Whyte 2004 Rape

Title Information

Author: Angela Christina Whyte

Title: Placing Blame or Finding Peace

Subtitle: A Qualitative Analysis of the Legal Response to Rape as a War Crime in the Former Yugoslavia

Thesis: M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba

Year: December 2004

Pages: 237pp.

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century | Bosnian History | Prosecution: Trials / International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia; Types: Wartime Rape / Bosnian War

Full Text

Link: MSpace - DSpace at the University of Manitoba (Free Access)

Link: Library and Archives Canada (Free Access)

Additional Information

Abstract: »This thesis is a qualitative analysis of the international legal response to rape as war crime in the former Yugoslavia. Through the examination of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the case law it has generated, this thesis addresses the question will the androcentric characteristics of law found in domestic rape cases be replicated at the international level? More specifically this thesis undertakes an examination which questions will international law be able to adequately amplify and listen to women voices, or will the women's words be silenced by the rule of law? The following research is loosely informed by Carol Smart's (1989) sociology of law theory combined with Liz Kelly's (1988) notions of coping, resisting, and surviving. The purpose of using Kelly's theory is to go beyond viewing women as inevitable victims of sexual assault. The methodological approach is both qualitative and inductive. It draws on data from the ICTY structure, Statute, Rules of Procedures and Evidence, case law and transcripts and women's stories presented outside the legal realm.« (Source: Library and Archives Canada)


  Acknowledgements (p. iii)
  Abstract (p. iv)
  Chapter One: Introduction (p. 1)
  Chapter Two: Review of the Literature (p. 4)
    I. Introduction (p. 4)
    II. Defining Rape in International Law (p. 8)
    III. The Evolution of Law's Aimed at Responding to Rape During War (p. 9)
      i. Precognition (P. 10)
      ii. Early Recognition (p. 11)
      iii. Creation of Law (p. 12)
        World War One (p. 13)
      iv. Initial Enforcement (p. 14)
        World War Two (p. 14)
        Post World War Two (p. 19)
      v. New Trends In Enforcement: The Creation of the Tribunal (p. 21)
    IV. Conceptualizing Martial Rape in the Former Yugoslavia (p. 24)
    V. War Crimes Versus Crimes of War (p. 32)
    VI. The Sociological and Criminological Relevance of Studying the Legal Response to Rape During Warfare (p. 35)
      The Absence of Criminology and Sociology (p. 36)
      Parochialism (p. 37)
      Discipline Obstacles (p. 39)
      Positive Impacts of Criminological Endeavours in International Crimes (p. 40)
      Recent Interests (p. 41)
  Chapter Three: Theoretical Approach (p. 44)
    I. Introduction (p. 44)
    II. The Gendered Nature of Law (p. 45)
    III. Smart's Theory (p. 47)
    IV. A Framework for Understanding Law's Response to Rape in War (p. 56)
  Chapter Four: Research Design and Methodology (p. 59)
    I. Introduction (p. 59)
    II. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) (p. 60)
    III. Case Law (p. 61)
    IV. Women's Stories (p. 63)
    V. Alternatives to Legal Mechanisms (p. 68)
  Chapter Five: The Tribunal: The Legal Beginning for the ICTY (p. 70)
    I. The Creation (p. 70)
    II. The Structure (p. 74)
      Office of the Prosecutor (p. 74)
      The Chambers (p. 76)
      The Registry (p. 78)
    III. The Law (p. 79)
      ICTY Statute and its Resolutions (p. 79)
      Rules of Evidence and Procedure (p. 90)
    IV. Analysis (p. 100)
      1. Formal and Unwritten Objectives of the ICTY (p. 101)
        a. Reconciliation (p. 102)
        b. Deterrence (p. 102)
        c. Bringing Accused to Justice (p. 103)
        d. Rendering Justice to the Victims (p. 104)
        e. Establishing Truth (p. 106)
    V. Conclusion (p. 107)
  Chapter Six: Case Law: Applying the Law and Assessing Blame (p. 110)
    I. Defining Rape–Furundžija and Akayesu (p. 110)
    II. Mass Rape–Kunarac, Kovac, and Vuković (p. 114)
      A. Law (p. 117)
        1. Criminal Responsibility (p. 117)
        2. Article 3 Violations of the Customs or Laws of War (p. 118)
        3. Article 5 Crimes Against Humanity (p. 119)
        4. Rape (p. 120)
        5. Torture (p. 121)
        6. Outrages Upon Personal Dignity (p. 122)
        7. Enslavement (p. 123)
        8. Cumulative Charges (p. 124)
      B. The Evidence (p. 125)
      C. The Findings of the Trial Chamber (p. 128)
      D. Sentencing (p. 130)
      E. Issues Evident In Transcripts (p. 134)
    III. Analysis (p. 136)
      Omnipotent Power of Law (p. 137)
      Law's Inability to Respond to the Diversity of Women (p. 140)
      Silencing (p. 143)
  Chapter Seven: Women's Stories: The Healing Begins (p. 150)
    I. Introduction (p. 150)
    II. Sources of Stories (p. 151)
    III. Women's Voices (p. 155)
      1. Description (p. 155)
      2. Crime (p. 157)
        a. Rape (p. 157)
        b. Prostitution (p. 161)
        c. Sexual Enslavement (p. 162)
        d. Harassment (p. 162)
        e. Exploitation (p. 163)
        f. Looting (p. 164)
        g. Document Fraud (p. 164)
      3. Deaths and Disappearances (p. 164)
      4. Identity (p. 166)
      5. Ethnicity (p. 168)
      6. Family (p. 171)
      7. Friendships (p. 173)
      8. Memories (p. 175)
    IV. Women Speak Out: Empowerment, Survival, and Needs (p. 177)
    V. Analysis: One Truth Versus Many Truths (p. 180)
  Chapter Eight: Alternatives To Law: Multiple Truth (p. 182)
    I. Introduction (p. 182)
    II. Other Responses (p. 183)
      International (p. 183)
      National (p. 184)
    III. Truth Commissions (p. 185)
      Definition of a Truth Commission (p. 185)
        Trials versus Truth Commissions–Similarities and Differences (p. 186)
      Victim Centred (p. 187)
      Truth Commissions–the Former Yugoslavia (p. 188)
      Critiques and Obstacles to a Truth Commission in Bosnia Herzegovina (p. 192)
      Truth Commissions–Sexual Assault and Rape (p. 194)
      Healing (p. 196)
    IV. Women's Groups in Bosnia–The Example of Medica Zenica (p. 198)
  Chapter Nine: Conclusion (p. 204)
    I. Summary (p. 204)
    II. Obstacles (p. 207)
      Unfamiliar Subject Matter (p. 207)
      Sensitivity of Subject Matter (p. 208)
        Limitations of Methodology (p. 209)
    III. Specific Limitations of My Research (p. 210)
      Scope (p. 211)
      Explaining Why Rape Occurs (p. 212)
    IV. Criminological Relevance (p. 213)
    Appendix A: Women's Testimonies (p. 215)
    Appendix B: Evidentiary Concepts (p. 220)
    Appendix C: Testimony (p. 221)
    Appendix D: Physical Harm (p. 222)
    Appendix E: Intimidation (p. 223)
    Appendix F: Blaming the Victims (p. 224)
  References (p. 225)

Wikipedia: Wartime sexual violence: Bosnian War, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Rape during the Bosnian War

Added: October 21, 2006 – Last updated: October 11, 2014