Added: September 5, 2015 – Last updated: September 5, 2015


Authors: Anne G. Sadler, Brenda M. Booth, Brian L. Cook, and Bradley N. Doebbeling

Title: Factors Associated With Women's Risk of Rape in the Military Environment

Subtitle: -

Journal: American Journal of Industrial Medicine

Volume: 43

Issue: 3

Year: March 2003 (Accepted: November 19, 2002, Published online: February 19, 2003)

Pages: 262-273

ISSN: 0271-3586 – Find a Library: WordCat | eISSN: 1097-0274 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century, 21st Century | U.S. History | Types: Workplace Sexual Violence / Sexual Violence in the Military


Link: Wiley Online Library (Restricted Access)



Brenda M. Booth, Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Anne G. Sadler, Department of Psychiatry, University of IowaResearchGate


»Background   Health hazards specific to women workers have not been adequately documented. This study assessed military environmental factors associated with rape occurring during military service, while controlling for pre-military trauma experiences.
Methods   A national cross-sectional survey of 558 women veterans serving in Vietnam or in subsequent eras was obtained through structured telephone interviews.
Results   Rape was reported by 28% (n¼151) of participants, with consistent rates found across eras. Military environmental factors were associated with increased likelihood of rape, including: sexual harassment allowed by officers (P<0.0001), unwanted sexual advances on-duty (P<0.0001) and in sleeping quarters (P<0.0001).
Conclusion   Violence towards military women has identifiable risk factors. Work and living environments where unwanted sexual behaviors occurred were associated with increased odds of rape. Officer leadership played an important role in the military environment and safety of women. Assailant alcohol and/or drug abuse at time of rape was notable. Interventions and policies based on modifiable environmental risk factors are needed to increase protection for women in the workplace.« (Source: American Journal of Industrial Medicine)


  Introduction (p. 262)
  Methods (p. 263)
    Comparison of Non-Responders and Participants (p. 263)
    Structured Interview Design (p. 264)
    Operational Definitions (p. 264)
    Statistical Analysis (p. 264)
  Results (p. 265)
    Description of Participants (p. 265)
    Violence Exposures During and Prior to Military Service (p. 266)
    Self-Defensive Behaviors of Military Women (p. 266)
    Sociodemographic Differences Between Women Who Were Raped and Non-Victims (p. 266)
    Characteristics of Rape Perpetrators (p. 266)
    Situational Factors and Rape (p. 266)
    Medical and Military Actions Taken by Women Following Rape (p. 266)
    Relationship Between Pre-Military Violence Exposures and Rape During Military (p. 267)
    Relationship Between the Military Environment and Rape During the Military (p. 268)
    Logistic Regression Models of Risk Factors for Rape (p. 268)
    Relationship Between Era of Service and Rape (p. 268)
  Discussion (p. 269)
  Conclusion (p. 272)
  References (p. 272)

Wikipedia: Military sexual trauma: Sexual assault in the United States military