Personality Disorders - Kirby Caraballo

Intro

In this webpage, I will explain Personality Disorders and what categories they fall into (the three clusters). This includes their symptoms, definitions, any history behind the disorder, and common stigmas associated with them. I'm only really going to talk about personality disorders in cluster B. Keep in mind while you read that the most universal symptom in people with Personality Disorders is that they find it difficult to maintain healthy relationships with others, and as a result, this further consolidates their disorder.  


Categories/Clusters

Personality disorders are organized by three cluster types: Cluster A, Cluster B, and Cluster C. The personality disorders are grouped by common traits and then are subsequently placed into clusters. 

Cluster A is comprised of Paranoid, Schizoid, and Schizotypal personality disorders.They are the "odd and eccentric" type and think distortedly.

Cluster B is comprised of Borderline, Antisocial, Histrionic, and Narcissistic personality disorders. Type B is typically considered to be erratic, have extreme emotions, have unstable relationships, and hold varied extremes of self-worth. The disorders of this category are the most commonly known, and make up the majority of the content on this website.

Cluster C is usually described as the more anxious or fearful personality disorders. This group includes, Avoidant, Dependent, and Anankastic (OCPD) personality disorders. [1]


A Venn Diagram of the three Clusters and their associated characteristics. [A]




Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline (or BPD) is categorized as a type B personality disorder. Borderline PD is a disorder where the individual is constantly changing emotions, not being able to control them. They have a polarized way of thinking where they think of things in "black or white" or "all good and all bad." There is no in-between or grey area when interpreting others and themselves, so their reactions to situations are often extreme. They are known for their destructive and intense relationships, which mirror their emotions. Such relationships are short lived due to their fear of being alone and their severe mood swings. People with Borderline tend to have prominent and constant fears of abandonment, and may to resort to suicide or other extreme measures to prevent people from leaving them.  Therefore, people with Borderline may find it extremely difficult to develop and maintain intimate relationships, which often just increases their paranoia and low self-worth.

Treatment:
    Psychotherapy is preferred in most personality disorders, including Borderline. Medication may also be used but usually in conjunction with some kind of therapy to correct behavior. The most popular and widely used form of therapy is called Dialectical Behavior Therapy and is very successful. Learn more about Dialectical Behavior Therapy here. 

Symptoms:
  • A low sense of self or self-esteem
  • An intense fear of abandonment
  • An inability to regulate emotions
  • Dangerous or self destructive, impulsive behaviors (such as self harm, suicide attempts, frequent unprotected sex, drug use, etc.)
  • Severe mood swings
  • Displaying feelings of intense anger and hostility (usually in inappropriate ways or as an overreaction for small situations)
  • Chronic feelings of emptiness
  • Disassociation from identity (usually induced by stress) [2] 



An artistic representation of what it is like to live with Borderline PD. [B]



Antisocial Personality Disorder

Individuals with Antisocial personality Disorder usually behave in an apathetic manner, maintain little to no moral compass, and generally lack empathy. They can be extremely charismatic on the surface, and therefore are also very manipulative towards people. Because people with antisocial PD show no remorse for their actions, a lot of them become criminals. The majority of serial killers are diagnosed with antisocial PD "practically all convicted criminals (65-75%)," in fact, and are more commonly referred to as "psychopaths." [3]

Antisocial PD inhibits feeling and display of emotions,so people with the disorder are described as having a "flat affect" or a blank facial expression. Initially meeting someone with Antisocial PD, they can seem normal. Happy, charismatic and social at first, but soon you would begin to see the symptoms associated with the disorder. 

Treatment: 

    Antisocial is difficult to treat, as the individual wont usually seek treatment on their own. Behavior therapy is the most common becuase it rewards possitive behavior and lets the patient know what is the appropriate way to do things. Client- centered therapy also works well. [4]

Characteristics/Symptoms of Antisocial PD include:

  • Being able to act witty and charming
  • Being good at flattery and manipulating other people's emotions
  • Breaking the law repeatedly
  • Disregarding the safety of self and others
  • Having problems with substance abuse
  • Lying, stealing, and fighting often
  • Not showing guilt or remorse
  • Often being angry or arrogant [4]

An Example of Antisocial PD behaviors in "A Clockwork Orange"


The main character in "A Clockwork Orange" is said by many critics to have Antisocial PD.
In this video, Alex displays Antisocial PD thinking when he talks about his cohorts as if they were inferior animals.
He also shows behaviors associated with the disorder when he uses violence spontaneously and with no remorse. 
(Note: Citations are all embedded in the videos as well at at the bottom of the page.)



Narcissistic Personality Disorder

The name for Narcissistic personality disorder originated from ancient roman mythology. As the story goes, a man named Narcissus was wandering around a forest, when he happened upon a stream. When he went to go get some water to drink from the stream, he caught a glance of his own reflection in the surface of the water. Thinking the man looking back at him was the most hansom creature in the world, he became obsessed with it, eventually falling in love with his own reflection. He remained there, staring at his appearance till he died from starvation and was eventually turned into a flower by the gods. An individual with Narcissistic PD is self obsessed, extremely conceited, rash, and selfish. They tend to -like antisocial PD- lack empathy.However, do not get the myth confused with the disorder, a Narcissist is not in love with themselves, rather, they think very highly of themselves.

                                                  

This guy explains Narcissistic PD really well

  Narcissus staring at his own reflection[C]    


Narcissistic personality Disorder is classified as a type B personality disorder. Those with it often find it hard to maintain healthy relationships, and often fall into cycling, unhealthy relationships with very dependent people (such as people with Dependent PD), because they find pleasure in having someone depend on them. Whereas the dependent person in the relationship finds comfort in relying on one who is overly confident in their capabilities, nor do they mind complying to the constant need for praise their partner has. 

Narcissists expect the best, and when their expectations are not met, often they get irrationally angry and lash out.They also often fantasize about success, wealth, and fame. Narcissistic PD is common among high leadership positions such as CEOs, where they feel comfortable in a position of control and superiority. Narcissism is similar to Histrionic PD, both have key differences. Narcissists have a high image of themselves and hold their needs above others, however, they also have a very low self esteem, and are easily affected by other's criticisms. 

Treatment: 
    
    Treating Narcissism can be difficult because they individual may feel there is nothing wrong with them in the first place, and refuse to seek help. However, if they do seek help, treatment will usually come in the form of psychotherapy. [5]

Symptoms:

  • thinking you are superior to others
  • expecting or needing constant praise
  • not recognizing others emotions or simply ignoring them
  • taking advantage of people
  • expecting people to do what you want
  • appearing apathetic, stoic, or unemotional
  • thinking others are inferior to you and treating them like they are
  • having trouble keeping healthy relationships and friendships
  • finding you are always jealous of someone or believing that someone is jealous of you [5]



Histrionic Personality Disorder

Histrionic and Narcissistic PD are similar, and people often get the two confused. However, whereas Narcissists think themselves superior than others and feel they deserve attention and praise, people with Histrionic Personality Disorder are concerned with theatrics, and are uncomfortable when they are not the center of attention. They seek a constant and long-standing focus on themselves, and can be perceived as shallow or vain. In order to obtain attention, they may act provocatively or overly emotional. The disorder is present in adolescence and continues on to adulthood. Usually the disorder is associated with females, however, they disorder may be equally present in both sexes. People with Histrionic PD often show chronic lying and victimization of themselves in situations.

Therapy:
    Client centered therapy is the best type of treatment, and medication can also be taken to help symptoms. Family and Group therapy is not the best kind to go with because they serve as a distractor or an inhibitor to the progress of therapy. [6]

Symptoms:
  • craves attention
  • are uncomfortable with not being the center of attention
  • acts sexually seductive or provocative to get attention
  • shows shallow emotional mood swings
  • holds conversations that are pretentious or lacking in substance
  • are very impressionable and susceptible to suggestion
  • exaggerates behaviors and emotions [7]
                                 
Marilyn Monroe was said to have Histrionic PD. [D]                           ......So was Austin Powers. (anybody remember that movie? 
                                                                                                                            he's pretty provocative...and attention seeking) [E]        


Here's a funny video: These two "diagnose" Michael Scott with Histrionic PD


Conclusion
So that wraps up my webpage where I talked about 4 different personality disorders (Borderline, Antisocial, Narcissistic, and Histrionic), types of clusters they fall into, their symptoms, and any stigmas associated with them. I hope you liked it, and I hope you were able to get a bunch of useful or interesting information about personality disorders. 
          

Sources:

  1. http://www.sevencounties.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=479&cn=8
  2. http://psychologiques.wordpress.com/2012/01/30/borderline-personality-disorder/
  3. http://www.friedgreentomatoes.org/articles/apd_sociopathy_psychopathy.php
  4. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000921.htm
  5. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/narcissistic-personality-disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20025568
  6. http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx17t.htm
  7. http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-pe06.html


Pictures:

    A)    http://andrewhoff.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/2565218468_3490c1f922_o1.png

    B)    https://21ba51d6-a-62cb3a1a-s-sites.googlegroups.com/site/hookappsychology/personality-disorders---kirby-caraballo/Multiple_Personality_Disorder-1-346x348.jpg?attachauth=ANoY7crCslMebBAfHinQgC-fizlBGO8W19W1SAS7-V3l2SDL1ENMD9bl-FaegVaUfLYU-AOK8nLAPZFUCCE_iWGDAC1p8qN1MJkDPmmf44_ieAJXn_MX53c-0BFkq4IhHbdHKNe-B8XKVYH49T2JQAxGWX8rPdR4_oZDUDEHLCMucbOEjy-ytRtkv-DKzjleTdN1lwaO9IR9DxSmS-2qtqNKphddQs6ZaNaza0ENExMDVrjco5U0wnNLj1rgU9FyT-vEgtf4-cQ925mBZzYLAptqXX8efcKdPVfA9zux-EydJ5uez-lpKYoiHq1De4ABRY7TrhhBl7tA&attredirects=0

    C)    http://acelebrationofwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/narcissus.jpg

    D)    http://hollywoodpsychicinsider.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Marilyn-Monroe-Icon.jpg

    E)    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/42/Mike-Myers-Austin-Powers-1-.jpg


Videos (in consecutive order):

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HtRGeyznv7k

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFgoGtt7wu4

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1LLfLTsiDAo



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