Added: June 3, 2017 – Last updated: June 3, 2017


Author: Nahid (Julie) Ahmad Siddique

Title: Sexual Victimization of Women and Girls in the U.S.

Subtitle: An Analysis of Risk and Trends

Thesis: Ph.D. Thesis, City University of New York

Advisor: Karen J. Terry

Year: 2013

Pages: 125pp.

OCLC Number: 867734534 – Find a Library: WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century, 21st Century | American History: U.S. History


Link: ProQuest (Restricted Access)


Abstract: »Despite more than four decades of scholarship that has established both feminist criminology as a critical perspective in the field and victimology as a necessary element of integrated theories of crime and victimization, there are still many inconsistencies in the literature about the nature and extent of sexual violence and victimization in the United States. The current study used Lifestyle Exposure Theory (LET) and Routine Activities Theory (RAT) as conceptual frameworks to investigate personal risk of sexual victimization and macro-level trends in sexual victimization of females. Data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) was used for the analyses. Results indicate that personal risk of sexual victimization is strongly associated with demographic variables, such as age, marital status, and cohabitation status; risk factors for sexual victimization differ from risk factors for other violent crime victimizations; risk factors for sexual victimization vary by type of victimization and victimoffender relationship; and the situational contexts of sexual victimization differ from other violent crime victimization. Furthermore, results indicate that the decline in sexual victimization rates between 1992 and 2005 was part of an overall decline in violent victimization of women; however, the factors generally credited with the crime decline of the 1990s and 2000s, such as changes in policing and incarceration, are insufficient in explaining the decline in sexual victimization. Other cultural factors related to sexuality may be relevant in conceptualizing the “rape decline” in the United States. Directions for future research are discussed.« (Source: Thesis)


  Abstract (p. iv)
  Dedication (p. v)
  Acknowledgements (p. vi)
  Chapter 1. Introduction (p. 1)
    1.1 Feminist Scholarship on Sexual Victimization (p. 3)
    1.2 Criminological Scholarship on Sexual Victimization (p. 5)
    1.3 Bridging the Gap between Feminist and Mainstream Criminology (p. 7)
    1.4 Victimization Theories (p. 9)
      1.4.1 Lifestyle Exposure Theory (LET) (p. 9)
      1.4.2 Routine Activities Theory (RAT) (p. 11)
    1.5 Victimization Theories and Sexual Victimization (p. 11)
    1.6 Goals of Current Research (p. 13)
  Chapter 2. Review of the Relevant Literature (p. 15)
    2.1 Personal Victimization Risk (p. 15)
      2.1.1 Victim Characteristics (p. 16) Age (p. 16) Marital Status (p. 16) Cohabitation (p. 17) Children in the Household (p. 17) Household Income (p. 18) Race & Ethnicity (p. 18) Social Disorganization Factors (p. 19)
      2.1.2 Event Characteristics (p. 19) Time of Day (p. 19) Location (p. 19) Weapons (p. 20) Number and Gender of Perpetrator(s) (p. 20) Substance Use (p. 20)
      2.1.3 Specification of Sexual Victimization (p. 21) Offense Type (p. 21) Victim-Offender Relationship (p. 22)
    2.2. Macro-Level Victimization Trends (p. 22)
      2.2.1 Correlates of the Crime Decline (p. 23) Demographics (p. 24) Policing (p. 25) Incarceration (p. 25) Social and Economic Factors (p. 26)
      2.2.2 The Culture of Sex (p. 26)
  Chapter 3. Data and Methods (p. 28)
    3.1 Hypotheses (p. 28)
    3.2. Data Selection (p. 28)
      3.2.1 UCR (p. 29)
      3.2.2 NCVS (p. 31)
      3.2.3 NVAWS (p. 34)
      3.2.4 Other Social Science Sources (p. 34)
    3.3. Datasets for Analysis (p. 36)
      3.3.1 Dataset 1 (p. 37)
      3.3.2 Dataset 2 (p. 39)
    3.4 Measures (p. 39)
      3.4.1 Personal Victimization Risk (p. 39) Dependent Variable (p. 39) Independent Variables (p. 40)
      3.4.2 Macro-Level Victimization Trends (p. 42) Dependent Variable (p. 42) Independent Variables (p. 42)
    3.5 Methods of Analysis (p. 42)
      3.5.1 Personal Victimization Risk (p. 42)
      3.5.2 Macro-Level Victimization Trends (p. 43)
  Chapter 4. Results (p. 44)
    4.1 Personal Risk of Sexual Victimization (p. 44)
      4.1.1 Descriptive Statistics (p. 44)
      4.1.2 Independent Samples T-Test (p. 46)
      4.1.3 Multicollinearity Diagnostics (p. 48)
      4.1.4 Logistic Regression Analyses (p. 48)
    4.2 Risk of Different Types of Sexual Victimization (p. 53)
    4.3 Risk of Victimization by Victim-Offender Relationships (p. 61)
    4.4 Risk of Victimization for High-Risk Age Groups (p. 68)
      4.4.1 Adolescent Girls (p. 68)
      4.4.2 College-Age Women (p. 70)
    4.5 Risk of Sexual Victimization Compared to Other Violent Victimization (p. 74)
      4.5.1 Personal Characteristics (p. 74)
      4.5.2 Intimate Partner Sexual Victimization (p. 78)
      4.5.3 Event Characteristics (p. 81)
    4.6 Macro-Level Trends in Sexual Victimization (p. 84)
      4.6.1 Potential Correlated of the Rape Decline (p. 85) Demographics (p. 86) Policing (p. 88) Incarceration (p. 89) Gun Control (p. 90) Social and Economic Factors (p. 90)
      4.6.2 The Culture of Sex (p. 90)
      4.6.3 A Comparison of Two Sex Victim Cohorts (p. 94)
  Chapter 5. Discussion and Conclusion (p. 96)
    5.1 Key Findings (p. 96)
    5.2 Key Contributions (p. 103)
    5.3 Limitations (p. 105)
    5.4 Policy Implications (p. 106)
    5.5 Future Research (p. 106)
  References (p. 108)

Wikipedia: History of the Americas: History of the United States / History of the United States (1991–2008) | Victimology: Victimisation