Added: April 8, 2017 – Last updated: April 8, 2017


Author: Anne Wolff

Title: What About Those Who Lived?

Subtitle: Justice for Rwandan Women Survivors

Journal: Women Leading Change: Case Studies on Women, Gender, and Feminism

Volume: 1

Issue: 3

Year: 2016

Pages: 69-79

eISSN: 2471-3902 – Find a Library: Open Access Journal

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century, 21st Century | African History: Rwandan History | Types: Genocidal Rape / Rwandan Genocide


Link: Tulane University (Free Access)


Abstract: »Muramutse (mu-gar-a-mute-se) is a morning greeting that directly translates to “Did you survive the night?” With almost one million people killed and half a million women raped over the course of 100 days in Rwanda, it is no wonder that asking if you have survived the night is commonplace. Some Rwandans did survive the night and came forward to seek justice after the 1994 Genocide. The international community worked toward seeking justice for victims of this atrocity. However, constructing a solution to widespread rape in a culture that views rape as adultery proved difficult if not impossible. With immense effort, a solution was forged for the women who survived, but whether or not justice has been served remains debatable. The women of Rwanda continue to question the status of peace in their dayto-day lives. The response is tentative and forced: “Namahoro?” (Is there peace?). Echoed soberly, “Namahoro” (There is peace). This case demonstrates the complexity of this issue and actions taken to create a just response for victims and survivors.« (Source: Women Leading Change)


  A Brief History of Rwanda (p. 69)
  The Rwandan Genocide (p. 70)
  Women as Victims of the Genocide (p. 71)
  Defining and Prosecuting Rape as an Act of Genocide (p. 72)
  Taba Commune: April 1994 (p. 74)
  Jean Paul Akayesu (p. 75)
  Rape Testimony: Prosecution v. Akayesu (p. 75)
  The Long Road to Prosecuting Rape as Genocide (p. 76)
  The Prosecution's Task (p. 77)
  The Defense (p. 78)
  Western Courts and International Considerations (p. 78)
  Where Do We Go From Here? (p. 79)

Wikipedia: History of Africa: History of Rwanda | Genocide: Rwandan genocide / Rape during the Rwandan Genocide | Sex and the law: Genocidal rape