Wolfe 2014 Reparations

Title Information


Author: Stephanie Wolfe

Title: The Politics of Reparations and Apologies

Subtitle: -

Place: Dordrecht

Publisher: Springer

Year: 2014

Pages: xviii + 368pp.

Series: Springer Series in Transitional Justice 7

ISBN-13: 9781461491842 (print) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat | ISBN-13: 9781461491859 (online) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century, 21st Century | Japanese History | Society: Redress Movements - Types: "Comfort Women", Wartime Rape / Asia-Pacific War



Full Text


Link: Springer [Restricted Access]



Additional Information


Contents:

  1 Atrocity, the State, and Reparation Politics (p. 1)
    1.1 Introduction (p. 2)
      1.1.1 Atrocity and Injustice (p. 2)
      1.1.2 Definitions (p. 4)
      1.1.3 Evolution and Success of Redress and Reparation Movements (p. 6)
      1.1.4 Methodology (p. 7)
    1.2 Theoretical Framewok (p. 8)
      1.2.1 Norm Dynamics and Political Change (p. 8)
      1.2.2 Political Opportunity (p. 11)
    1.3 Redress and Reparation Movements (p. 13)
      1.3.1 Social Movements and Social Movement Organizations (p. 13)
      1.3.2 Redress and Reparation Movements (p. 15)
    1.4 Overview of Book (p. 16)
    Bibliography (p. 18)
  2 Reparation Politics: An Emerging Field (p. 19)
    2.1 Emergence of Atrocity and Accountability Norms (p. 19)
    2.2 Legal Concepts of Reparation (p. 23)
    2.3 Normative Shifts in International Law (p. 25)
      2.3.1 Legal Status of Individuals Prior to 1945 (p. 26)
      2.3.2 The International Military Tribunal (p. 30)
      2.3.3 Atrocity Norms (p. 33)
    2.4 Normative Concepts of Reparation (p. 35)
    2.5 Philosophical Concepts of Vergangenheitsbewältigung (p. 37)
    2.6 Transitional Justice (p. 39)
      2.6.1 Submergence of International Justice (p. 41)
      2.6.2 Analytical Frameworks within Transitional Justice (p. 42)
      2.6.3 Levels of Analysis (p. 44)
    2.7 Emergence of Modern Reparation Politics (p. 45)
      2.7.1 Theory of Redress (p. 46)
      2.7.2 Theory of Restitution (p. 47)
      2.7.3 Politics of Regret (p. 49)
      2.7.4 The Field of Reparation Politics (p. 50)
      2.7.5 Comparative Reparation Politics (p. 52)
    Bibliography (p. 52)
  3 Conceptual Understandings of Redress and Reparation (p. 57)
    3.1 The State of Offender (p. 58)
    3.2 Political Reconciliation (p. 60)
    3.3 State Responses (p. 61)
      3.3.1 Criminal Justice (p. 63)
      3.3.2 Historical Justice (p. 66)
      3.3.3 Reparatory Justice (p. 68)
      3.3.4 Legislative Justice (p. 72)
      3.3.5 Symbolic Justice (p. 72)
      3.3.6 Revisiting Reparation Politics (p. 73)
    3.4 Recognition and Apologies (p. 74)
      3.4.1 Denial of the Event (p. 75)
      3.4.2 Acknowledgement of the Event (p. 76)
      3.4.3 Statement of Regret (p. 76)
      3.4.4 Apologies (p. 77)
      3.4.5 Types of Apologies (p. 78)
    3.5 Conceptual Understanding of Relative Success and Failure (p. 79)
      3.5.1 Gamson's Outcome of Resolved Challenges (p. 80)
      3.5.2 Adaption of Model (p. 81)
      3.5.3 Assessment (p. 81)
    Bibliography (p. 84)
  4 The German Genocides and Subsequent Redress and Reparation Movements (p. 87)
    4.1 The German Genocides (p. 88)
      4.1.1 Weimar Republic (1919-1933) (p. 91)
      4.1.2 The Nazi Regime (p. 93)
    4.2 Transition to Occupation (p. 96)
    4.3 Mobilization During World War II (p. 98)
      4.3.1 Perception of Allied Governments (p. 98)
      4.3.2 Mobilization of Civil Society (p. 100)
    4.4 Initial Reparation Demands (p. 104)
    4.5 Redress and Reparation Under Allied Occupation (p. 105)
      4.5.1 Restitution of Heirless Property (p. 108)
      4.5.2 Mobilization of Civil Society Under Occupation (p. 109)
    4.6 Negotiating for Reparation and Restitution with the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) (p. 110)
      4.6.1 Emergence of Israel (p. 111)
      4.6.2 Key Negotiations (p. 113)
      4.6.3 Transition to Sovereignty (p. 115)
      4.6.4 The Luxembourg Agreement (p. 116)
    4.7 Implementation of Redress and Reparation Within the FRG (p. 119)
    4.8 Quest for Romani Redress (p. 122)
    4.9 Criminal Justice (p. 129)
      4.9.1 Nuremberg Trials (p. 130)
      4.9.2 Romani Experiences within the Courts (p. 131)
      4.9.3 Jewish Experiences Within the Courts (p. 132)
      4.9.4 Comparative Conclusions (p. 134)
    4.10 Legislative Justice (p. 134)
    4.11 Symbolic and Historical Justice (p. 135)
    4.12 Success and Failure of Redress and Reparation Movements (p. 138)
      4.12.1 State Recognition (p. 139)
      4.12.2 Perception of Redress and Reparation (p. 140)
    4.13 Political Opportunity and Differential Success (p. 143)
      4.13.1 Normative Expectations (p. 143)
      4.13.2 Elite Allies, Inclusion, and Political Opportunities (p. 145)
      4.13.3 Conclusions (p. 147)
    Bibliography (p. 148)
  5 Normative Shifts Within International Relations (p. 153)
    5.1 The Rise of Cold War Tensions (p. 155)
    5.2 Emergence of Human Rights (p. 158)
    5.3 Norm Life Cycle (p. 162)
      5.3.1 Norm Emergence (p. 162)
      5.3.2 Norm Re-Emergence (p. 165)
      5.3.3 Tipping Point (p. 166)
      5.3.4 Normative Cascade (p. 167)
    5.4 Racial Norms (p. 170)
    5.5 Gender Norms (p. 174)
    5.6 Diffusion and Political Opportunities (p. 177)
    Bibliography (p. 179)
  6 Redress and Reparation Movements (RRMs) Following the United States Internments (p. 181)
    6.1 Japanese American Internments (p. 182)
      6.1.1 Citizenship and Naturalization Laws (p. 182)
      6.1.2 The Internment Process (p. 184)
    6.2 Civil Society Reacts to Interment Laws (p. 188)
    6.3 Legal Challenges to Internment (p. 190)
      6.3.1 Minoru Yasui v. United States (p. 190)
      6.3.2 Hirabayashi v. United States (p. 192)
      6.3.3 Korematsu v. United States (p. 194)
      6.3.4 Ex Parte Endo (p. 195)
    6.4 1948 Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act (p. 197)
    6.5 Actions Leading Towards a Redress and Reparation Movement (p. 198)
    6.6 Revisiting the Legal Challenges to Internment (p. 201)
    6.7 Congressional and Presidential Actions (p. 204)
      6.7.1 Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (p. 205)
      6.7.2 The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 (p. 208)
    6.8 Quest for Japanese Latin American Redress and Reparations (p. 211)
      6.8.1 Pursuit of Legal Remedies (p. 212)
      6.8.2 Pursuit of Legislative Remedies (p. 214)
    6.9 Symbolic and Historical Justice (p. 215)
    6.10 Success and Failure of Redress and Reparation Movements (p. 219)
      6.10.1 State Recognition (p. 220)
      6.10.2 Perception of Redress and Reparation (p. 221)
    6.11 Political Opportunity and Differential Success (p. 224)
      6.11.1 Normative Transitions (p. 224)
      6.11.2 Inclusion, Elite Allies, and Political Opportunities (p. 225)
      6.11.3 Conclusions (p. 228)
    Bibliography (p. 229)
  7 Redress and Reparation Movements (RRM) in Response to the Japanese Comfort Women System (p. 231)
    7.1 Development of Japanese Identity (p. 233)
    7.2 Emergence of the Comfort Women System (p. 234)
      7.2.1 The Relationship between the Ministry of War and the Comfort Stations (p. 235)
      7.2.2 Considerations of International and Domestic Law (p. 236)
    7.3 Issues of Redress and Reparations Under Allied Occupation (p. 239)
      7.3.1 Occupational Policies (p. 240)
      7.3.2 War Crime Trials (p. 242)
      7.3.3 International Treaties and Reparations (p. 244)
    7.4 Initial Steps Toward a Redress and Reparations Movement (p. 245)
      7.4.1 Mobilization and Government Denial (p. 247)
      7.4.2 Initial Apologies and Further Denials (p. 249)
    7.5 The Failure of Criminal Justice (p. 253)
    7.6 Mobilization and Organization of International Society (p. 253)
      7.6.1 International Organizations (p. 255)
      7.6.2 A People's Tribunal (p. 257)
      7.6.3 Foreign Pressure (p. 260)
    7.7 The Asian Women's Fund (p. 262)
    7.8 Governmental Positions (p. 265)
    7.9 Symbolic and Historical Justice (p. 269)
    7.10 Success and Failure of Redress and Reparation Movements (p. 272)
      7.10.1 State Recognition (p. 273)
      7.10.2 Perception of Redress and Reparation (p. 274)
    7.11 Political Opportunity and Differential Success (p. 276)
      7.11.1 Normative Expectations (p. 277)
      7.11.2 Inclusion, Political Opportunities, and Elite Allies (p. 278)
      7.11.3 Conclusions (p. 280)
    Bibliography
  8 Reparation Politics and the Question of Differential Success (p. 285)
    8.1 Emergence and Cascade of Redress and Reparation Norm (p. 288)
      8.1.1 Emergence of Norm (p. 288)
      8.1.2 Submergence of Redress and Reparation Norm
      8.1.3 Normative Cascade (p. 292)
    8.2 Elements of Political Opportunity (p. 294)
    8.3 Implications and Conclusions (p. 300)
    Bibliography (p. 302)
  Appendices (p. 303)
  A.1 Notable international and domestic trials (p. 303)
  A.2 Apologies for state-sponsored crimes and injustices* (p. 305)
  A.3 Bilateral agreements for compensation (in DM) (p. 309)
  A.4 German restitution and compensation agreements (p. 310)
  A.5 Redress and reparation within international society* (p. 313)
  A.6 United States: Japanese American confinement grant program (p. 328)
  Glossary (p. 361)
  Index (p. 365)

Description:

»The Politics of Reparations and Apologies examines the evolution and dynamics of reparation politics and justice. The volume introduces the key concepts, theories, and terms associated with social movements and in particular, the redress and reparation movement (RRM). Drawing from RRMs that have their foundation in World War II--the German genocides, the United States internments, and the Japanese "comfort women" system-- the volume explores each case study’s relative success or failure in achieving its goals and argues that there are overarching trends that can explain success and failure more generally in the RRM movement. Using the backdrop of international criminal law and normative concepts of reparations, the volume establishes and analyzes the roles of reparations and apologies in obtaining transitional justice.
In each case study, there is a detailed rundown of the political actions that were attempted to obtain redress and reparation for the victims, of how successful the attempts were, and of the crucial factors which influenced the relative success or failure. Crucially, the volume offers a comparative framework of the actions that contribute to a successful outcome for transitional justice. With the increasing normative expectation of justice in post-conflict situations, this volume is a valuable resource for researchers in international affairs, human rights, political science, and conflict studies.« [Source: Springer]

»Chapter 7 examines how the Japanese Imperial Army, with knowledge and support from the Japanese government, systematically detained and enslaved approximately 200,000 women during the Asia Pacific War, and in particular examines reactions/response to women who were taken from South Korea and the Dutch East Indies. The chapter then moves to examine the associated redress and reparation movement (RRM) and its interaction with international society.
International norms in the early 1990s encouraged states to take responsibility for their actions and to engage in various forms of reparation politics. When the comfort women issue rose to prominence in 1991, there had already been successes for the Jewish and Japanese American RRMs; however, this would not translate into a similar positive response from Japan. Japan would engage in a limited fashion with those that they had victimized, but has refused to fully acknowledge its responsibility or to come to terms with its past.
The movement is still in its infancy due to the delay in mobilization; it took almost 50 years for the gender norms to become more accepting of discussing rape, for racial norms to shift in order to consider the victims from the once occupied territories, and for civil society and democracy to flourish in the countries where these women had been victimized.« [Source: Springer]

Wikipedia: Comfort women, Japanese war crimes, Pacific War, War rape


Added: November 30, 2013 | Last updated: November 30, 2013