The Origin and Transmission of the Bible

By Gregory Kubik

The word “Bible” comes from the Greek word “Biblios,” which means “Book.”  The Bible is the book that we refer to as the Holy Scriptures.  Scripture is a word that means “that which is written.”


The Bible is divided into categories in both the English and Hebrew traditions.  In English, these divisions are:


The Old Testament:


1)       The Law: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy

2)       The historical books: Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther

3)       The books of poetry/wisdom: Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations

4)       The major prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel

5)       The minor prophets: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi


 The New Testament:


1)       The Gospels and Acts: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and Acts

2)       The Pauline Epistles:  Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, and Philemon

3)       The General Epistles: Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter (Petrine Epistles), 1, 2, and 3 John (Johannine Epistles), and Jude

4)       Revelation


In the Hebrew Bible (TaNaKh), the divisions are:


1)       Torah (Instruction/Law): B'reshiyth (In the beginning), Sh'moth (Names), Wa'yiqra (And (YHWH) called), B'midbar (In the wilderness), and Devariym (Words)

2)       Nevi'im (Prophets): Y'hoshua (Yahu is salvation), Shoftiym (Judges), Sh'mu'el (lit. His name is El, but probably for Sh'mu`a'el, Heard of El) Alef, Beth (1 and 2), Melakhiym (Kings) Alef, Beth, Yesha`yahu (Yahu is salvation), Yirmeyahu (Yahu exalts? or Yahu loosens the womb?), Y'hezq'el (El will strengthen), Hoshea (Salvation), Yo'el (Yahu is God), Amos (Burden), `Ovadyahu (Servant/slave of Yahu), Yonah (Dove), Miykhah/Miykhayahu (Who is like Yahu?), Nahum (Comfort), Havaquq (embrace), Tzefanyah (Yahu has treasured), Haggay (Festive), Z'kharyah (Yahu has remembered), and Malakhiy (My messenger)

3)       Kethuvim (Other Writings): T'hilliym (Songs of praise, sing. T'hillah), Mishley (Proverbs, comparisons), Iyyov (afflicted, subject of hostility?), Shiyr haShiyriym (Song of songs), Ruth (Companion), Eykhah (How?), Qoheleth (Preacher or collector), Esther (Star), Daniy'el (God (El) is my judge), `Ezra (Help), Nehemyah (Yahu comforts), and Divrey haYamiym (Words of the days) Alef, Beth


The Bible was originally transmitted orally (by mouth, Deuteronomy 4:9) until it was written down under divine inspiration (2 Timothy 3:16, 2 Peter 1:21).


The Bible was written over a span of 1600 years by over 40 different people.  Yet the Bible contains the same message throughout because God was behind the writing.


The Bible was written in two basic languages: Hebrew and Greek.  The Old Testament was written in Hebrew, and all of the copies we have of the New Testament are in Greek, although some parts of it were originally written in Hebrew.


All of the people who wrote the Bible were Hebrew, except for Luke.


Jesus was born and raised in Israel.  He grew up in the Jewish culture and way of life.
The Old Testament was written from roughly 1500-500 BC (the last books were written after 500 because a couple of the prophets lived between 500 and 400).  It was written on various writing materials.  One of the most widely used was animal skins (cow, sheep, and goat) because of its durability, pressed into a type of parchment.  They were then written on in black ink and rolled up into scrolls.  Pictured below is a modern Hebrew scroll.


Below is a column of a more ancient scroll.


The people who copied the scrolls were called "scribes."  The word scribe comes from the Hebrew word "sofer" which means "to count."  I’ll explain why they were called that later.  The scribes also had to be specialists in the law.  It was up to them to bring God’s word to the people, because many couldn’t read or write.  This was a big responsibility.

One important thing to note is that we don’t have any of the original scrolls that Moses, the prophets, or the apostles wrote.  All we have is copies of the originals.  There are a few reasons why we don’t have the originals:

1)       When scrolls got old, they were ceremoniously buried in a special building.  The scrolls could get lost or decay this way.

2)       There were also many calamities that came upon the Jewish nation.  For example, Jerusalem was destroyed a few times.  The scrolls could have been destroyed during times like these.

3)       The scrolls could have also been hidden from invading armies.  This happened to the famous Dead Sea Scrolls, which remained undiscovered for 2,000 years.

The Hebrew letters themselves derive from ancient picture drawings.  It is believed that Hebrew words received their meaning from the letters they were written with.  For example, the Hebrew word for God is "el" and in pictographs it is written with an ox head and a shepherd's staff, and combined it means "the strong shepherd."  The Hebrew word for father is "av" and in picto-graphs it is written with an ox head and a house, and combined it means "strength of the house."  Below is "el" in Proto-Sinaitic, the ancestor of paleo-Hebrew.


The autographs (original scrolls)- They were written in a very ancient form of Hebrew.  It is the ancient ancestor of the English alphabet.  The pictograph ancestor of it is pictured below, in use ca. 15th century BC.  The Hebrew scrolls were not written with these pictographs; but the alphabet with which they were written descends from the one pictured below.

The paleo-Hebrew alphabet (descended from the pictographs and with which the earliest scrolls were written) is pictured below (ca. 10th century BC).


Below is an example of this old writing, an ostracon from ca. eighth century BC that mentions the house of YHWH.  It is the house of YHWH ostracon, which says "Just as you commanded, Ashyahu the king, to give by the hand of Zekharyahu silver of Tarshish to the house of YHWH, three shekels."


After the Babylonian exile (587 BC), this ancient script evolved into the more modern Hebrew that appears in modern Hebrew Bibles. This alphabet appears below.


Originally, the Hebrew words were separated by dots or spaces.  There were no punctuation marks and no vowels.  The reader supplied the correct sounds based on the context.  It's like saying "TH HBRW LNGG WS WRTTN WTHT VWLS."  Vowel markings were added later by scribes to preserve the original sounds.  In the Dead Sea Scrolls, words were separated by spaces in the scrolls written in the classical script, and by dots in the scrolls written in the ancient script.  Sometimes words separated by spaces were grouped together.  This at times could cause different readings of the text.  The correct reading is based upon context.  For example, the phrase Godisnowhere could be read as "God is nowhere" or "God is now here" (example courtesy of Paul Wegner, see footnotes).  Obviously, "God is now here" is the correct reading.  The Hebrew is translated in a similar fashion.

To the left is the Dead Sea Scroll paleo-Leviticus, with dots between words.  To the right is a portion of the Great Isaiah Scroll from the same collection, with spaces between words.


As stated earlier, ancient Hebrew scribes used scrolls for their writing (Jeremiah 36:2, 23).  There were very strict rules that they followed in order to preserve the accuracy of the scrolls.  If they made a mistake, that scroll could not be used.  After they were done, all of the letters and words had to total a certain number.  That is why the scribes were called “scribes”; they counted everything to make sure it was all there.

The scribes also had great reverence for God’s name, Jehovah (YHWH).

Every time the scribe wrote this name, he would stop, wash his hands, pray, write the name, wash his hands, and then continue.  God’s name could not be corrected or erased once it was written.  This name was regarded as so holy that it continued to be written in the paleo-Hebrew script (pictured), but was eventually written the same as the rest of the text.

There were no chapters or verses in the original scrolls.

The most ancient manuscripts of the Old Testament that were known about before 1947 were the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex, each being 1,000 years old.  Pictured below are theses two codices. 


Then, in 1947 the famous Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in 11 caves by the Dead Sea in Israel.  These scrolls are the oldest Biblical manuscripts known today.  Most of them are over 2,000 years old.  Some of them date back to 150 years before Christ.  All of the books of the Hebrew Bible, except Esther, were found among the scrolls.  The only book that was found in its entirety is the Great Isaiah Scroll, which dates to 150 BC.  This is very significant, because the book of Isaiah not only contains many important prophecies concerning Israel, but also major prophecies that Jesus fulfilled.  Important prophecies concerning Jesus, such as Isaiah 11:1-2, 42:1-9, 53, and 61:1-4 are all contained within this ancient scroll.  Below is a portion of the Isaiah scroll, taken from the website of the Digital Dead Sea Scrolls Collection.  You can scroll through the entire scroll, plus several other non-biblical scrolls from this collection.

Another scroll that was written right after the time of Jesus is the Psalms Scroll.  It is written in the more classical Hebrew script, but the name of God appears in the ancient script.

The oldest portion of Scripture is found on silver amulets dating from 600 BC.  The portion is from Numbers 6:22-25.  Another amulet contains just the name YHWH.


Non-Scriptural references to events in the Bible such as Creation and the Flood are the oldest records we have of these events.  Before God confused man's languages at the tower of Babel the stories of Creation and the flood were popularly known.  Then when God dispersed manking to the uttermost parts of the earth, they took with them these stories and formulated their own legends around them.  It is for this reason that we find Creation and flood accounts similar to those of the Bible in many cultures worldwide.  However, the tower of Babel saw the begninning of the worship of many gods.  Thus the Creation and flood accounts of other cultures are generally polytheistic, while the Biblical accounts preserve the original monotheism of Adam's descendents.  Pictured below (on the left) is a tablet of the Enuma Elish, the Babylonian Creation account, and to the right is the Epic of Gilgamesh, an old flood account from Mesopotamia.



The Old Testament has a very rich background and setting.  The primary language it was written in, Hebrew, is part of the Semitic language family.  The oldest known Semitic language is Akkadian, which is very closely related to Hebrew.  Akkadian survived in the region until shortly after the time of Christ, and existed as a major language until the time of the prophets (c. 800 BC).  The Akkadian language is important to study for background of the Hebrew language.  Sumerian is perhaps the oldest language (at least written) from the Mesopotamian region.  It is not a Semitic language.  However, there have been found traces of the Semitic language family in the region that date since the dawn of civilization.  The languages of Asshur (Assyrian) and Babylon (Babylonian) are dialects of Akkadian.


We also read in the Scriptures that men used to live hundreds of years, many older than 900 years old (Genesis 5).  Not only have scientists uncovered giant human bones, but they also have uncovered the remains of giant animals, which include not only dinosaurs but larger versions of animals familiar to us now.  Before the flood animals and man lived in a different atmosphere, a type of atmosphere which allowed men and animals to live long and grow large.  This history is clearly shown in the scientific record.  This may account for the many "demi-gods" we see in the literature of Mesopotamia, such as Gilgamesh.


The first major civilization was the Sumerians from SE Mesopotamia.  A few minor civilizations existed prior to Sumer, but the Sumerians wrote the first written records.  Their origin is in question.  Saggs views them as a mixture of peoples (perhaps from various areas throughout Mesopotamia/Arabia) who shared a common language, perhaps to unify them as a settlement or ethnic group (The Greatness that was Babylon, 19).  Genesis 10:8-12 says "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth.  He was a mighty hunter before Yahweh: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before Yahweh.  And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel (Akk. bab-ilu or "gate of God"), and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.  Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city."  The Scriptural setting for the tower of Babel story is Sumer/Akkad.  As mentioned, the identity of the Sumerians is not known, and it is thought that they may have been a conglomeration of races, all sharing the same language.  It could be that Sumerian was the "one language" before the tower of Babel.  The Sumerian ziggurat was thought to be a stairway between men and the gods, and may be represented in the tower of Babel.  In a Sumerian myth called Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, the language of mankind is confused and the gods are petitioned to restore mankind so that their "language is truly one."


It is thought by scholars that Shinar is Sumer.  The city of Erek (Uruk) was the first great city-state in Sumer.  The city or Ur (Ur = light, or city of the moon god) was another Sumerian city-state.  Sumer is known as the birthplace of civilization, which remained basically the same until the conquest of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.  Ancient Sumer was just north of the Persian Gulf, while the Semitic civilization of Akkad was northwest between the area where the Tigris and Euphrates are closest together.  Akkad and Sumer later became one empire, and then became divided between Assyria in the north and Babylonia in the south.  The Semitic race is thought to have been present in Mesopotamia since the dawn of civilization (see ISBE under "Semites").  There is a theory that the Sumerians took over the previously Semitic gods as their own, in that the Sumerian gods have long beards, typical of Semites, while the Sumerians themselves are represented as clean shaven.  The Sumerians thus may have adopted the stories of the Semitic peoples and wrote them down with the writing system they invented.


The city of Uruk was not only a center of trade, but a religious center as well. The god Anu (one of the chief gods of Sumer) and the fertility goddess Inanna (Ishtar) were worshipped here. Ishtar is comparable to the Caananite Ashtarte, which is commonly referred to in the Bible as Ashtoreth (plural form, referring to the many images of this goddess).  Ishtar was a central figure in many Sumero-Akkadian myths, such as the Epic of Gilgamesh, which contains the oldest flood account to date (one of many throughout the world) and resembles the account of Noah and the Ark.  Among the similarities is a boat being built to house all the living animals of the earth for shelter from a coming flood, Utanapishtim (Noah) sending forth doves and swallows to see if there is dry land, and the boat coming to rest on a mountain called Mount Nisir.  An earlier parallel is found in the Sumerian Deluge, where the gods decide to destroy mankind, and reveal their plans to Ziusudra, the Noah figure, and he builds a big boat to ride out the deluge. Also, the Nephilim (men of renown, giants) in Genesis 6 can be equated to the numerous heroes in Sumerian/Akkadian literature.  The Epic of Gilgamesh bears many similarities to Genesis.  First we have Enkidu, the naked man created from clay and who lived among animals, and is eventually tamed by a woman, gaining knowledge as a result.  Then we see Enkidu and Gilgamesh killing Humbaba, the dragon commissioned by Enlil to guard the cedar forest.  They slay the dragon, but it is an affront to the gods, and Enkidu dies as punishment.  The grieving Gilgamesh then goes on a quest to find immortality, and in so doing meets Utnapishtim, who was made immortal after the great flood.  He tells Gilgamesh of a plant in the sea that will make him immortal.  Gilgamesh retrieves it, only to have it stolen and eaten by a serpent.  The serpent is widely attested in the mythology of the ancient near East, and is either benificent or destructive. A parallel to the serpent of Genesis might be the Mesopotamian god Ningishzida. The tree was a fertility symbol in the ancient near East. The tree of knowledge of good and evil was forbidden because God wanted man to live innocently in a relationship with him. According to the Sumerians, man was created for the sole purpose of serving the gods. After knowledge of evil came, the innocence was gone, and ancient man felt the constant need to be in servitude to gain the gods' favor.  Thus we see Adam being driven from the garden to till the ground.
The Genesis account of Creation bears many resemblances to Sumerian texts.  One such example is the Hebrew word for God, Elohim.  It should be stated that, though ancient religions were polytheistic, there was always one major god who was above the rest.  To the Hebrews, the one God is YHWH; what other religions would have termed "lesser gods" were designated as angels by the Hebrews. The word Elohim is plural, and literally means "gods."  Now, the Hebrews applied the term Elohim to either the one God, or to angels, and it does in fact appear that angels assisted in the Creation process.   In Genesis 1:26, the Elohim speak of making (or forming) man after "our" image (this is different than the actual creation of man in verse 27, where God breathes into the formed body).  An Akkadian creation account entitled "Creation of Man by the Mother Goddess" details an account of the creation of man from the mixture of clay with the blood of a dead god.  An interesting thought on this is that the name Adam refers to red, clayey soil.  This type of soil is perhaps what inspired the "blood" aspect of the Akkadian version.  A parallel to Adam can be found in the Sumerian Adapa, the first of the Sumerian sages, and often depicted as half man/half fish since he was a fisherman.  He was a son of Ea/Enki, the god of wisdom.  In a Sumerian story called "Adapa," Adapa was fishing, and his boat got submerged by the south wind.  In retaliation he broke the wing of the south wind.  He was summoned to heaven to give an account to the chief god Anu.  Ea told him not to eat anything while he was there, because it would be the bread of death.  Anu instead offered Adapa the bread of life.  Adapa, listening to Ea's advice, refused the bread, and thus missed his chance at immortality.  The story concludes with a lament that Adapa brought disease upon men, and petitioned that horror would deprive him of sleep (ANET, 101-103).

In another account from Sumer called "Enki and Ninhursag," numerous parallels are found to the Genesis account of the garden of Eden, such as goddesses giving birth without pain, and Enki (the water god) is tempted to eat of the eight sacred trees and in doing so is cursed by Ninhursag who bore him.  Later Enki suffers wounds in eight parts of his body, including his rib, and Ninhursag gives birth to eight goddesses to heal Enki.  The goddess who healed Enki's rib was called Nin-ti (lady of the rib).  Now, the word "ti" (coupled with the determinate uzu) means "rib"  in Sumerian, but the primary meaning of "ti" is "life."  Hence the lady of the rib was also "lady of life" or "life-giver," the meaning of Eve's name.  The Paradise location, Dilmun, is thought to have been the original garden of Eden.  Sweet water from the earth watered the garden, and it is a place that is pure, clean and bright, without sickness or death.  However, the account of "Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta" speaks of events that are said to occur before Dilmun had yet been settled, and thus Dilmun may have been named after or had characteristics ascribed to it from a previous paradise.  These accounts are all examples of how the original happenings of the Creation and the Flood survived in the myths of the cultures surrounding Israel.  It is generally acknowledged that the Mesopotamian Creation accounts predate the Biblical one, and there are many similarities between them that cannot be overlooked.  It is not safe to accuse one of borrowing from the other; rather, each account uses similar language and storyline that originate from a common near Eastern tradition.  The Biblical account is the monotheistic version of this tradition.


In the Enuma Elish, the Akkadian epic of Creation, it is stated that Marduk slays Tiamat, and then "rested," gazing upon her dead body.  He then used half of her to create a covering for heaven, which blocked the waters above.  He then made the stars, and the sun and moon.  Then (after 50 lines of missing text) he makes man by putting his blood into bones that he made.  Of special interest here is that Tiamat was a chaos monster, and is etymologically equivalent to the Hebrew t'hom (deep, abyss) in Genesis 1:2.  Some question these parallels because they argue that the Akkadian account is violent, while the Genesis account is not.  However, after Marduk slays Tiamat, there is no violence; the ensuing creation is peaceful.  Indeed, inherent in the Genesis account is the idea that God brings order by subduing the face of the abyss, and making an ordered creation out of it.  The reason the Mesopotamian accounts were polytheistic is because they deified the forces of nature, which are simply natural forces in Scripture.  It should be noted that there was a political motive in assigning Marduk to be the creator in the Enuma Elish; yet it may preserve independent testimony to events in Genesis.  The Sumerians believed that a canopy of water surrounded the earth.  Out of this primordial water canopy the universe was born.  The firmament, or atmosphere, separated the heavens from the earth below.  Sun, moon, and stars were born out of the cosmos, and creation of plants, animals and man followed afterward.  Creation for the gods was simple; all they had to do was conceive of a plan, and then speak it into existence through their spoken word.  After the creation, they set up rules and guidelines as to how creation would operate (Kramer, The Sumerians, 113-115).


A widely recognized parallel to the Law of Moses is the stela of Hammurabi (also Hammurapi) of Babylon.  The top of the stele depicts Hammurabi receiving his code, or "law-book" (compare Mosaic "book of the Law"), from the sun god Shamash, who was also known as the god of justice (ANET, 163).  Ancient Near Eastern law codes all have some similarities, but there are also many differences.  Each one imposes severe penalties for such sins as physical injury, incest, etc.  The command "eye for eye, tooth for tooth" (Exodus 21:24) is also found in Hammurabi's code, but not in that exact wording.  This was a purely civil command, and a just one, but not a justification for personal revenge (which is what Jesus addressed), as this was never the intent of this command either in the Bible or in any other culture.  Hammurabi also gives command that the man who does not alter his law will reign as long as he, which parallels Moses commanding Israel to heed his words (not taking away or adding to them), promising life for them as a result.  Though there are similarities between the civil and cultural aspects of the Law of Moses and other law codes, the Law of Moses contains a strong moral obligation to God (in this case Yahweh), which is not found in the other codes.


A Sumerian story called "Man and His God" has strong parallels to the Job story, and may be another version of the same account.  It is stated in Job 1:3 that Job was "the greatest of all the men of the East" and that he lived in the land of Uz, which according to the War Scroll was an Aramean land beyond the Euphrates, and passages in Genesis identify Uz with Aram; thus Job probably had fame throughout Mesopotamia.


Sumer was composed mostly of city-states; cities that are independently governed without national allegiance.  These city-states battled for supremacy; among them were Ur, Uruk, Lagash, and Kish.  Dominion shifted between the cities.  Ur achieved dominion a couple of times, and dynasties were established there.  Due to the warring nature of the city-states, it wasn't that hard for the neighboring Semites to conquer them and establish an empire.  At around the 23rd century BC, Sargon of Akkad began to conquer the whole Mesopotamian region, and began to reign over a unified Sumero-Akkadian empire.  Sumer and Akkad had many influences on each other with regard to language, religion and culture.


The Sumero-Akkadian empire under Sargon did not last long.  Local rebellions and revolts divided the empire.  The Gitu, a barbaric people from the north, gave the empire its final blow.  It took a few centuries for the region to recover somewhat.  The city-states of Ur, Uruk, Lagash, and others competed for supremacy.  During this time, Ur-Nammu founded the third dynasty at Ur, and by 2100 BC Ur was a prosperous city of trade.  Genesis 13:2 says that Abraham was "very rich in cattle, silver, and gold."  However, even though the Hebrew Bible records in various places that Abraham came from Ur, the Septuagint fails to mention this; in every place where the Hebrew reads "Ur of the Chaldees," the Septuagint reads "land of the Chaldees."  Archaeologists such as William Albright have stated that Abraham's lifestyle indicates that he most likely was not from Ur (see The Bible as History by Werner Keller, 41-42).  Terah (and Abraham) may have lived in the region however, as we know that a vast number of Amorites migrated to southern Mesopotamia and established the first Babylonian dynasty.  Abraham was an Amorite from northern Mesopotamia (see Deuteronomy 26:5 and Genesis 24).  We read in Genesis 11:31 that Terah moved his family from the "land of the Chaldees" to go to the land of Canaan.  However, he died in Haran (which, like Ur, was a cult center for the moon god; thus any association of Terah with Ur may have had something to do with this).  It was in Haran where Yahweh appeared to Abram and told him to resume the journey to the land of Canaan, where He would make of him a great nation.


According to William Albright, Dean of Biblical archaeologists, we have a plentitude of archaeological evidence that establishes the lifestyle and customs of the patriarchs in their broader near Eastern context (Genesis 20:1; see the opening pages of Albright's work From Abraham to Ezra).  The Nuzi tablets provide a wealth of infomation that sheds light on the customs of the times of the patriarchs and puts them in their historical context and setting.  Examples of these, as well as the Sumerian/Akkadian forms of some of the patriarch's names, can be found in R. K. Harrison's Introduction to the Old Testament (2004 printing), 105-113.

There was found an ancient seal (below left) that dates to ca. 3500 BC (which can be found in Zondervan's Compact Bible Dictionary under "Genesis").  It depicts what very well could be Adam and Eve, perhaps made as a reminder of the consequences of their fall.  The seal depicts two dejected looking people with a serpent behind them.  The seal to its right depicts a Mesopotamian fertility motif (ca. 2200 BC) which resembles (but doesn't portray) the Adam and Eve story.  Notice the man and woman (most likely a god and goddess), the tree between them, and the serpents; all fertility motifs.


The so called "Tell Dan Inscription" (pictured below) dates to the 10th-9th centuries BC and contains a reference to the house of David (the Davidic dynasty).  The phrase appears in the 5th row from the bottom.  Look for two triangles with a Y-looking symbol in the middle.  That's David's name.  The inscription concerns the deaths of king Ahazaiah of Judah and king Joram of Israel at the hand of the prophet Jehu, for which the Aramean ruler who wrote this (Hazael of Syria) takes credit, since Jehu was acting as his emissary (Kitchen, 2003, 16-17).



Another important find is the Moabite stone, which dates to ca. 846 BC.  The stone details the battle account of Mesha, the king of Moab, in a battle against Israel, and is a record of his victory.  The stone reflects a conflict between the Omride dynasty, of which Ahab was a king, and Moab.  As recorded in 2 Kings 3:5, Mesha rebelled against the king of Israel.  The "rebelling" probably references a Moabite victory, perhaps the very same one detailed in this inscription.  We then read that Ahab went to Jehoshaphat of Judah for help, and they (together with the king of Edom) ended up defeating Moab at the word of the prophet Elisha.  In Mesha's account, he mentions Yahweh, the God of Israel, in the context of taking the vessels of Yahweh from the city Nebo and presenting them to Chemosh, the god of Moab.  The name appears at the beginning of the 18th row.


The Siloam inscription, dating to the 8th century BC (left), and the Gezer calendar, dating to the 10th-9th century BC (right), preserve ancient paleo-Hebrew records that are very important in tracing the development of the Hebrew language and script.  They are also of historical importance, since the Siloam inscription marks the completion of a tunnel built by Hezekiah connecting the Gihon spring to the pool of Siloam to assure security against the increasing Assyrian threat.  The Gezer calendar lists the seasons of harvest and planting in Israel.



There were also found a bunch of pottery fragments with Hebrew writing on them, called the Lachish ostraca.  These fragments are from 587 BC.  They detail events in the book of Jeremiah that have to do with the Babylonian captivity.  These fragments are very important in understanding what happened during the time of Jeremiah before Jerusalem’s destruction by the Babylonians.  Below left is ostracon #2.  The name YHWH appears in the second and fifth rows.  To the right is an ostracon from Arad that mentions the "house of YHWH" in the bottom row.



Pictured below is the seal of Baruch the son of Neriah, Jeremiah's scribe (compare with Jeremiah 36:4).  It says "Belonging to Berekhyahu (Baruch) the son of Nariyyahu (Neriah) the scribe."



There is also a Babylonian clay tablet which speaks of the king of Babylon giving rations to king Jehoiachin of Judah, which is what is stated in Jeremiah 52:31-34 (ANET, 308).


In the third century BC, 72 Hebrew scholars translated the Old Testament from Hebrew into Greek.  This translation became known as the Septuagint (Greek for 70).  This translation is very important.  It is the oldest translation we have of the Hebrew, and it allows for comparision between Hebrew and another language.  It gives more insight as to how the text originally read.  The Septuagint (a fragment of which is pictured below, from the book of Job) was the translation that the early Christians use as their Old Testament.  The Septuagint also shows that the name YHWH was originally left in the text in the paleo-Hebrew script, before it got replaced with Kurios (Lord) by Christians.  The name appears inside the rectangular box.


All of the books of the Old Testament were written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.  God himself gave the Law to Moses at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 19-20), and God himself gave the prophet Moses all of his revelation.  Very often in scripture you will read the phrase “And the LORD (Jehovah) said unto Moses”.  God commanded the public reading of the law (Deuteronomy 31:9-11).  God also spoke directly to the other prophets and commanded them to write down the visions that he gave them (Isaiah 1:24, Isaiah 3:15, Jeremiah 1:2, 4, 12, Ezekiel 3:11, Hosea 2:21).  God told us not to add to or delete from his words (Deuteronomy 4:2, 12:32).  Jesus quoted from the Old Testament in many instances.  We can be positive that what the prophets wrote is the very word of God, since their prophecies have been fulfilled and are being fulfilled.  Everything the prophets wrote concerning the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus came true.  Because the prophets delivered the word of God, they were persecuted and even killed, but God preserved their writings for us to read, and therefore be saved.  We can believe in the Old Testament as a direct revelation of God.

The New Testament was written about 30 years after Jesus ascended.  It was written mostly on papyrus.  It was written to be circulated throughout the land.  The gospels were written for both believers and nonbelievers.  All of the books of the New Testament were written by Jews, except for Luke.  Jesus and His disciples were all Jewish, as was the Church at its birth.  On the day of Pentecost, the 3,000 converts in Acts 2:41 were Jews who lived in other countries and came to Jerusalem to celebrate Passover and the feast of Pentecost.

The first non-Jewish convert to Christianity was Cornelius (Acts 10).  God told Peter in a vision to go to Cornelius’ house, and God told Cornelius in a vision that Peter was coming.  Cornelius accepted the gospel, and the Holy Ghost fell on many Gentiles afterward (Acts 10:44).  More and more Gentiles became Christians afterward, and local congregations of believers sprang up across the Roman Empire.  They weren’t churches as we know them today.  They met in homes, and later even underground to escape persecution.

The letters of the apostle Paul were written in Greek.  They were written to the various churches that were scattered over the Roman Empire, and were intended to be read aloud to the congregation.  These letters are of the utmost importance to the Christian church.  Not only do they contain doctrinal information vital to the believer, but they also contain practical teaching necessary for a godly Christian life.  After the Jews officially rejected the gospel, more and more non-Jewish converts were added to the church.  Paul was primarily the apostle sent to the non-Jews, and Peter was sent to the Jews (Galatians 2:7-8).

John and Peter, two of Jesus’ original disciples, and James (overseer of the Jerusalem church) and Jude, half-brothers of Jesus, wrote the other letters.  The author of Hebrews is unknown.  John wrote the book of Revelation, which is a book of prophecy.

The New Testament became in high demand with the spread of Christianity, and thus many manuscripts were copied, which gives us a lot of manuscripts to compare and see how the originals might have read.  The words were written very close together, sometimes without any spaces between them.

The New Testament was written in the context of the Jewish culture and way of life.  Jesus’ disciples worshiped at the temple in Jerusalem (Luke 24:53).  Jesus taught daily in the temple (Mark 14:49).  Christianity was originally a sect of Judaism until the Jews officially rejected Christianity.  Jesus was originally sent to the “lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Matthew 10:5-6, 15:24).  The Jewish faith was originally founded on the Old Testament Scriptures, but the scribes and Pharisees, the religious leaders of Israel, did not observe the Law as God intended.  They imposed their own rituals and traditions, which made living for God burdensome for those under their authority (Mark 7:9).  They would rob widows and then make a vain show of repentance (Matthew 23:14).  They were hypocrites, full of dead men’s bones (Matthew 23:27). 

The Jewish culture of Jesus’ time was plagued by the Roman empire, who had control of Israel, and had no respect for the Jewish faith or the one true God, Jehovah (Yahweh).  To the Romans, Caesar was a god, and should be worshiped as such.  They imposed tax collectors that would collect taxes for Caesar, and they crucified rebels.  The Romans were very much hated by the Jews.  Part of the reason that the Jews rejected Jesus is because they were looking for a Messiah that would destroy the enemies of Israel, including Rome.  When Jesus came and didn’t do that, they failed to believe he was the Messiah.  What they didn’t realize is the fact that, according to the Scriptures, the Messiah would come a first time to redeem Israel spiritually by saving them from their sins (Isaiah 53), and that he would come a second time in the future to deliver them from their enemies (Isaiah 63).  There is much indication in Scripture that many early Christians, including the apostles, believed that Christ would return immediately.  But it was not God's time yet (Acts 1:6-7).

After Jesus rebuked the Pharisees for their hypocrisy in Matthew 23, in Matthew 24:2 he makes the astonishing declaration that the magnificent temple in Jerusalem would be destroyed, and that not one stone would be left on top of another.  Jesus was greater than the temple (Matthew 12:6), but the Jews did not recognize him as such.  Jesus was doing something new: the believer would now become the temple of God, and the residence of God would be in the hearts of believers, instead of a building made with hands (1 Corinthians 6:19, Isaiah 66:1).  The sinfulness of Jerusalem was great, and had to be judged.  Jerusalem was going to be destroyed, and the Jews scattered from their homeland.

In 70 AD, the Roman emperor Titus led the Roman army in an attack on Jerusalem.  The beautiful temple, made of white marble, wood and gold, was razed to the ground, without one stone being left on another (Josephus, War 7.1.1).  The period of the first Jewish revolt (66-73 AD, with the temple being destroyed halfway in between) fulfilled the prophecy in Daniel 9:27.  The gold of the temple, along with the holy vessels (the seven-branched menorah, the table of shewbread, and others) were taken as booty and many Jews were taken as slaves.  The Ark of the Covenant was spared since it had been hidden.  The “arch of Titus” pompously portrays the Roman victory.  Below is a stone relief from the arch.


For the Jewish Christians, the loss of the temple didn’t have as much of an impact as it did for Israel, because they believed that the true temple was the believer whom God indwells, and collectively the church body.  Originally, the impending loss of the temple astounded the disciples.  It had been their way of life for 1,000 years.  They could no longer go to the temple to worship, but they had been meeting in homes and continued to do so.  The synagogue, which had existed previously, was now the official place of worship for non-believing Jews.  Thus the Jewish culture changed dramatically and evolved into Rabbinical Judaism, and then modern day Judaism.  Christianity continued to be spread to the uttermost parts of the earth, and more and more Gentiles, as well as Jews, were added to the faith.

There was no printing press in the days of the early church.  Every single copy of the Scriptures had to be made by hand.  It wasn’t until the 1400’s AD that the printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg.  After that, Bibles became a lot less expensive to print and could be printed in a lot less time.  This allowed the word of God to become spread a lot faster than previously.  This rapid spread of Scripture greatly reduced the power of the Catholic Church, which claimed to be the only true interpreter of Scripture.  This led to the Protestant Reformation.  People started reading the truth of God’s word and coming out of the Catholic doctrinal system.  The Bible became available to those who couldn’t afford the Word of God before the printing press.  For over 1,000 years, there had been a great period of spiritual darkness known as the “Dark Ages” where the Catholic Church suppressed the spread of God’s word and punished, even killed people for reading the Bible themselves.  But now anyone could read the Bible in his own language and determine God’s truth for himself.  This was very important for the spread of God’s Word. 

The oldest fragment of the New Testament dates to about 100-150 AD.  It is from the Gospel of John chapter 18:31-33, 37-38.  Pictured below are the front and back of the fragment.

Another ancient text consists of 30 portions of leaves of papyrus codices.  It dates to 200-250 AD and includes the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s epistles, and Revelation.


One very ancient fragment that contains part of Matthew 26 is dated anywhere from 30-150 AD.  Another manuscript, dating from 175-225 AD, contains most of the gospels of Luke and John.


Jesus told the disciples that the Holy Spirit would bring to their remembrance everything he had told them.  The disciples and apostles wrote down the words of Jesus under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit (John 14:26).  The apostles believed in the testimony of Jesus so much that they gave their lives for their faith.  They were eyewitnesses who faithfully recorded everything they had seen.  After Jesus resurrected, he was seen by over 500 eyewitnesses before he ascended (1 Corinthians 15:6).  The gospels were written to provide an accurate account of Jesus’ life, that we might believe through reading.  John 20:30-31 says “And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book: but these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name”.  John 21:24 says “This is the disciple which testifieth of these things, and wrote these things: and we know that his testimony is true”.  Also, in Revelation 1:10, John said “I was in the spirit”.  The apostle Paul said that his writings were given to him by the revelation of Jesus, and that if anyone taught things contrary to his gospel, he was to be accursed.  Paul said in 1 Corinthians 14:37 “If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things that I write unto you are the commandments of the Lord”.  Over and over Paul said “I lie not”.  The apostles and Jesus referred to their sayings as commands.  Peter equated Paul’s writings with Old Testament Scripture.  We can put our faith in the New Testament, and the entire Bible, as God’s Word.

Works Cited

Brown/Driver/Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament

Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts


Albright, The Biblical Period from Abraham to Ezra


Buttrick, The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible


Vos and Pfeiffer, Wycliffe Historical Geography of Bible Lands


Wegner, The Journey from Texts to Translations


Unger, The Dead Sea Scrolls, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1957, pp 70-72