Added: August 15, 2009 – Last updated: July 2, 2016


Author: Kathrin Zippel

Title: Transnational Advocacy Networks and Policy Cycles in the European Union

Subtitle: The Case of Sexual Harassment

Journal: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society

Volume: 11

Issue: 1

Year: Spring 2004

Pages: 57-85

ISSN: 1072-4745 Find a Library: WordCat | eISSN: 1468-2893 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century, 21st Century | European History | Types: Sexual Harassment



Oxford University Press (Restricted Access)

Project MUSE (Restricted Access)


Author: Kathrin Zippel, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Northeastern University

Abstract: »This article expands and modifies the concept of Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink of a transnational advocacy network (TAN) to explain the interaction between institutional and noninstitutionalized actors in the complex policy-making cycles in the European Union. I look at how the gender equality TAN successfully raised the issue of sexual harassment in the EU in the early 1980s and brought it into the amended 1976 Equal Treatment Directive in 2002 and explain this with three factors. First, TANs create policy expertise through the exchange of information and knowledge across borders among activists, experts, and policy makers, with both insiders and outsiders sharing an interest in creating transnational expertise. Second, newer international organizations and institutions, like the EU, offer activists a more open terrain to advance their goals. Third, the "boomerang pattern" identified by Keck and Sikkink occurs as a "ping-pong effect" in the EU because of its multilevel policy-making structure, which provides both challenges and opportunities for advocates.« (Source: Social Politics)


  Abstract (p. 57)
  Measures against Sexual Harassment (p. 60)
  TANS and International Organizations (p. 63)
    Transnational Expertise and Policy Making (p. 64)
    The Relationship among Actors within TANs (p. 65)
    Cycles of Policy Making (p. 66)
  Phase 1: The Origins of European Community Measures (p. 67)
    Feminist Advocacy Groups (p. 68)
  Phase 2: EU Soft-Law Measures and Implementation in Member States (p. 70)
  Phase 3: The Revised Equal Treatment Directive of 2002 (p. 75)
  The Influence of Changes within the Commission (p. 76)
  Resistance to the Directive (p. 77)
  Conclusion (p. 79)
  Notes (p. 80)
  References (p. 81)

Wikipedia: History of Europe | Sex and the law: Sexual harassment