Added: May 31, 2014 – Last updated: July 2, 2016


Author: Edward M. Zitnik, Jr.

Title: Embodied Rape

Subtitle: Ethnicity and Gender in the Prosecution of Wartime Rape in the Former Yugoslavia

Thesis: Honors Research Thesis, Ohio State University

Advisor: Jennifer Suchland

Year: May 2014

Pages: 55pp.

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century, 21st Century | European History: Bosnian History, Serbian History | Prosecution: Trials / International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia; Types: Wartime Sexual Violence / Bosnian War


Link: Knowledge Bank: Digital Repository of the Ohio State University Libraries (Free Access)


Abstract: »In this work, I examine the use of rape as a war tool during the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s in the Former Yugoslavia. My research connects previously separate conversations about the origins of the war, ethnic and national politics, women’s rights under the law and in their communities, and the implications of the conflict in reference to both the local and international dialogue about these issues. The political and ethical debate about categorizing the use of rape as a tool of war during the conflict in the Former Yugoslavia has preoccupied feminists and legal professionals. Scholars debate whether rape was used as a patriarchal tool against women or used as a tool for ethnic cleansing. The line between sexist violence and ethnic cleansing is blurred because the act of rape itself is the same in each case. Physically, they are each acts of male sexual aggression directed towards females, even though the intention in each case is not the same. At the heart of this debate is a focus on the rights of women on all sides of the war. When prosecuting rape and other war crimes, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) cites violations of the Geneva Conventions, Genocide Convention, and crimes against humanity. These three legal references each have gendered and ethnic dialogue that governs how war crimes are prosecuted by the ICTY.« (Source: Knowledge Bank)


  Introduction (p. 2)
  I. The region, the war, and the role of feminism in prosecuting war crimes (p. 5)
    Former Yugoslavia and its War (p. 5)
    Feminist Perspectives on Rape (p. 10)
    International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (p. 15)
  II. Tetralogy of Rape: Three Cases of ICTY-Convicted Rape and the Case which laid the Groundwork (p. 19)
    Duško Tadić (p. 19)
    Dragoljub Kunarac (p. 22)
    Anto Furundžija (p. 24)
    Hazim Delić (p. 25)
    Case Analysis (p. 27)
  III. Ethnicity is Essentialized and Misunderstood (p. 33)
  IV. Implications of War (p. 39)
  V. Conclusion (p. 51)
  Bibliography (p. 53)

Wikipedia: History of Europe: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina, History of Serbia | Court: International court / International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia | Sex and the law: Wartime sexual violence | War: Bosnian War / Rape during the Bosnian War