Stefatos 2012 Women

Title Information

Author: Katherine Stefatos

Title: Engendering the Nation

Subtitle: Women, state oppression and political violence in post-war Greece (1946-1974)

Thesis: Ph.D. Thesis, University of London

Year: 2012

Pages: 275pp.

OCLC Number: 847541181 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century | Greek History | Types: Wartime Rape / Greek Civil War

Full Text

Link: Goldsmiths Research Online (Free Access)

Additional Information


»The PhD thesis: Engendering the Nation: Women, state oppression and political violence in post-war Greece (1946-1974), addresses the gendered characteristics of political violence during the 1946-1974 period in Greece. The phenomenon of political violence and state oppression against politically active women is analysed through the prism of nationalist ideology, both as a legitimising mechanism for the continuation of abuse and terrorisation, but also as a vehicle for re-appropriating gender roles, power hierarchies, sexual stereotypes and social norms. Research focuses on (1) the gender-specific ways women were persecuted, incarcerated and abused and the causes of this gender-based violence; (2) the ways in which the nationalist, official discourse made use of gender characteristics in order to enact this type of abuse and oppression. Accordingly, the phenomenon of political violence against women dissidents is examined through the main analytical categories of gender and nationalism.
This thesis provides a history and analysis of political violence against women in the Greek Civil War (1946-1949), the period of weak democracy (1950-1967) and the military dictatorship (1967-1974), respectively. The overall aim of the research is to bring forward the downplayed gendered characteristics of state-perpetuated violence and repression, and analyse them within the nationalist ideology and the ascribed traditional gender roles through which the oppressive mechanisms were institutionalised and authorised. In this respect, the experience of women as political detainees is reconstructed through an analysis of the sites and practices of political violence, terror and torture as operated and implemented by the state and its agents. PhD research draws on gender studies and discourse analysis and seeks to situate the Greek case within a feminist critique that emphasises the politics of gender and the dominant discourse of nationalism.« (Source: Thesis)


  Abstract (p. 4)
  Preface (p. 5)
  Abbreviations (p. 8)
  I. Introduction (p. 10)
    I.i. Theoretical Framework and Methodological Approaches (p. 15)
    I.ii. Analysing gender and violence: feminist theory and discourse analysis (p. 17)
    I.iii. Methodological tools: memoirs, interviews, archives (p. 21)
      Interviews and oral testimonies (p. 21)
      Memoirs and Life-histories (p. 25)
      Archives (p. 28)
    I.iv. Overview of chapters (p. 29)
  Chapter 1: Literature Review (p. 31)
    1.1 Introduction (p. 31)
    1.2 Historiography of the Greek Civil War (p. 32)
      1.2.1 The Traditional Approach (p. 32)
      1.2.2 The Revisionist School of Thought (p. 34)
      1.2.3 'Post-revisionism' and the 'new' trends in Civil War historiography (p. 36)
    1.3 Weak Democracy and the Military Dictatorship: the 'black hole' of Greek scholarship (p. 43)
    1.4 Women in the Greek Civil War historiography (p. 48)
    1.5 Gender studies in Greece: gender in historiography and anthropology (p. 54)
      1.5.1 The historiography of women and gender (p. 54)
      1.5.2 Gender in anthropology and ethnography (p. 57)
    1.6 Gender, state violence and nationalism: the international academic scholarship (p. 60)
    1.7 Conclusion (p. 67)
  Chapter 2: Reconstructing the experience of women: state oppression and nationalism during the Greek Civil War (p. 68)
    2.1 Introduction (p. 68)
    2.2 Historical and political background (1946-1949): contextualising women in post-war Greece (p. 69)
      2.2.1 Patriarchy and political engagement during the Greek Resistance and the Civil War (p. 70)
      2.2.2 Female dissidents between the family and the Party (p. 71)
    2.3 Re-approaching gender, political violence and nationalism (p. 75)
    2.4 The persecution and political confinement of female dissidents during the Greek Civil War (p. 82)
      2.4.1 The exile triangle of the female dissidents (p. 82)
      2.4.2 Women at the Makronisos concentration camp (p. 85)
      2.4.3 The political imprisonment of women (p. 89)
    2.5 State oppression and women within the 'imagined' Greek Nation (p. 94)
    2.6 The persecution and political confinement of female dissidents during the Greek Civil War (p. 99)
      2.6.1 Assaulting the female body and psyche (p. 99)
      2.6.2 The abuse of the (fe)male body (p. 106)
    2.7 Conclusion (p. 110=
  Chapter 3: The political incarceration and control of female dissidents during the period of weak democracy (1950-1967): State and Party mechanisms (p. 111)
    3.1 Introduction (p. 111)
    3.2 Historical and political context (p. 113)
      3.2.1 Why 'weak democracy'? (p. 113)
      3.2.2 The Constitution of 1952: Institutionalising the Para-state (p. 115)
    3.3 Reconstructing the experience of female political exiles during weak democracy (p. 118)
      3.3.1 Women in exile: The Ai Stratis concentration camp (p. 119)
      3.3.2 Party Leadership and the control of gender relations in the exile camps (p. 121)
    3.4 Female imprisonment during the weak democracy: gender biases and constraints within state practices and Party Leadership (p. 124)
      3.4.1 Female dissidents at the Female Averof Prisons (p. 124)
      3.4.2 The mechanisms of the Party Leadership within the prison microcosm (p. 128)
      3.4.3 Power hierarchies and gender constraints as articulated by state rhetoric (p. 130)
    3.5 Female political dissidents going underground: the gendered implications (p. 133)
    3.6 Conclusion (p. 137)
  Chapter 4: The Female and Political Body in pain: the political persecution and torture of female dissidents during the Greek Military Dictatorship (1967-1974) (p. 139)
    4.1 Introduction (p. 139)
    4.2 Historical and political context (1967-1974) (p. 141)
    4.3 The political persecution and confinement of female dissidents (p. 148)
      4.3.1 Contextualising political persecution (p. 148)
      4.3.2 Women in political exile (p. 150)
        Yaros concentration camp (p. 150)
        The Alikarnassos prison camp (p. 154)
      4.3.3 Political imprisonment in the Averof and Korydallos Prisons (p. 157)
      4.3.4 The State and the Party in the exile and prison microcosm (p. 161)
    4.4 The female and political body in pain: the torture and terrorisation of female junta dissidents (p. 167)
      4.4.1 Approaching torture in the Greek junta (p. 169)
      4.4.2 Locating terror: perpetrators and sites, victims and practices of torture (p. 171)
        Sites of terror and perpetrators of abuse (p. 171)
        Victims and practices of torture (p. 176)
      4.4.3 Torturing women: gender, nation and sexuality (p. 182)
      4.4.4 Militarisation and masculinisation: the feminisation of the male body (p. 187)
    4.5 Conclusion (p. 191)
  Chapter 5: Conclusion: discussing trauma, memory and silence in women's stories (p. 192)
    5.1 Setting the Background: national reconciliation and women in post-1974 Greek society (p. 193)
    5.2 The Politics of Remembering in Post-1974 Greece: Gender, Memory and Trauma (p. 202)
      5.2.1 Re-approaching memory and trauma (p. 203)
      5.2.2 Reconciliation and storytelling: The gendered implications (p. 208)
    5.3 Conclusions (p. 214)
  6 Bibliography (p. 222)
    Primary Sources (p. 222)
      Interviews (p. 222)
      Personal Archives (p. 223)
      Personal Archives in Archival Organisations (p. 223)
      Archival Sources (p. 224)
        Greek Literary and Historical Archive (ELIA), Athens (p. 224)
        Association of Imprisoned and Exiled Resistance-Fighters 1967-1974 (SFEA), Athens (p. 224)
        Modern Greek Archives, League for Democracy in Greece, King's College Archives, London (p. 224)
        Amnesty International Archive, League for Democracy, King's College Archives, London (p. 226)
      Archival Publications (p. 227)
      Memoirs (p. 227)
    Secondary Sources (in Greek) (p. 230)
    Secondary Sources (p. 239)
      Newspaper articles (p. 255)
      Internet resources (p. 256)
      Literature, Films, Documentaries, Television Programmes (p. 257)
  7 Appendix (p. 259)
    7.1. Tables (p. 259)
    7.2. Map (p. 265)
    7.3. Photographs (p. 266)
    7.4. Archival material (p. 271)

Wikipedia: Wartime sexual violence: Greek Civil War, Greek military junta of 1967–1974

Added: June 22, 2013 – Last updated: November 1, 2014