists Parallel
    9 Vary the Length of Your Sentences
    10 Design Your Paragraphs
    11 Arrange Your Paragraphs
    Appendix 1 Basic Writing Concepts
    Appendix 2 Exercise Key
    Index
  • BOOKS: Language on Trial: The Plain English Guide to Legal Writing 
    Language on Trial: The Plain English Guide to Legal Writing
    Contributor Plain English Campaign
    Edition illustrated
    Publisher Robson Books, 1996
    ISBN 1861050062, 9781861050069
    Length 89 pages
  • BOOKS: How to Write Plain English 
    How to Write Plain English
    Author M. L. Stein
    Publisher Monarch Press, 1984
    ISBN 0671504258, 9780671504250
    Length 144 pages
  • BOOKS: The Rules of Golf in Plain English, Third Edition 
    The Rules of Golf in Plain English, Third Edition
    Authors Jeffrey S. Kuhn, Bryan A. Garner
    Edition revised
    Publisher University of Chicago Press, 2012
    ISBN 0226458229, 9780226458229
    Length 184 pages

    Table of Contents

    The Game
    Match Play
    Stroke Play
    Clubs
    The Ball
    The Players Responsibilities
    Practice
    Advice and Indicating Line of Play
    Cleaning Ball
    Ball Interfering with or Assisting Play
    Loose Impediments
    Interference and Relief from Obstructions
    Interference and Relief from Abnormal Ground Conditions 
    Embedded Ball or Wrong Putting Green
    Water Hazards
    Ball Lost or Out of Bounds Provisional Ball
    Unplayable Ball
    Information About Strokes Taken
    Teeing Ground
    Searching for and Identifying Ball
    Playing the Ball as it Lies
    Striking the Ball Artificial Devices
    Substituted Ball Wrong Ball
    The Putting Green
    The Flagstick
    Movement of Ball at Rest
    Moving Ball Deflected or Stopped
    Procedures for Lifting Dropping and Placing Playing from Wrong Place
    Threesomes and Foursomes
    ThreeBall BestBall and FourBall Match Play
    FourBall Stroke Play
    Bogey Par and Stableford Competitions
    The Committee
    Disputes and Decisions
    Definitions
    Appendix 1 Penalty Summary Chart
    Appendix 2 Golf Etiquette
    Index
  • BOOKS: Power, Plain English, and the Rise of Modern Poetry 
    Power, Plain English, and the Rise of Modern Poetry
    Author David Rosen
    Publisher Yale University Press, 2008
    ISBN 0300129483, 9780300129489
    Length 224 pages
  • Plain Language in Plain English 
    Plain Language in Plain English
    Plain language wizardry series
    Contributor Cheryl Stephens
    Publisher Lulu.com, 2010
    ISBN 0557537878, 9780557537877
    Length 208 pages

    Table of Contents

    In Plain English
    A Definition of Plain Language
    The Plain Language Process
    Identify Your Audiences
    Research Your Readers
    Reach Readers with Special Needs
    Consider Readers Literacy
    Prepare to Write 59
    Write and Rewrite Plainly 99
    Follow Usage Guidelines
    Write Plain Sentences
    Write Plain Effective Paragraphs
    Implement a Plain 167
    Use Style Guides as Arbiters
    Resource Collection 189
    Document Assessment Tool
    Build Structure and Organize Content
    Plan a Plain Design
    Create a Working Draft
    A Writing Glossary
  • BOOKS: Math In Plain English: Literacy Strategies for the Mathematics Classroom
    Math In Plain English: Literacy Strategies for the Mathematics Classroom
    Author Amy Benjamin
    Publisher Routledge, 2013
    ISBN 1317926757, 9781317926757
    Length 144 pages

    Table of Contents

    Strategy 1 Teaching Mathematical Words Explicitly
    Strategy 2 Teaching Academic Words Implicitly
    Strategy 3 Reinforcing Reading Comprehension Skills that Apply to Mathematics
    Strategy 4 Teaching Mathematics with Metaphor and Gesture
    Strategy 5 Unlocking the Meaning of Word Problems
    Strategy 6 Teaching Note Taking Skills for Mathematics
    Strategy 7 Using Language Based Formative Assessment in Mathematics
    Strategy 8 Connecting Memorization to Meaning in Mathematics
    Strategy 9 Incorporating Writing to Learn Activities in Mathematics
    Strategy 10 Preparing Students for Algebraic Thinking
    Or Words Have Cousins?
    Appendix 2 Making Connections in Vocabulary
    Works Cited
  • BOOKS: VINTAGE: Plain English, with remarks and advice to some men who need not be nam'd. By D. Defoe 
    Plain English, with remarks and advice to some men who need not be nam'd. By D. Defoe
    Author Daniel Defoe
    Publisher C. Carter, 1712
    Original from The British Library
    Digitized Dec 10, 2014
    Length 16 pages
  • DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS : GOOGLE SCHOLAR : Plain English.... 
    Sample of Titles Found with This Search

    PLAIN ENGLISH WRITING
    Writing in plain English
    Legal Writing in Plain English: A text with exercises
    Introduction to legal English: an introduction to legal terminology, reasoning, and writing in plain English
    Writing Plain English: Why it Should be Done; how It's Being Done, how You Can Do it
    Effective writing: plain English at work
    A Guide to Plain English Writing in the Workplace
    Plain English Writing Project
    Plain English in Law and Commerce in South Africa
    Writing plain English: A guide for writers and designers of official forms, leaflets, letters, labels and agreements
    A review of plain English writing tips for US government documents
    The Practice of Journalism: A Guide to Reporting and Writing the News
    Plain Language Pleasing your associates and writing in plain English can be tricky-trust your instincts
    Plain English writing projects: some issues, guidelines and implications
    The Scrivener: Modern Legal Writing: Plain English Part IV: Keep it Straight, Tabulate
    RULES FOR WRITING PLAIN ENGLISH
    The skill of writing in plain English
    Plain Language Style Guide References
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The Wikipedia and the Academic Learning Environment 



[Tourism] WRITING AND WRITERS: CREDIBLE SOURCES : REFERENCE TOOLS: ENCYCLOPEDIAS: WIKIPEDIA : RESEARCH SKILLS: Scholarly Research and Applications of the Wikipedia Metropolitan Destinations That Straddle International Borders : "Albeit Wikipedia"
WRITING AND WRITERS: CREDIBLE SOURCES :
REFERENCE TOOLS: ENCYCLOPEDIAS: WIKIPEDIA :
RESEARCH SKILLS:

Scholarly Research and Applications of the Wikipedia
RE: Metropolitan Destinations That Straddle International Borders : "Albeit Wikipedia"

On a tourism discussion group the question below was asked and an excellent response provided perhaps the only source out there with an answer, perhaps there are other sources of this information, perhaps not.
The key fact is that an apology of sorts was needed for this information as the answer provided came from the black sheep of academic knowledge in the minds of many academicians. DO NOT USE THE WIKIPEDIA AS A SOURCE IN YOUR PAPERS. Really?
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Finding Scholarly or Peer Reviewed Articles: Why Not Just use Google and Wikipedia
"Wikipedia can be a useful resource but your should always question the reliability of the information. Wikipedia is designed for quick updating and anyone with an account may change an entry even if the information is incorrect or biased. In recent years Wikipedia added its own review system, but Wikipedia entries are not subject to the same scrutiny as peer reviewed articles."
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DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS : ENCYCLOPEDIAS: WIKIPEDIA: Learning, Teaching and Doing Research: Roles of Wikipedia FROM Penn State Summon Search
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DIGITAL ANALYSIS : DIGITAL HUMANITIES : DIGITAL INITIATIVES : DIGITAL SCHOLARSHIP : LITERATURE : ARTICLE : REFERENCE: ENCYCLOPEDIAS : WRITING AND WRITERS: HISTORY : EDUCATION: COLLEGE: COURSES: Hacking the Humanities
Hacking the Humanities
JULY 7, 2015
BY ELIAS MUHANNA
The New Yorker

"In the past decade, digital scholarship has gone from being a quirky corner of the humanities to a mainstream phenomenon, restructuring funding landscapes and pushing tenure committees to develop new protocols for accrediting digital projects. As the stakes have grown, so has an expectation about the role that the “digital turn” might play in revivifying the humanities, effecting a synthesis with the sciences, and other weighty causes. For many of its champions, the tinkering character of the digital humanities represents a kind of artisanal inquisitiveness, a hands-on, tool-building, map-making ethos that chafes against more abstract modes of humanistic inquiry."
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Wikipedia in the Classroom: Developing Information Literacy, Online Citizenship and Digital Research Skills
Wikipedia in the Classroom: Developing Information Literacy,
Online Citizenship and Digital Research Skills
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