Added: November 5, 2016 – Last updated: November 5, 2016


Authors: Kamelia Talebian Sedehi, Tay Lai Kit, and Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya

Title: Revenge and Retribution

Subtitle: Reli(E)Ving Trauma in Frozen by Bryony Lavery

Journal: International Journal of Comparative Literature & Translation Studies

Volume: 4

Issue: 4

Year: October 2016 (Received: August 15, 2016, Accepted: September 12, 2016, Published online: October 31, 2016)

Pages: 4 pages

ISSN: 2202-9451 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century | European History: English History | Representations: Literary Texts / Bryony Lavery; Types: Child Sexual Abuse; Victims: Trauma


Link: Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD (Free Access)



Kamelia Talebian Sedehi: ResearchGate

Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya, Department of English, Universiti Putra, ResearchGate

Abstract: »Widely studied and defined, trauma has made its way into the streamline of various disciplines of study. Events such as war, natural disasters, violence, and verbal degradation are some factors which could traumatize a person. Although there is no definitive symptom for trauma, one usually suffers from social anxiety, low self-esteem, erratic behavior, or even aggressive tendency. In this article, we attempt to trace the psyche of the protagonist Ralph, in Bryony Lavery’s play Frozen. We want to identify the cause and effect of his traumatic experience during childhood when he was victimized sexually by his mother’s multiple lovers. In addition, the article will also shed light on his view of female figures in general as he grows into his adulthood. We argue that Ralph is stuck in his past and is constantly seeking for opportunities to create and relive the experience which has shaped him into becoming the “monster” he is now. Much to his dismay, we will see how his effort in exacting revenge on his mother is futile and that his thought of retribution to relieve himself winds up in death.« (Source: International Journal of Comparative Literature & Translation Studies)


  1. Introduction (p. 1)
  2. Trauma in Frozen (p. 2)
  3. Conclusion (p. 3)
  References (p. 4)

Wikipedia: History of Europe: History of England | Literature: English literature / Twentieth-century English literature | 20th-century English writers: Bryony Lavery / Frozen (play)