Added: September 5, 2015 – Last updated: September 5, 2015


Author: Aisling Swaine

Title: Beyond Strategic Rape and Between the Public and Private

Subtitle: Violence Against Women in Armed Conflict

Journal: Human Rights Quarterly

Volume: 37

Issue: 3

Year: August 2015

Pages: 755-786

ISSN: 0275-0392 – Find a Library: WordCat | eISSN: 1085-794X – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century, 21st Century | Indonesian History, Irish History, Liberian History, Timorese History | Types: Wartime Rape / First Liberian Civil War, Indonesian Occupation of East Timor, Second Liberian Civil War, The Troubles


Link: Project MUSE (Restricted Access)


Author: Aisling Swaine, Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University

Abstract: »This study gets to the heart of examining what counts as conflict-related gender violence under international law. Using empirical research from Liberia, Northern Ireland and Timor-Leste, the study specifically explores and explains variance beyond strategic sexualized violence employed in some conflicts, to analyze the ways that private individualistic violence is influenced by conflict across the three case studies. Proposing a set of variables as possible determinants of wide-ranging forms of violence, the study proposes that on a continuum of “political public violence” to “endemic private violence,” there are forms of violence that may sit somewhere “in-between.” The analysis queries where this “in-between”’ violence should fit in the thresholds provided by law and what consideration should be given to the political and private violence nexus that the research demonstrates.« (Source: Human Rights Quarterly)


  Abstract (p. 755)
  I. Introduction (p. 756)
  II. Why Does It Matter If Violence is Counted as "Conflict-Related?" (p. 758)
  III. Variations and Variables in Conflict-Related Violence Against Women (p. 762)
    A. Opportunity (p. 763)
      1. Opportunity for Violence Between State Agents and Civilians (p. 763)
      2. Nonstate Actors and Opportunity in their Own Communities (p. 764)
    B. Instrumentality of Violence (p. 767)
      Violence as Instrumental to the Performance of Fighters (p. 767)
    C. Sanctions Against Violence (p. 769)
    D. Impunity (p. 771)
      1. Impunity As a Result of Lack of Access to Criminal Justice System (p. 771)
      2. Implicit Impunity Derived from Association with the Conflict (p. 772)
    E. Reporting and Naming of Violence (p. 774)
      1. Silencing of Violence as a Result of Constrained Reporting (p. 774)
      2. Not Naming Violence Silences its Link to Conflict (p. 775)
      3. The Naming of Only Some Violence as "Violence" (p. 776)
    F. Access to Conflict-Related Resources (p. 777)
  IV. Further Analysis of Variation-Intersection of Variables (p. 779)
    A. Intersection Between Variables (p. 779)
    B. Intersection with Contextual Factors (p. 780)
  V. What Constitutes Violence Against Women During Conflict? (p. 782)
  VI. Conclusion (p. 785)

Wikipedia: Wartime sexual violence: First Liberian Civil War, Indonesian occupation of East Timor, Second Liberian Civil War, The Troubles