Here are some conceptions of adolescence you should know. One is The biological perspective, Two is The social perspective and three is A balanced point of view. Now every child will go through theses its normal. The biological perspective means that upheaval of puberty heightened emotionality, conflict, and defiance of adults. In the early twentieth century, major theorists picked up this storm and stress perspective. The most influential , G. Stanley Hall, based on his ideas about development on Darwin's theory of evolution. Hall descrided adolescence as a cascade of intstinctual passions, a period so turbulent that it resembled the era in which humans evolved from savages into civilized beings.The social perspective Contemporary research suggest that the storm- and -stress notion of adolescence is greatly exaggerated.The first researcher to point out the wide variability in adolescent adjustment was anthropologist margaret mead. In Mead's alternative view, the social environment is entirely responsible for the range of teenage experiences, from erratic and agitated to clam and stress-free. A balanced point of view today we know that biological, psychological and social forces combine to influence adolescent development. Biological changes are universal found in all primates and all cultures. In industrialized nations, where successful participation in economic life requires many years of education, young people face prolonged dependence on parents and postponement of sexual gratification while they prepare for productive work roles. As a result, adolescence is greatly extended- so much so that researchers commonly divide it into three phases: (1) Early adolescence (11-12 to 14 years ): this is a period of rapid pubertal change. (2) middle adolescence (14-16 years): pubertal changes are now nearly complete. (3) late adolescence (16 to 18 years): the young person achieves full adult apperance and anticipates assumption of adolescent development.
Something that very child will go through is puberty here are some of the changes that come along with that, that are good for you as a parent to know. So you can help your child through this tough time. The changes of puberty are dramatic. Within a few years, the body of the school- age child is transformed into that of a full-grown adult. Genetically influenced hormonal processes regulate pubertal growth. Girls, who have been advanced in physical maturity since the prenatal period, reach puberty, on average, two years earlier than boys. The complex hormonal changes that underlie puberty occur gradually and are under way by age 8 or 9. The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, releases growth hormone (GH) and stimulates other glands to produce hormones that act on body tissues, causing them to mature.Sexual maturation is controlled by the sex hormones. The boys testes release large quantities of the androgen testosterone, which leads to muscle growth, body and facial hair, and other male sex characteristics. The first outward sign of puberty is the rapid gain in height and weight known as the growth spurt. Adolescents add 10 to 11 inches in height and 50 to 75 pounds-- nearly 50 percent of adult body weight. During puberty, the cephalocaudal trend of infancy and childhood reverses. The hands, legs, and feet accelerate first, followed by the torso, which amounts for most of the adolescent height gain. Puberty brings steady improvement in gross-motor performance, but the pattern of change differs for boys and girls. Girls gain are slow and gradual, leveling off by age 14. in contrast boys show a dramatic spurt in strength, speed, and endurance that continues through the teenage years. The gender gay in physical skill widens with age. Among adolescent boys, athletic competence is strongly related to peer admiration and self esteem. Some adolescents become so obsessed with physical prowess that they turn to performance enhancing drugs with rates of use rising sharply with age. Accompanying rapid body growth are changes in physical features related to sexual functioning. Typically, pubertal development takes about four years, but some adolescents complete it in two years, whereas others take five to six years. Female puberty usually begins with the budding of the breasts and the growth spurt and they have there first period. The first sign of puberty in boys is the enlargement of the testes accompanied by changes in the texture and color of the scrotum. pubic hair emerges soon after, about the same time the penis begins to enlarge. Facial and body hair also emerge. Another thing is the deepening of the voice as the larynx enlarges and vocal cords lengthen. (Girls voices also deepen slightly) Heredity contributes substantially to the timing of pubertal changes. Here's a website that goes more into puberty and the changes that happen (http://www.usc.edu/student-affairs/Health_Center/adolhealth/content/a1.html).
The brain is also changing in adolescence years here are some of the things that will change and what will happen ad it changes, and how it will affect you. The physical transformations of adolescence include major changes in the brain. Brain imaging research reveals continued pruning of unused synapses in the cerebral cortex, especially in the prefrontal cortex- the "governor" of thought and action. In addition growth and myelination of stimulated neural fibers accelerate, contributing to a slight increase in brain weight and strengthening connections among various brain regions. This sculpting of the adolescent brain supports diverse cognitive skills, including improved processing speed, inhibition, attention, memory, planning and capacity to integrate information, along with gains in cognitive control and emotional self-regulation. Compounding teenagers self-regulation difficulties are changes in the brains emotional/ social network.At puberty, revisions occur in the way the brain regulates the timing of sleep, perhaps because of increased neural sensitivity to evening light. As a result adolescents go to bed much later than they did as children. yet they need almost as much sleep as they did in middle childhood (about nine hours). This sleep phase delay strengthens with pubertal growth.
Here's something that we see more and more today because we are pressured to look a certain way, that is anorexia and bulimia her are symptoms and what helps contribute to this. Anorexia Nervosa is a tragic eating disorder in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat.About 1 percent of North American and Western European teenage girls are affected. Individual with anorexia have an extremely distorted body image.In their attempt to reach perfect slimness, individuals with anorexia lose between 25 and 50 percent of their body weight. About 6 percent of individuals with anorexia die of the disorder, as a result of either physical complications or suicide.Less than 50 percent of young people with anorexia recover fully. Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder in which young people (again mainly girls, but gay and bisexual boys are also vulnerable) engage in strict dieting and purging with laxatives. Bulimia is more common than anorexia nervosa,affecting about 2 to 4 percent of teenage girls, only 5 percent of whom previously suffered for anorexia. Those with anorexia and those with bulimia usually feel depressed and guilty about their abnormal eating habits and desperately want help. As a result, bulimia is usually easier to treat than anorexia, through support groups, nutrition education, training in changing eating habits and anti-anxiety, antidepressant, and appetite-control medication.
People do this because they feel they need to look a certain way to have friends and be liked not only that they see all these skinny girls on TV and thinks that's the way they need to look as will, because you never see someone over weight in a victoria secert ad. It's crazy how the media makes us feel, or how there parents might make them feel with emotional abuse and they feel there not good enough. This website goes into more detail about these two disease and what you can do to help and prevent it in your child form doing it to themsleves (http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/problems/eat_disorder.html).
Sexual orientation what contributes to it? will i am here to tell you, or at least tell you what other people think about it.About 4 percent of U.S 15- to 44- years old identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual. Heredity makes an important contribution to homosexuality :Identical twins of both sexes are much more likely than fraternal twins to share a homosexual orientation; so are biological (as opposed to adoptive) relatives. According to some researchers certain genes affect the level or impact of prenatal sex hormones, which modify brain structures in ways that induce homosexual feelings and behaviors. Keep in mind, that both genetic and environmental factors can alter prenatal hormones. The evidence to date suggests that genetic and prenatal biological influences are largely responsible for homosexuality; the origins of bisexuality are not yet known. In our evolutionary past, homosexuality may have served the adaptive function of reducing aggressive competition for other-sex mates, thereby promoting the survival of group members.
A good thing to talk to your child about is sexually transmitted diseases. sexually active both homosexual and heterosexual are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Adolescents have the highest rates of STD's of all age groups (crazy right). One out of six sexually active teenagers contracts one of these illnesses each year - a rate three or more times higher than that of Canada and Western Europe. By far the most serious STD is AIDS. AIDS cases occur in young people between ages 20 and 29. To prevent this make sure a condom is always used, you never use a needle after someone else even if they say its okay they are clean. Here is a chart that goes into detail about each disease and what it will do to you and your body and the treatments for them (http://www.vaughns-1-pagers.com/medicine/std-chart.htm).
Here are the major characteristics of formal operational thought. According to piaget, around age 11 young people enter the formal operational stage in which they develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking. Here are the two major features of the formal operational stage (1) Hypothetico- Deductive reasoning when faced with a problem they start with a hypothesis or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world. Formal operational adolescents hypothesize that four variables might be influential: (1) the length of the string, (2) the weight of the object hung on it (3) how high the object is raised before it is released, and (4) how forcefully the object is pushed. The second is Propositional thought adolescents ability yo evaluate the logic of propositions (verbal statements) without referring to real-world circumstances. In contrast children can evaluate the logic of statements only by considering them against concrete evidence in the real world.
Information processing theorists refer to a variety of specific mechanisms, supported by brain development and experience, that underline cognitive change in adolescence. Here they are: Attention, inhibition, strategies, knowledge, metacognition, cognitive self- regulation, speed of thinking and processing capacity increase. The heart of scientific reasoning is coordinating theories with evidence. A scientist can clearly describe the theory he or she favors, knows what evidence is needed to support it and what would refute it, and can explain how pitting evidence against theories led to the acceptance of the one theory as opposed to others. Kuhn found that the capacity to reason like a scientist improved with age.
Here is something all children stuffer with when they have to go to a new school the adjustment of everything that's brand new to them. With each school there is change from elementary to middle or junior to high and than high to college. Adolescents grades decline. The drop is partly due to tighter academic standards. At the same time the transition to secondary school often means less personal attention, more whole class instruction, and less chance to participate in classroom decision making. In view of these changes, it is not surprising that students rate their middle and high school learning school experiences less favorably than their elementary school experiences. They also report that their teachers care less about them, are less friendly, offer less support, grade less fairly, and stress competition more.Adolescents facing added strains at either transition- family disruption, poverty, low parental involvement, high parental conflict, or learned helplessness on academic tasks- are at greatest risk for self-esteem and academic difficulties. furthermore the high school transition is particularly challenging for African American and Hispanic students who move to a new school with substantially fewer same-ethnicity peers. Adolescents with academic and emotional difficulties often turn to similarly alienated peers for the support they lack in other spheres of life. As these findings reveal, school transitions often lead to environmental changes that fit poorly with adolescents developmental needs. Support form parents, teachers, and peers can ease these strains. Parental involvement monitoring, gradual autonomy granting, and emphasis on mastery rather than merely good grades are associated with better adjustment. Adolescent achievement is the result of a long history of cumulative effects. Early on positive educational environments, both family and school lead to personal traits that support achievement- intelligence, confidence in one's own abilities, the desire to succed, and high educational aspirations.
Authoritative parenting is linked to higher grades in school among adolescents varying widely in SES, just as it predicts mastery-oriented behavior in childhood. In contrast authoritarian and permissive styles are associated with lower grades. Uninvolved parenting (low in both warmth and maturity demands) predicts the poorest grades and worsening school performance over time. High achieving students typically have parents who keep tabs on their child's progress, communicate with teacher's and make sure their child is enrolled in challenging, well-taught classes. Peers play an important role in adolescent achievement in a way that relate to both family and school. Peers support for achievement also depends on the overall climate of the peer culture, which for ethnic minority youths, is powerfully affected by the surroundings social order. Adolescents need school environment that are responsive to their expanding powers of reasoning and their emotional and social needs. Without appropriate learning experiences, their cognitive potential is unlikely yo be realized. An important benefit of departmentalized teaching with separate classes in each subject is that adolescents can be taught by experts, who are more likely to encourage high level thinking, teach effective learning strategies, and emphasize content relevant to students experiences factors that promote interest, effort, and achievement. To upgrade the academic achievement of poorly performing students, a high stakes testing movement has arisen, which makes progress through the school system contingent on passing achievement. High school students are separated into academic and vocational tracks in virtually all industrialzed nations. The dropout rate is higher among boys than girls and is particularly high among low SES ethnic minority youths, espically native American and Hispanic teenagers.8 percent of adolescence will drop out of school from the ages of 16- to 24 years old. The decision to leave school has dire consequences.
Vocational Development, as the end of adolescence approaches, young people face a major life decision: the choice of a suitable work role.In societies with an abundance of career possibilities, occupational choice is a gradual process that begins long before adolescence and often extends into the mid-twenties. Major theorists view the young person as moving through several periods of vocational development. (1) The fantasy period: In early and middle childhood, children gain insight into career options by fantasizing about them. Their preferences, guided largely by familiarity, glamour, and excitement, usually bear little relation to the decisions they will eventually make. (2) The tentative period: between ages 11 and 16, adolescents think about careers in more complex ways, at first in terms of their interests and soon- as they become more aware of personal and educational requirements for different vocations- in terms of their abilities and vaules. (3) The realistic period: by the late teens and early twenties, with the economic and practical realities of adulthood just around the corner, young people start to narrow their options. A first step is often further exploration-gathering more information about possibilities that blend with their personal characteristics. In the final phase, crystallization, they focus on general vocational category and experiment for a time before settling on a single occupation. Factors that can influence their vocational choice are: they aren't sure what they want to be, they want to go where their friends are going, but the biggest is money some people just don't have the money to go to the schools they want to. Different personalty's will fit better with different jobs like for example a social person who likes interacting with people, gravitates toward human services (counseling, social work, or teaching) this will have an influence in their vocational choice as well. Family and teachers play a big role as well maybe you parent wants you to go to the same school they did and become a doctor like them, teacher play a role because they deteremine how school life will be for you for example if you had a horriable first grade teacher you would hate going to school so why would you go off to college...
Here is something that's pretty big people who stop going to school, and start working. American employers regard recent high school graduates as poorly prepared for skilled business and industrial occupations and manual trades. Adolescents typically hold jobs that involve low-level, repetitive tasks and provide little contact with adult supervisors. by doing this they start off with minumin wage and is very hard for them to move up with out a college degree.Also by doing this and not making a lot of money people rely on cerdit cards and forget about debit and that starts a whole another issue i know this because my aunt went through this cycle before going back to school 3 years ago.
There are four identity statues that i am going to brake down for you. (1) Identity achievement: Having already explored alternatives, identity-achieved individuals are committed to a clearly formulated set of self chosen values and goals. They feel a sense of psychological well-being, of sameness through time, and of knowing where they are going. (2) Identity moratorium These individuals have not yet made a definite commitments. They are in the process of exploring-gathering information and trying our activities, with desire to find values and goals to guide their lives. (3) Identity foreclosure Individulas have committed themselves to values and goals without exploring alternatives. They accept a ready-made identity chosen for them by authority figures- usually parents but sometimes teachers, religious leaders, or romantic partners. (4) Identity diffusion Individuals lack clear direction. They are not committed to values and goals, nor are they actively trying to reach them. They may never have explored alternatives or may have found the task too threatening and overwhelming.Adolescent identity formation begins a lifelong dynamic process in which a change in either the individual or the context opens up the possibility of reformulating identity. A wide variety of factors influence identity development: Personality, Family, and Peers.
Moral reasoning and its relationship to moral behavior. Many factors affect the maturity of moral reasoning, including child-rearing practices, schooling, peer interaction and culture and here is a brake down of how each one does that. Child rearing practices as in childhood, parenting practices associated with moral maturity in adolescence combine warmth, exchange of ideas, and appropriate demands for maturity.Adolescence who gain most in moral understanding have parents who engage in moral discussion, encourage prosocial behavior, and create a supportive atmosphere by listening sensitively, asking clarifying questions and presenting higher level reasoning. Schooling Years of schooling is a powerful predictor of movement to kohlberg's stage 4 of higher. Higher education introduces young people to social issues that extend beyond personal relationships to entire political or cultural groups. Peer Interaction Interaction among peers who present differing viewpoints promotes moral understanding. When young people negotiate and compromise with age mates, they realize that social life can be based on cooperation between equals. Culture Individuals in industrialized nations move through Kohlberg's stages more quickly and advance to a higher level. In cultures where young people participate in the institutions of their society at early ages, moral reasoning is advanced. A central assumption of the cognitive- development perspective is that moral understanding should affect moral action.
Gender typing. Early adolescence is a period of gender intensification- increase gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior, and movement toward a more traditional gender identity. Both sexes experience gender intensification, but it is stronger for girls, who feel less free to experiment with "other gender" activities and behavior than they did in middle chidlhood. Gender intensification declines by middle to late adolescence, but not all young people move beyond it to the same degree. Many adolescents, especially white, middle-SES girls, experience gender-typed pressures to act in ways inconsistent with their actual beliefs and desires.
Your relationship with your child will change throughout the years and so will their relationship with there siblings and this is normal.Puberty triggers psychological distancing from parents. In addition young people look more mature, parents give them more freedom to think and decide for themselves, more opportunities to regulate their own activites, and more responsibility. Effective parenting of adolescence strikes a balance between connection and separation. In diverse ethnic groups SES levels, nations, and family (including single parent, two parent and step parent ), warm, supportive parent adolescent ties that make appropriate demands for maturity while permitting young people to explore ideas and social roles foster autonomy- predicting high self reliance, effortful, control, academic motivation and achievement, work orientation favorable self esteem, and ease of separation in the transition to college. Parents own development can also lead to friction with teenagers. While their children face boundless future and a wide array of choices, middle-aged parents must accept the fact that their own possibilities are narrowing. like parent relationships sibling interactions adapt to development at adolescence. As younger siblings become more self-sufficient, they accept less direction from their older brothers and sisters, and sibling influence declines. Here's a website that helps you make the relationship you have with your child or brother or sister better and what the causes the issues you might have or incounter (http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/gradeschool/pages/Gender-Identity-and-Gender-Confusion-In-Children.aspx?nfstatus=401&nftoken=00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000&nfstatusdescription=ERROR%3a+No+local+token)
Peer conformity a study of several hundred U.S youths revealed that adolescents felt greatest pressure to conform to the most obvious aspects of the peer culture-dress,grooming, and participation in social activities. Peer pressure to engage in proadult behavior, such as cooperating with parents and getting good grades , was also strong. Resistance to peer pressure strengthens gradually with age, though wide individual differences exits. Personal characteristics make a difference: young people who feel competent and worthwhile ,who score low in sensation-seeking, and who are more effective decision makers are less likely to fall in line with peer antisocial activity. Authoritative child rearing is also influential. (http://www.mesacc.edu/dept/d46/psy/dev/Fall99/peer_pressure/index.html)