Added: February 1, 2014 – Last updated: July 2, 2016


Author: Nives Zupanec

Title: Uncovering the (Ethno)gendered Dimensions of 'Unconventional' State War and its Effect on Non-Combatants/(Ethno)nationalist 'Women'

Subtitle: -

Thesis: M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia

Year: September 1999

Pages: vi + 124pp.

OCLC Number: 606835577 – Find a Library: WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century | European History: Bosnian History | Types: Wartime Sexual Violence / Bosnian War


Link: Open Collections: Open Access Repositories of the University of British Columbia Library (Free Access)


Abstract: »The exploitation and extermination of people in the context of internal conflict in the former Yugoslavia is a grave injustice and the result of a systematic policy of war by an unconventional state. Internal conflict requires investigation by international relations scholars because it is evidence of the changing nature of war. Given that both the methods of violence (ethnic cleansing, systematic/genocidal rape, and sexual torture) and (ethno)nationalism are gendered, a 'new' approach to war is needed. Traditional international relations theoretical approaches to the state, anarchy, and war/peace prove unable to analyze: one, the unconventional state (structure); two, the dichotomous separation of the public/international/external/formal/masculine/autonomous from the private/domestic/internal/informal/feminine/vulnerable; three, unconventional war policy; and four, the 'new' actors, the external and internal 'Others,' the 'Invisibles,' the noncombatants/ civilians, the 'women' (women and men; people with identities). Thinking that will lead to solutions for the dilemma of war, inclusively defined, will be - to employ Joy Kogawa's word - merciful; it will not exclude people and, while critical, it will be hopeful that the protection of both human dignity and community is in the 'national interest,' in 'our and their interest' as political/social/economic/etc. beings. Because it analyzes dichotomies and deals with the role of identity in the various aspects of (changing) war, a feminist or gendered/identity-deconstructivist approach is advanced as a means to more effectively examine internal/international conflicts, such as the former Yugoslav wars - i.e., unconventional wars whose character challenges the rigid traditionalist international relations definition of war.« (Source: Thesis)


  Abstract (p. ii)
  List of Tables (p. v)
  Dedication (p. vi)
  Chapter I. Introduction (p. 1)
  Chapter II. Gendered Analysis of the 'Unconventional' State in the former Yugoslavia, its (Ethno)nationalist ideas and its conflict methods (p. 4)
    2.1 Introduction (p. 4)
    2.2 Traditional International Relations: the state, anarchy, and war (p. 6)
    2.3 The Increasing Threat of Unconventional State War (p. 14)
    2.4 The Unconventionally Institutionalized State (p. 19)
    2.5 The requirements and contributions of a gendered perspective (p. 21)
    2.6 Conclusion (p. 35)
  Chapter III. The FRY regime, the JNA, the paramilitaries and unconventionally institutionalized (ethno)gendered violence in the former Yugoslav internal conflicts (p. 37)
    3.1 Introduction (p. 37)
    3.2 Moral Relativism in analyses of the Balkan conflicts (p. 39)
    3.3 The Path to Disintegration and the Yugoslav Wars (p. 41)
    3.4 The (Unconventional) Triad): the FRY regime (Belgrade leadership/Serbian political parties), the JNA, and the paramilitaries (p. 49)
    3.41 the Milosevic regime (p. 54)
    3.42 the Yugoslav National Army (p. 59)
    3.43 (FRY) Paramilitaries (p. 63)
    3.5 'UN-safe' Srebrenica (women and children - 'the civilized hostage takers') and the concentration camps (p. 67)
    3.6 Conclusion (p. 71)
  Chapter IV. The role of 'women' in former Yugoslavia: Exposing the External and Internal 'Other(s)' (p. 72)
    4.1 Introduction (p. 72)
    4.2 nationalism and feminism? (p. 75)
    4.3 traditional approaches to studying nationalism (p. 76)
    4.4 thinking/theorising about gender and nationalism (p. 80)
    4.5 External and Internal Nationalist 'Other(s)' (p. 82)
    4.6 'feminist-communist/non-traditional women' (p. 85)
    4.7 "War is a whore", introducing the 'alien whore women/girls' (p. 88)
    4.8 'nationalist women/traditional mothers' (p. 98)
    4.9 'demasculinized/militarily conquered men' (p. 102)
    4.10 'deviant homosexuals' (p. 105)
    4.11 the 'Invisibles,' International Law and theorising (p. 109)
  Chapter V. Conclusion (p. 111)
  Bibliography (p. 117)

Wikipedia: History of Europe: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina | Sex and the law: Wartime sexual violence | War: Bosnian War / Rape during the Bosnian War