When you have been out walking or running in Hong Kong’s rural areas and country parks, you will probably have found yourself on a path made out of boulders laid closely together without any cement or concrete. 

These are what remain of Hong Kong's network of ancient roads and pathways:

Boulder Trackways

Boulder Trackways

Stone Bridges

and Stone Way-markers 

linking the major townships and villages with each other and inter-linking ferry routes.

(Thank you to Peter Keeping for the drawings above)

They are difficult to date but are probably centuries old and have survived because they were so sensibly and practically constructed.

The Hong Kong Archaeological Society Survey of 1982 to 1985 identified nine boulder trackways in particular:

 1. 1111 Ho Chung to Customs Pass Trackway (2Km) – Sai Kung

2. 0711 Pak Kong to Mui Tsz Lam Trackway (1.5Km) – Sai Kung

3. 0712 Shui Ngau Shan Trackway (1Km) – Sai Kung

4. 0307 Sun Leung Tam Trackway – Bride’s Pool, NT NE

5. 0310 Luk Keng to Tsat Muk Kiu Trackway – NT NE

6. 0311 Hok Tau Reservoir to Cheung Uk Trackway – NT NE

7. 0717 Tai Lam Chung to Pat Heung Trackway – NT NW

8. 1319 Ngong Ping to Shek Pik Trackway - Lantau

9. 1321 Yi O to Fan Lau Trackway - Lantau

The Antiquities & Monuments Office identified a further five boulder trackways:

10. Lau Shui Heung to Kat Tsai Shan Au Trackway – NT NE

11. Ho Pui Trackway – Yuen Long, NT NW

12. Hung Shing Ye Trackway - Lamma

13. Lung A Pai to Siu Om Shan Trackway – NT NW

14. Wun Yiu Trackway – Tai Po, NT C

The HKAS report goes on to say:

A number of them are shown on early British military maps of the region dating from the turn of the century. (Ordnance Survey 1904 – surveyed by Major H.S. King, Royal Engineers, 1902-03 – GSS). These maps refer to them as “Chinese roads about 4 feet wide and mostly paved”.

This evidence supports the fact that they mostly predate the British period and, a point not without its significance, perhaps, that their strategic value had been recognised by the military map makers.

The obvious fact that they follow natural lines of communication across passes and along ridges, in an otherwise mountainous and dissected terrain, makes it not unreasonable to assume that at least some of these trackways are of considerable antiquity.

It is perhaps relevant to note that the earliest settled farming communities in the Territory are traditionally dated to the late T’ang and early Song dynasties.

It is at this time that one might expect local social institutions, capable of the organisation required to construct some of the more impressive trackways, to be taking shape.

The development of wet rice agriculture and other intensive farming activities, which also traditionally date from this period, could also have provided an important stimulus for the creation of this network of tracks.

As noted above, the boulder trackways generally follow natural lines of communication through passes, along ridge-ways, or beside stream and river courses.

These routes are the preferred choice for modern paths and minor roads, even in the more remote areas of the Territory where they frequently still link outlying settlements and agricultural land.

As development proceeds and the need is felt to “upgrade” many of the traditional paths, the old paving will give way to concrete and road metal. (Not if we can help it! GSS)

A large number of the boulder trackways are to be found within the Country Parks, where their importance has been realised by the Authorities and their alignments noted; steps have also been taken to maintain them. (Unfortunately, AFCD now say they have no maps of them! GSS)

However, this has not always been successful and occasionally clumsy cement pointing, not found in the traditional paving techniques, has spoilt their appearance.

No doubt a number of the tracks have already been lost under modern secondary roads, or even hidden under access routes to off-road villages and even newly developed housing estates. This will prove to be a significant and growing threat to the continuing preservation of these historically important features.

The network of traditional paved roads provides important evidence as to how and by what routes Hong Kong’s early villages and market towns were interconnected before the development of the modern road and rail system.

They offer a unique insight into a traditional world, whose patterns of communication, following the easiest natural routes, were quite different to what they are today.

The scale of this system of paved trackways, the skill with which the tracks were constructed and the effort needed in the quarrying and transporting of material and in their maintenance, provide eloquent testimony to the socio-economic and administrative institutions of the times.

No firm evidence to date these tracks has been located, but some may conceivably be of very considerable antiquity.

Their significance is greatly enhanced because they are eminently visible and readily appreciated monuments to the Territory’s past in a landscape relatively impoverished of similar historical features.


            ADMINISTRATIVE: It is strongly recommended that a complete study should be made to record all these paved trackways in as definitive a fashion as possible. (See below – GSS)

A firm basis for this study now exists in the Survey’s records and in the maps produced by the Country Parks Division, AFD. There are good reasons, however, to be believe that these records and observations are not yet complete and that other paved tracks await recording.

In view of their importance as visible historical features, very often in open terrain, and often within Country Parks, it is recommended that some of the more important examples be provided with legal protection under the Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance.

            GENERAL: Liaison with staff of the Country Parks Division, AFD, is recommended to ensure that all future maintenance conforms to standard designed to retain the traditional character of the old paved sections of such major Park routes as, for example, the MacLehose Trail.

References: “Trackways” by Nigel Spry – HKAS Journal Vol 12 Pages 169-172 (1986-88)

Report of HK Archaeological Survey by B.A.V. Peacock & T.J.P Nixon (1985-86)


When you are out running or walking in the countryside, please take note of any of Hong Kong’s ancient roads or boulder trackways and stone bridges you encounter. These are paths made hundreds of years ago for the movement of people and goods between towns and villages and are surely worth preserving as part of HK’s heritage. A HK wide survey is now being conducted to build a complete record of all that remain. We then hope to get them way-marked and included in The Countryside maps in a distinctive manner.


Assistance has already been offered in the Sai Kung area by Outward Bound and the Friends of Sai Kung but Guy Shirra is looking for volunteers to assist him initially in locating boulder trackways in Sai Kung District, photographing them and building up a complete map of them.

He is also hoping to find volunteers in every rural district, including Hong Kong Island, who can do the same.

The eventual aim will be to submit the results of the survey to the Secretary for Development/Commissioner for Heritage* and relevant government departments in order to:

1.      have them recognised as the oldest surviving examples of Chinese “built heritage” in Hong Kong and preserved and protected as such

2.       have the best examples declared Monuments, the ultimate form of protection

3.       have them, where necessary, sensitively restored and maintained (without the use of cement or concrete)

4.      have paths, and bridges in particular, which have been unnecessarily concreted over uncovered and restored

5.      have them marked in a distinctive manner on all future editions of the Countryside maps for the benefit of walkers, runners and tourists

6        have them distinctively way-marked on the ground

Further information, Photographs and a Survey Form can be found under Project Documents

GSS 9 February 2008

* PS: Guy in fact had a meeting with the Commissioner for         Heritage on 6 April 2009 but nothing was done: 

(click to enlarge, + to enlarge further)

(C) Many thanks to Peter Keeping for the three drawings above provided in May 2013. OnOn!

27 April 2017

Having now entered my 8th Decade (and the Project having entered its 2nd), I feel that the time has come to hand the Boulder Trackway Preservation Project, the Facebook Page 
and this Website over to a younger Hong Kong permanent resident.
Someone who is prepared to continue to try to persuade the government to restore, preserve, and protect the trackways, bridges and way-markers and inject new life into the Project. 
Anyone out there interested, please email me at guyshirra@gmail.com or call/text me on +852-9307 2041. 

Thank you.

From three years ago. Nothing has changed: 

PUBLISHED : Wednesday, 21 January, 2015, 6:46pm
UPDATED : Wednesday, 19 October, 2016, 4:31pm

HK Magazine

For the past 10 years, former police officer Guy Shirra has been personally excavating and researching ancient stone footpaths in the New Territories. He talks to Cynthia Chung about his mission to protect them.

HK Magazine: How did you learn about the stone pathways?

Guy Shirra: While I was working in the police force, I was put in charge of the village patrol unit in the New Territories back in 1973. We were patrolling on these old boulder trails, because there were no roads. I knew they were old Chinese roads, but I didn’t know much about them. When I moved to Sai Kung with my wife in 2006, I would go running on these ancient trails and so I started researching them.

HK: What exactly are these walkways?

GS: The ancient boulder trails are a part of Hong Kong’s ancient history, and are the oldest surviving man-made objects in Hong Kong. They were built before the British came. No one knows exactly how old they are, but we suspect 300-400 years. That’s when farming became more widespread and needed more efficient methods of moving produce between villages and towns and walled cities. It is fantastic that they have lasted for so long. If the networks are restored, they could become attractions for people who enjoy the outdoors—special walks with rich histories.

HK: What else have you found?

GS: The old bridges also need to be restored. They are also part of the network of boulder trackways—people back in the day bought in three heavy planks of granite or stone with buffalos. It was a very laborious job, and they should be protected.

HK: How are these boulder trails threatened, then?

GS: They’ve survived 300-400 years because they’re rocks—big boulders put together without cement or concrete, so rainwater won’t wash them away. The only real danger they face is from the government: sometimes the Agricultural Fisheries Conservation Department (AFCD) comes along with a contractor, and they put concrete on top or add railings. Repairing what they think is a damaged boulder trackway with concrete is actually destroying the trails’ uniqueness. If they want to improve a path, they should get boulders and fit them together to keep tradition alive. Don’t “modernize them” just to make them look like a normal Mong Kok pavement.

HK: What does the government say about it?

GS: I submitted my research to the Antiquities Monuments Office, and waited for more than a year for them to call me for a presentation. Then they got a company to redo my research. They produced a report, including things like “We weren’t able to check this path. For health and safety reasons, we did not go through.” That’s ridiculous. It’s been a long time since they’ve produced a report, and as far as I know, they’ve done nothing with it.

HK: Why do you think conservation is important to Hong Kong’s society?

GS: Well, this is Hong Kong heritage. A place that doesn’t have history is a rather sad place. And a place that doesn’t protect its history is a rather sad place. This is Chinese history and it’s really inexplicable that the government does not agree.

HK: If you could walk only one trail in Hong Kong for the rest of your life, which one would it be?

GS: The one stretching from Sai Kung to Siu Lek Yuen. It is a gentle walk, after it crosses the MacLehose Trail and Mui Chi Lam. You can see wide-boulder trackways that are ancient and remarkable, as well as spectacular high stone walls. You can also find a network of boulder trackways linking Mao Ping to Wong Chuk Shan Village and bridges leading down to the valley.


Hill section of ancient boulder path cleared by volunteer team

by Guy Shirra

Posted on 29 January 2018 


Left to right: Jerry Sousa (all the way from Ngong Ping, Lantau), Guy Shirra (past Chairman Friends of Sai Kung), Rita Gourlay (Sai Kung Saturday Hash House Harriers), Carol Biddell (FSK Environment Officer), Katie Lewington with Sally the dog, Robert Lewington (Vice Chairman FSK)

Many thanks to everyone who was able to make it this time. We achieved our objective, clearing the top section of the ancient boulder road (Kowloon Walled City via Customs Pass to Ho Chung and on to Sai Kung) which we were unable to clear last year. It took three hours although the Lost Patrol took longer…

It was hard work and, unfortunately, a 15m section of the road had collapsed and users will still have to detour through the woods below before rejoining the road. Maybe we can get the government to restore it? Fat chance.

Having completed the top section, the three drivers (Guy, Carol and Robert) retraced their steps, clearing up as they went while Jerry, Katie and Rita valiantly elected to carry on down what Guy promised was the easy cleared section, well marked with tape, to meet up back at Robert’s pad for a well-deserved drink.


The drivers tucked into tea and biscuits by the pool but there was no sign of the Lost Patrol. Guy finally got Rita on her mobile and she reported that were lost but “following tape”. Rita sounded cool (she is a seasoned Hasher) but Katie could be heard in the background blaming Guy for their woes. Jerry could be heard just doing his thing, demolishing everything around him with the assortment of axes, saws and cutters he had lugged along with him.

They eventually returned for tea and what was left of the biscuits and a good time was had by all.

There is still a side trail to clear and some trail marking to be done; any volunteers?

Part 2 of the Ho Chung Boulder Trackway Clearance


I have decided to go ahead on Saturday 27 January meeting at the end of the road past Ta Lam Wu at 1300hrs/1pm.

Parking is available there. I can offer lifts to three people from the Kowloon-bound bus stop outside Marina Cove Shopping Centre leaving at 1245hrs.

Please now let me know if you can come (with friends/family) wearing appropriate gear with gloves and carrying any cutting implements you may have and water.

This time the plan will be work down hill from the road where the Ancient Trail officially ends near Tai Lam Wu:


and emerge at the end of the existing trackway (cleared last year): http://hk.centamap.com/gc/centamaplocation.aspx…

There will also be a branch trail to clear here: http://hk.centamap.com/gc/centamaplocation.aspx…

Thank you very much in anticipation.


9307 2041

Thank you.

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