Added: August 10, 2013 – Last updated: July 2, 2016


Authors: Maggie Zraly, Julia Rubin-Smith, and Theresa Betancourt

Title: Primary mental health care for survivors of collective sexual violence in Rwanda

Subtitle: -

Journal: Global Public Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice

Volume: 6

Issue: 3

Year: 2011 (Received: February 16, 2009, Final version received: April 14, 2010, Published online: July 22, 2010)

Pages: 257-270

ISSN: 1744-1692 – Find a Library: WordCat | eISSN: 1744-1706 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century, 21st Century | African History: Rwandan History | Types: Genocidal Rape / Rwandan Genocide



EBSCOhost (Restricted Access)

Taylor & Francis Online (Restricted Access)



Theresa Betancourt, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University

– Maggie Zraly: ResearchGate

Abstract: »This paper draws attention to the obligation and opportunity to respond to the mental health impacts of collective sexual violence (CSV) among genocide-rape survivors in post-genocide Rwanda. Qualitative data gathered from CSV survivors who were members of Rwandan women’s genocide survivor associations are presented to illustrate how they strive to overcome adversity while seeking access to quality mental health care and using informal community mental health services. The results reveal that a system of high quality, holistic health and mental health care is yet needed to meet Rwandan CSV survivors’ complex and serious health and mental health needs. Given that a rural health system, modelled on community-based, comprehensive HIV/AIDS care and treatment, is currently being implemented in Rwanda, we recommend enhancements to this model that would contribute to meeting the mental health care needs of CSV survivors while benefiting the health and mental health system as a whole within Rwanda.« (Source: Global Public Health)


  Introduction (p. 257)
    Mental health impacts of collective sexual violence (CSV) during the genodice (p. 258)
    Formal mental health care in post-genocide Rwanda (p. 259)
    A step forward: the emerging rural healthcare system (p. 259)
    Women's genocide survivor associations: informal community mental health services (p. 260)
  Methods (p. 261)
    Recruitment, sampling and data analysis (p. 261)
    Limitations (p. 262)
    Ethical considerations (p. 262)
  Results (p. 263)
    Access to mental health care (p. 263)
    Quality of health and mental health care (p. 264)
    Use of informal mental health services (p. 265)
  Discussion (p. 266)
    Towards meeting the mental health needs of collective sexual violence (CSV) survivors (p. 266)
    New opportunities for mental health care integration (p. 267)
  Conclusion (p. 268)
  Acknowledgements (p. 268)
  Notes (p. 268)
  References (p. 269)

Wikipedia: History of Africa: History of Rwanda | Genocide: Rwandan genocide / Rape during the Rwandan Genocide | Sex and the law: Genocidal rape