The people:


JavierBustamante. I am a Scientific Researcher at the Department of Wetland Ecology at Doñana Biological Station, and the principal researcher from HORUS project. I started to work with lesser kestrels back in 1988, studying parent-offspring conflict. My research has covered various aspect of the behavior, ecology and conservation biology of birds of prey; but also, guanacos in Patagonia, penguins in Antarctica, bird distribution models, or wetland dynamics with remote sensing. You can check my official and unofficial webpage and also my scientific publications in ResearchGate, GoogleScholar or ResearchID.

Carlos Rodríguez López. I am a postdoctoral scientist at Doñana. In 1998, I got the degree in Biology in the University of Salamanca. In 1999, I did my PhD at Doñana Biological Station. Afterwards I made my post-doc in Germany in the Department of Ecological Modelling (UFZ-Leipzig) and the Institute of Ecology (University of Jena). I came back to Spain in 2008, working in several
scientific projects. Currently I am a post-doc of the JAE program (CSIC) linked to the EU BON project.

BaenaManuel Baena.I am a Telecommunication Engineer. I started to work in HORUS project in 2007. I have been the main designer of the "smart nest-box" and responsible for connecting sensor cameras and all the technical stuff.

Jesús Marín. I am a Telecommunication Engineer. I started to work in HORUS project in 2011. I have been responsible for keeping the system running during the last years.


Jesús Hernández-Pliego.I am a PhD student at Doñana Biological Station. I got the degree in Biology in the University of Seville in 2010. In 2011, I finished my master studies in Biodiversity and Conservation Biology in the Pablo de Olavide University. After that, I started my thesis that focuses on the movement ecology of the lesser kestrel using GPS-dataloggers.


Juan José Negro. I am Professor of Research and currently the Director of Doñana Biological Station. I started my research on ecology of birds of prey in the 80's with a PhD thesis on the lesser kestrel. Apart of lesser kestrels in particular and birds of prey in general I have research lines on bird coloration, and on molecular genetics.

Airam Rodríguez. I am a post-doctoral researcher at Doñana Biological Station and at Phillip Island Nature Parks, Australia. In my PhD, I studied the migratory strategies of the lesser kestrel using geolocators and genetic markers. Currently, I am studying the effects of light pollution on organisms, especially seabirds.


Ramón Soriguer. I am a Scientific Researcher at Doñana Biological Station. My research has mainly involved ungulates and other herbivores. My main interest within HORUS is the use of Information and Communication Technology in ecological research.

The kestrels:

B[5.U]I am a female named B[5.U]. These guys have no imagination for names. I was ringed in 2008 in nest 7S1 as a breeder. In 2013 I was the first kestrel to arrive (20 February 2013). As I breed in the upper floors (7th floor) these guys know little about me.

I am female B[7.T] I already breed in the colony last year where I was fitted with a GPS. I liked it so much that I took it to Africa during migration and brought it back this spring. I arrived to the colony on March the 1st.

B[A.B] I am a male that was ringed for the first time in this colony in 2011. In 2012 I bred in nest-box 6W2 with B[8.S]. It was a bad year, we hatched two chicks that did not fledge. B[8.S] and I got divorced :,(. Jesús already fitted me with a GPS in 2012. In 2013 I came back from Africa on February 26th.  This year I changed nest-box (moved to 6S4) and changed mate B[D.A]. She has laid two eggs that did not hatch. So bad luck this year also. In 2013 I have been fitted with a GPS again

B[A.X]B[A.X] also a male, as can be deduced from my grey hood. I was born in this colony in 2011, so I can proudly say I am native from La Palma del Condado. I spent a sabbatical year in África (2012) and returned for the first time on March the 2nd 2013.

B[C.Z] male, proudly so. I may look snooty, but I am not. I was ringed with adult plumage in 2012 (so I was at least 2 years old). This year I arrived on March the 1st.


. I signed up for this colony in 2102. I was ringed, and even fitted with I GPS, but did not find the adequate partner and did not breed. This year I have mated with B[A.B] and we have settled in box 6S4. It looks like I am not very experienced with incubations. Our eggs have not hatched and we have quitted. We still sleep some nights in box 6S4.

B[F.G]B[F.G] male

. These guys know little  about me. I signed up for the colony this year, with no rings or marks, but adult plumage, on February 22nd 2013. So I must be 2 years old, at least.


. I am breeding in box 6N7 with male B[6.V]. We have laid two eggs and chicks have hatched. I new at the colony so nothing is known about my previous life.

B[F.J] female. I arrived new at the colony this year. I was first captured on March the 6th.