Stelzl-Marx 2009 Besatzungssoldaten

Title Information

Author: Barbara Stelzl-Marx

Title: Die unsichtbare Generation

Subtitle: Kinder sowjetischer Besatzungssoldaten in Österreich und Deutschland

Translation: The Invisible Generation. Children of Soviet occupations soldiers in Austria and Germany

Journal: Historical Social Research - Historische Sozialforschung

Volume: 34

Issue: 3

Year: 2009

Pages: 352-372

ISSN: 0172-6404 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: German

Keywords: 20th Century | Austrian History, German History, Russian History | Types: Wartime Rape / Second World War; Victims: Rape Children

Full Text

Link: JSTOR [Restricted Access]

Link: Social Science Open Access Repository [Free Access]

Additional Information

Author: Barbara Stelzl-Marx, Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Kriegsfolgen-Forschung

Abstract: »After the Second World War, so-called “children of occupation” were born all over Austria and Germany: as a result of voluntary sexual encounters between local women and foreign occupation troops, but also as a consequence of rape. They were often regarded as “children of the enemy” and – together with their mothers – were frequently discriminated against. Especially the children of Soviet occupation troops were confronted with racial, ideological and moral prejudice that can be traced back to the Nazi era. “Russenkind” (“Russian child”) or “Russenbalg” (“Russian brat”) were common abusive words up to the 1960s. In accordance with Stalin’s policy, weddings between Soviet soldiers and Austrian or German women were practically impossible. Most soldiers or officers were even sent back to the USSR when their liaisons with local women became known. For several decades hardly any contact was feasible. Thus the majority of “children of occupation” grew up as a fatherless generation. Many of them have been in search of their biological fathers, regardless of the difficulty of obtaining any reliable information. This is linked with the desire to explore one’s own identity and look for one’s personal roots.« (Source: Historical Social Research)


  1. Einleitung (p. 352)
  2. Liebesbeziehungen und Folgen (p. 353)
    2.1. Attraktivität aus Sicht der Frauen (p. 355)
  2.2. Attraktivität aus Sicht der Besatzer (p. 357)
  2.3. Reaktionen des Umfelds (p. 357)
    2.4. Reaktion von sowjetischer Seite (p. 359)
  3. Besatzungskinder (p. 361)
    3.1. „Als Russenkind war ich das Letzte“: Reaktionen (p. 362)
    3.2. Kindheit bei Tanten und Pflegeltern (p. 364)
    3.3. Mauer des Schweigens (p. 365)
    3.4. Suche nach den Wurzeln (p. 366)
    3.5. Suche nach den „Früchten“ (p. 368)
  4. Schlussfolgerung (p. 369)
  Referenzen (p. 371)

Wikipedia: Pregnancy from rape, Rape during the occupation of Germany, Soviet war crimes, War rape, World War II

Added: May 10, 2014 | Last updated: May 10, 2014